Various anticancer agents-incorporating polymeric micelles, categorized as passive targeting nanoparticles are currently under clinical evaluation. On the other hand, recently, several polymeric micelles with the active targeting ability using tumor-specific antibody have been developed and exhibited the potent antitumor activity in the preclinical studies. We introduce the characteristics and developmental status of these immunoconjugates.
Thirty years ago, our forerunners spent thousands of hours aiming to realize antibody treatments. Would they ever have been able to imagine the advances in antibody treatments that we see today? Currently, antibody drugs cover not only malignant neoplasms but also autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus; allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma; inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD); neurological diseases; and osteoporosis: their effectiveness in these disorders have been investigated and reported. In this review, we will review the advances particularly in those against malignancies. We will also allude to their position in the treatments of RA and IBD, where now these drugs are the mainstays, and also to individual agents.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes chronic infection leading to progression to cirrhosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of the antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C is to eradicate the virus and to halt the progression of liver disease. Interferon was the sole treatment at first, followed by a first breakthrough, the development of pegylated interferon. The second breakthrough was a development of direct acting antiviral agents（DAA） which specifically block the viral protein essential for viral replication. By the combination of pegylated interferon plus DAA, HCV could be successfully eradicated in 90% of patients. Recent evidences suggest that combination of DAAs without co-administration of pegylated interferon could also achieve high rate of HCV eradication. The main stream of therapy is now shifting from interferon based therapy to interferon free therapy. Development of DAAs that are active against resistant mutations to drugs may lead to complete conquer of HCV.
Regenerative medicine is a new and promising medicine by making use of the natural healing potential of body itself for tissue regeneration and repairing. The healing potential is based on the inherent ability of cells for proliferation and differentiation. Regenerative medicine composes of regenerative therapy and regenerative research (cell research and drug discovery) which scientifically supports the future regenerative therapy. To realize regenerative medicine, DDS technology should be used to artificially create a local environment which can enhance the cell ability for tissue regeneration. Controlled release technology for biological factors with or without the combination of cells or their scaffold efficiently activates the cells ability in vivo, resulting in the cell-based natural induction of tissue regeneration. In addition, the DDS technology is indispensable for the further development of regenerative research. This paper overviews DDS technology applicable to regenerative medicine considering the scientific and practical definition of DDS.
Nano-DDSs have provided many improvements, such as sensitivity, multimodality, ability to respond to the environment or an external trigger, and theranostics (therapeutics and diagnostics), for preclinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Nanocarriers like polymers, nano-micelle, carbon nano-materials (fullerene and carbon nanotube), and PEGylated liposome, have been investigated and the merits and limitations of each have slowly become clear. This review discusses the progress and unresolved issues for existing nano-DDSs for MRI applications, and summarizes recent work with responsive and theranostic nanocarriers.
[Serial] Recent advancements in instruments used for DDS research