Smoking cessation efforts in Japan reduce smoking rates. A future zero-smoking policy would completely prohibit smoking (0% rate). We therefore analyzed the social welfare of smokers and non-smokers under a hypothetical zero-smoking policy. The demand curve for smoking from 1990 to 2014 was estimated by defining quantity as the number of cigarettes smoked and price as total tobacco sales/total cigarettes smoked by the two-stage least squares method using the tax on tobacco as the instrumental variable. In the estimation equation (calculated using the ordinary least squares method), the price of tobacco was the dependent variable and tobacco quantity the explanatory variable. The estimated constant was 31.90, the estimated coefficient of quantity was − 0.0061 (both, p < 0.0004), and the determinant coefficient was 0.9187. Thus, the 2015 consumer surplus was 1.08 trillion yen (US$ 9.82 billion) (95% confidence interval (CI), 889 billion yen (US$ 8.08 billion) – 1.27 trillion yen (US$ 11.6 billion)). Because tax revenue from tobacco in 2011 was 2.38 trillion yen (US$ 21.6 billion), the estimated deadweight loss if smoking were prohibited in 2014 was 3.31 trillion yen (US$ 30.2 billion) (95% CI, 3.13 trillion yen (US$ 28.5 billion) – 3.50 trillion yen (US$ 31.8 billion)), representing a deadweight loss about 0.6 trillion yen (US$ 5.45 billion) below the 2014 disease burden (4.10-4.12 trillion yen (US$ 37.3-37.5 billion)). We conclude that a zero-smoking policy would improve social welfare in Japan.
The aims of this study were to investigate the anesthetic and cytotoxic effects of essential oils (EOs) of Ocimum basilicum (OBO), O. canum (OCO), and O. sanctum (OSO) on Cyprinus carpio (koi carp). For anesthetic effect, induction time to surgical anesthesia and recovery time were determined. For cytotoxicity effect, viability of fish peripheral blood nuclear cells (PBMCs) was investigated. Results indicated that increasing oil concentration caused significant (p < 0.01) decrease of induction time. OSO at 100, 200, and 300 mg/L gave the induction time of 169.5 ± 10.2, 62.8 ± 2.3, 45.3 ± 2.2 sec, respectively, significantly shorter than OCO, and OBO. The recovery time of anesthetized fish was dose dependent (p <0.01). Among them, OCO showed the longest recovery time of 313.0 ± 8.1, 420.7 ± 12.6, 616.6 ± 12.1 sec for concentrations of 100, 200, and 300 mg/L, respectively, followed by OSO and OBO, respectively. Within 10 min contact time of the EOs and fish PBMCs, the fish PBMC viability was higher than 80%. Increase contact time and EO concentration caused an increase in cytotoxicity to fish PBMC. OBO showed less toxic than OSO and OCO. Based on the desired induction and recovery times for anesthetizing koi carp, OBO, OCO, and OSO at 300, 200, and 100 mg/L, respectively were suggested to be the most suitable. It was concluded that OBO, OCO, and OSO can be used as natural anesthetics for fish.
Ipragliflozin is the first SGLT2 inhibitor approved in Japan. Reported here is a case where long-term administration of ipragliflozin decreased the rate of re-hospitalization due to heart failure (HF). An 83-year-old man with chronic HF and diabetes mellitus (DM) was hospitalized four times in the last five years. He was discharged six months after his last hospitalization, but he continued to have class III HF according to the New York Heart Association classification (NYHA), and his DM was also not properly managed. Therefore, he received ipragliflozin. One year after initiation of ipragliflozin, he lost weight (body weight (BW): 79.0 to 76.2 kg), his levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) decreased (191.4 to 122.5 mg/dL), and the class of his HF improved (class III to class II). The management of DM also improved (fasting blood glucose: 100 to 110 mg/dL; hemoglobin A1C: 6.8 to 6.6%). In addition, cardiac sympathetic nerve function evaluated with 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac-scintigraphy (123I-MIBG) also improved (the average of the heart-to-mediastinum ratio in early and delayed phases; 1.44 to 2.17 in the early phase, 1.41 to 1.92 in the delayed phase, washout rate; 43.3 to 35.6). The patient was not re-hospitalized due to HF two years after administration of ipragliflozin started. A reduction in cardiac sympathetic nerve hyperactivity by an SGLT2 inhibitor might be one of the mechanisms of its cardio-protective effect, but clinical studies need to be conducted to verify this finding.
We measured and compared the physicochemical properties (pH, yield value, and squeeze force) of a drug for dermatomycosis, terbinafine hydrochloride-containing cream (brand-name product), and 12 generic products to clarify the characteristics of each product. On pH measurement, the pH value of the brand-name product, Lamisil, was 4.8, and those of the generic products ranged from 4.3 to 5.5, showing no marked difference. Furthermore, the yield value of Lamisil, as an index of cream ductility, was 122.2 dyn/cm2, and those of the generic products ranged from 42.1 to 1,621.5 dyn/cm2. In particular, the value of a generic product, Taiyo (42.1 dyn/cm2), was significantly lower, whereas that of another one, Viras (1,621.0 dyn/cm2), was significantly higher. In addition, the squeeze force was measured by attaching a HapLog® to the thumb and second finger. The value of Lamisil was 12.9 N, and those of the generic products ranged from 8.0 to 15.4 N. The values of generic products, Mylan (8.6 N), Tebinaceil (9.0 N), and Kelger (8.0 N), were significantly lower, whereas that of another one, Viras (15.4 N), was significantly higher. These results showed that there were marked differences in the pharmaceutical properties between the generic and brand-name products. The above pharmaceutical characteristics of drugs facilitated the presentation of reasons for differences in the sense of use, which characterizes external preparations, suggesting that products appropriate for individual patients can be recommended.
Iliopsoas abscess (IPA) is an uncommon diagnosis in medical wards. Herein, we present two unusual cases of IPA. First patient was an elderly diabetic patient who had gas-forming bilateral IPA caused by Escherichia coli. This infection proved fatal and patient succumbed on third day of hospital admission. Second patient was a young boy who had right sided sacroilitis with IPA. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the pus culture and patient was successfully treated without any sequelae.