In the face of the ongoing pandemic, the primary care physicians in India are dealing not only with an increased number of patients but are also facing difficulties in the management of complex critically ill patients. To guide the management plans of primary care physicians, several guidelines have been published by the central and state health bodies. In such a situation, an updated and unifying state, national and international guidelines based on critical analysis and appraisal of evolving data is the need of the hour. In this review, we critically analysed the current existing guidelines that have been formulated within India in light of recent evidence.
Thirteen herbal medicines, Kakkonto (TJ-001), Kakkontokasenkyushin'i (TJ-002), Hangekobokuto (TJ-016), Shoseiryuto (TJ-019), Maoto (TJ-027), Bakumondoto (TJ-029), Hochuekkito (TJ-041), Goshakusan (TJ-063), Kososan (TJ-070), Chikujountanto (TJ-091), Gokoto (TJ-095), Saibokuto (TJ-096), and Ryokankyomishingeninto (TJ-119) were tested for human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) replication. Eight (TJ-001, TJ-002, TJ-019, TJ-029, TJ-041, TJ-063, TJ-095 and TJ-119) out of the thirteen medicines had virus growth inhibitory activity. TJ-001 and TJ-002 inhibited virus release, and largely inhibited genome, mRNA and protein syntheses. TJ-019 slightly inhibited virus release, inhibited gene and mRNA syntheses, and largely inhibited protein synthesis. TJ-029 slightly inhibited virus release, largely inhibited protein synthesis, but gene and mRNA syntheses were unaffected. TJ-041 only slightly inhibited virus release, the gene and mRNA syntheses, but largely inhibited protein synthesis. TJ-091 largely inhibited gene, mRNA and protein syntheses. TJ-095 largely inhibited gene synthesis, but NP and HN mRNAs were slightly detected, and protein syntheses were observed. TJ-119 inhibited gene, mRNA and protein syntheses. TJ-001, TJ-002, TJ-091, TJ-095 and TJ-119 inhibited multinucleated giant cell formation derived from cell-to-cell spreading of virus. However, in TJ-019, TJ-029 and TJ-041 treated infected cells, only small sized fused cells with some nuclei were found. TJ-019 and TJ-041 slightly disrupted actin microfilaments, and TJ-001 and TJ-002 destroyed them. TJ-041 slightly disrupted microtubules, and TJ-001 and TJ-002 disrupted them. In general, the medicines effective on common cold and bronchitis inhibited hPIV-2 replication.
Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id) is a dominant negative form of the E-box binding basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor since it is devoid of the basic region required for DNA binding and forms an inactive hetero dimer with bHLH proteins. The E-box sequence located in the promoter region of the GATA-binding protein 4 (GATA-4) gene is essential for transcriptional activation in P19CL6 cells. These cells differentiate into cardiomyocytes and start to express GATA-4, which further triggers cardiac-specific gene expression. In this study, expression plasmids for Ids tagged with human influenza hemagglutinin (HA)-FLAG were constructed and introduced into P19CL6 cells. The stable clones expressing the recombinant Id proteins (Id1 or Id3) were isolated. The GATA-4 gene expression in these clones under differentiation condition in the presence of 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was repressed, with concomitant abolishment of the transcription of α-myosin heavy chain (α-MHC), which is a component of cardiac myofibrils. Thus, the increased expression of Id protein could affect GATA-4 gene expression and negatively regulate the differentiation of P19CL6 cells.
Since the molecular mechanisms underlying in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are extremely complex and have not yet been elucidated in detail, CVD remain the leading cause of death worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicine involves the treatment of disease from an overall perspective, and its therapeutic effects on CVD have been demonstrated. However, the mechanisms contributing to the multiscale treatment of cardiovascular diseases at the systematic level remain unclear. Network pharmacology methods and a gene chip data analysis were integrated and applied in the present study, which was conducted to investigate the potential target genes and related pathways of Shenfu Decoction (SFD) for the treatment of myocardial injury. The gene chip analysis was initially performed, followed by network pharmacology to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) and a functional enrichment analysis. Protein-protein networks were constructed and a module analysis was conducted. A network analysis was used to identify the target genes of SFD. Regarding the results obtained, 1134 DEG were identified using the STRING website. The module analysis revealed that nine hub genes exhibited ubiquitin-protein ligase activity. Therefore, SFD significantly alters the expression of ubiquitination-related genes and, thus, plays an important therapeutic role in the treatment of heart failure. In conclusion, hub genes may provide a more detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of as well as candidate targets for SFD therapy.
Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is a frequently occurring malignancy of the urinary tract. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mRNA and immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of protein kinase human monopolar spindle 1 (hMps1/TTK) gene in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder and correlate its expression with the clinicopathological characteristics of patients. In the present study, quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to evaluate TTK mRNA expression in TCC. IHC analysis of TTK was also evaluated. Independent Student's t, ANOVA and chi-square (χ2) tests were used to analyze the data statistically. The frequency of TTK mRNA over expression was detected in 50% of UBC (38/76) by qRT-PCR. Relative mean fold expression of TTK mRNA was found significantly (p < 0.05) higher in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) as compared to non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients (8.96 ± 4.51 vs. 5.64 ± 3.53, p = 0.03). Moreover, IHC reveals heterogenous immunostaining pattern of TTK in TCC tissues. The frequency of TTK protein over expression was detected in 56.9% (37 of 65) UBC patients. No significant IHC expression of TTK was detected among adjacent noncancerous tissues (ANCTs) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) used as control. Collectively our study observations conclude that TTK is a novel cancer/testis antigen (CTA) as a diagnostic marker for early diagnosis of UBC.
Infantile hemangioma (IH) is a common benign tumor during infancy, although the detailed mechanism behind it has not been fully elucidated. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that formation of hemangioma might be triggered by secondary physiological events (perinatal hypoxia or mechanical stress during delivery) in patients carrying germline risk mutations. We aimed to clarify the mechanism by evaluating whether head and neck lesions were more frequent in patients in who IH appeared after birth compared with those in who it was present at birth. Clinical data of 62 lesions in 51 patients with IH were collected. All patients were analyzed for correlation of onset with gender, localization, family histories, gestational age, birth weight, and clinical subtypes. Distribution of lesions on the head and neck was slightly more frequent in the after-birth IH group, compared with those with IH present at birth, but without significant difference (47.6% vs. 40.0%, p = 0.32). On the other hand, the ratio of superficial and deep type IH at birth was significantly altered compared with that in IH after birth (19:0 vs. 26:7, p = 0.039). In addition, IHs appearing after birth tended to more commonly have multiple lesions than those with IH present at birth, with statistically significant difference (25.8% vs. 0%, p = 0.0164). There may therefore be different triggers for IHs at birth and IH after birth. Further studies with greater number of patients are necessary to validate these findings.
Neurological complications are increasingly being reported in dengue fever, and the dengue virus is now recognized as a neurotrophic virus. The damage caused by inflammatory cytokines in the febrile phase and molecular mimicry in the recovery phase is responsible for these neurological manifestations. We report such an unusual neurological complication occurring in a 27-year-old female in the recovery phase of dengue fever, who developed an acute onset of ascending symmetric weakness of all four limbs without any sensory, autonomic, cerebellar, or cranial nerve involvement. She was diagnosed as having an acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) based on a nerve conduction study (NCS) showing axonal neuropathy and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) showing root enhancement at the region of the cauda equina. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and showed full recovery from symptoms with treatment. Our case highlights the importance of being aware of such rare neurological complications in dengue fever. Early detection and rapid initiation of treatment can lead to the complete reversal of neurological deficits.
Nivolumab is a programmed death receptor-1 blocking monoclonal antibody which has been approved by United States Food and Drug Administration for patients with metastatic non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer. Endocrinopathies like thyroid dysfunction and adrenal insufficiency are its known immune related adverse effects. Hypophysitis is very rare and usually presents with minimal symptoms. We report development of hypophysitis in an 84-year-old female patient who developed a range of symptoms (fatigue, headache, nausea) as well as laboratory confirmation of both central hypothyroidism and central adrenal deficiency which is unusual in cases of nivolumab induced hypophysitis. The patient had well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the left upper lobe of the lung. She underwent wedge resection followed by chemotherapy and was started on nivolumab due to recurrence. After 14 cycles of nivolumab, she started complaining of intense fatigue. She was found to have central thyroid deficiency and was started on levothyroxine. But her symptoms did not improve. Then she underwent adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test which showed central adrenal deficiency, but her brain magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any pituitary or sellar changes. A diagnosis of nivolumab induced hypophysitis was made, based on clinical grounds and hormonal profile and she was started on oral steroids. She responded dramatically to this steroidal therapy within four weeks of its initiation and her immunotherapy with nivolumab was restarted.
In December 2019, the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the resulting pandemic has caused widespread health problems and social and economic disruption. Thus far in 2021, more than 4 million people worldwide have died from COVID-19, so safe and efficacious vaccines are urgently needed to restore normal economic and social activities. According to the official guidance documents of the World Health Organization (WHO), vaccines based on four major strategies including mRNA, adenoviral vectors, inactivated viruses, and recombinant proteins have entered the stage of emergency use authorization and pre-certification evaluation. The current review summarizes these vaccines and it looks ahead to the development of additional COVID-19 vaccines in the future.
Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly reduced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated morbidity and mortality and turned HIV infection into a manageable chronic condition. However, lifelong cART is still required. Two-drug regimens could reduce the number of HIV agents and lower the adverse events caused by lifelong medication. A new two-drug regimen, DEVATO, consisting of dolutegravir and lamivudine has durable efficacy, is well-tolerated, and has a high barrier to viral resistance, which is why it is recommended as a new first-line treatment option for people living with HIV infection.