The somatic haploidy is unstable in diplontic animals, but cellular processes determining haploid stability remain elusive. Here, we found that inhibition of mevalonate pathway by pitavastatin, a widely used cholesterol-lowering drug, drastically destabilized the haploid state in HAP1 cells. Interestingly, cholesterol supplementation did not restore haploid stability in pitavastatin-treated cells, and cholesterol inhibitor U18666A did not phenocopy haploid destabilization. These results ruled out the involvement of cholesterol in haploid stability. Besides cholesterol perturbation, pitavastatin induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the suppression of which by a chemical chaperon significantly restored haploid stability in pitavastatin-treated cells. Our data demonstrate the involvement of the mevalonate pathway in the stability of the haploid state in human somatic cells through managing ER stress, highlighting a novel link between ploidy and ER homeostatic control.
Key words: haploid, ER stress, Mevalonate pathway
The development of hearing in mammals requires the formation and maturation of a highly organized and specialized epithelium known as the organ of Corti. This epithelium contains two types of cells, the sensory cells, which are the true receptors of auditory information, and the surrounding supporting cells, which are composed of a highly developed cytoskeleton essential to the architecture of the mature organ of Corti. The supporting cells are the only mammalian cells reported to contain the unusual 15-protofilament microtubules. In this paper, we show that 15-protofilament microtubules appear between the second and fourth day after birth in the pillar cells of the organ of Corti in mice. We also show that contrary to what has been described in the nematode worm Caenorhabiditis. elegans, microtubule acetylation is not essential for the formation of 15-protofilament microtubules in mice but is required for fine-tuning of their diameter.
Key words: Acetylation, cytoskeleton, microtubule, inner ear, supporting cells
Stable cell lines and animal models expressing tagged proteins are important tools for studying behaviors of cells and molecules. Several molecular biology technologies have been applied with varying degrees of success and efficiencies to establish cell lines expressing tagged proteins. Here we applied CRISPR/Cas9 for the knock-in of tagged proteins into the 5’UTR of the endogenous gene loci. With this 5’UTR-targeting knock-in strategy, stable cell lines expressing Arl13b-Venus, Reep6-HA, and EGFP-alpha-tubulin were established with high efficiencies ranging from 50 to 80% in antibiotic selected cells. The localization of the knock-in proteins were identical to that of the endogenous proteins in wild-type cells and showed homogenous expression. Moreover, the expression of knock-in EGFP-alpha-tubulin from the endogenous promoter was stable over long-term culture. We further demonstrated that the fluorescent signals were enough for a long time time-lapse imaging. The fluorescent signals were distinctly visible during the whole duration of the time-lapse imaging and showed specific subcellular localizations. Altogether, our strategy demonstrates that 5’UTR is an amenable site to generate cell lines for the stable expression of tagged proteins from endogenous loci in mammalian cells.
Key words: CRISPR/Cas9, knock-in, primary cilium, UTR, tubulin