Prickle2 has been identified in genetic studies of subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and epilepsy, but the pathological mechanism of Prickle2 remains to be fully understood. Proteomic analysis of Prickle2 with mass spectrometry revealed twenty-eight Prickle2 interactors, including immunoglobulin superfamily member 9b (Igsf9b), in the brain. Here, because Igsf9 family proteins are associated with psychiatric diseases and seizures, we studied the physiological interaction between Prickle2 and Igsf9b. Prickle2 colocalized with Igsf9b in cultured hippocampal neurons. Knockdown of Prickle2 affected the subcellular localization of Igsf9b. Interestingly, Igsf9b localized along axonal processes in a pattern opposite to the ASD-related molecule ANK3/AnkG. AnkG is a major component of the axon initial segment (AIS), where a variety of ASD and epilepsy susceptibility proteins accumulate. Igsf9b-knockdown neurons displayed altered AnkG localization. Prickle2 depletion caused defects in AnkG and voltage-gated Na+ channel localization, resulting in altered network activity. These results support the idea that Prickle2 regulates AnkG distribution by controlling the proper localization of Igsf9b. The novel function of Prickle2 in AIS cytoarchitecture provides new insights into the shared pathology of ASD and epilepsy.
Key words: Prickle2, Igsf9b, axon initial segment, neuronal excitability, ASD
Tissue absorbance, light scattering, and autofluorescence are significantly lower in the near-infrared (NIR) range than in the visible range. Because of these advantages, NIR fluorescent proteins (FPs) are in high demand for in vivo imaging. Nevertheless, application of NIR FPs such as iRFP is still limited due to their dimness in mammalian cells. In contrast to GFP and its variants, iRFP requires biliverdin (BV) as a chromophore. The dimness of iRFP is at least partly due to rapid reduction of BV by biliverdin reductase A (BLVRA). Here, we established biliverdin reductase-a knockout (Blvra-/-) mice to increase the intracellular BV concentration and, thereby, to enhance iRFP fluorescence intensity. As anticipated, iRFP fluorescence intensity was significantly increased in all examined tissues of Blvra-/- mice. Similarly, the genetically encoded calcium indicator NIR-GECO1, which is engineered based on another NIR FP, mIFP, exhibited a marked increase in fluorescence intensity in mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Blvra-/- mice. We expanded this approach to an NIR light-sensing optogenetic tool, the BphP1-PpsR2 system, which also requires BV as a chromophore. Again, deletion of the Blvra gene markedly enhanced the light response in HeLa cells. These results indicate that the Blvra-/- mouse is a versatile tool for the in vivo application of NIR FPs and NIR light-sensing optogenetic tools.
Key words: in vivo imaging, near-infrared fluorescent protein, biliverdin, biliverdin reductase, optogenetic tool
The activity of AMPA-type glutamate receptor is involved in insulin release from pancreatic β-cells. However, the mechanism and dynamics that underlie AMPA receptor-mediated insulin release in β-cells is largely unknown. Here, we show that AMPA induces internalization of glutamate receptor 2/3 (GluR2/3), AMPA receptor subtype, in the mouse β-cell line MIN6. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that GluR2/3 appeared as fine dots that were distributed throughout MIN6 cells. Intracellular GluR2/3 co-localized with AP2 and clathrin, markers for clathrin-coated pits and vesicles. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that GluR2/3 was also localized at plasma membrane. Surface biotinylation and immunofluorescence measurements showed that AMPA caused an approximate 1.8-fold increase in GluR2/3 internalization under low-glucose conditions. Furthermore, internalized GluR2 largely co-localized with EEA1, an early endosome marker. In addition, GluR2/3 co-immunoprecipitated with cortactin, a F-actin binding protein. Depletion of cortactin by RNAi in MIN6 cells altered the intracellular distribution of GluR2/3, suggesting that cortactin is involved in internalization of GluR2/3 in MIN6 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that pancreatic β-cells adjust the amount of AMPA-type GluR2/3 on the cell surface to regulate the receptive capability of the cell for glutamate.
Key words: endocytosis, GluR2, AMPA, cortactin, MIN6