Planetary gear sets, used commonly in wind turbine gearboxes, should have good load distribution on gears to improve the durability. In this paper, the influences of external loads caused by wind fluctuation on the load distribution on the gear tooth flank are investigated. A state-of-the-art whole system model is developed to analyze the planetary gear set for the WTG. The results of gear mesh misalignment, contact pattern, load distributions are predicted and the gear safety factor is also evaluated. Therefore, the results presented state that if the optimal helix modification is applied, the edge loading of gear tooth ends disappears, contact pattern improves significantly, the face load factor decreases and the gear safety factor increases.
The strategy for sustainable biofuel production should be compatible with increasing SOM (soil organic matter) to improve soil quality for biomass productivity and reducing purchased inputs for production. Combining cover crops with no-tillage offers many benefits for improving soil quality, but requires a higher level of management to achieve maximum benefit. This study evaluated the performance of a no-tillage seeder for sweet sorghum production and identified appropriate ways of using the no-tillage seeder with various amounts of cover crop residue. Previous field research revealed that using a medium (360 rpm) PTO rotational speed and mixed-seeding of rye and hairy vetch with a no-tillage seeder is effective for increasing sweet sorghum germination under cover crop residue mulch.
To reduce the environmental impacts of agricultural production, an existing 10 kW-class internal combustion engine tractor was remodeled as an electric tractor with an AD motor. Remodeling the engine tractor to an electric tractor increased its overall weight. However, it had little damaging effect on the balance of the body. By using electric-only agricultural machinery, the energy consumption needed for traveling and tillage in the field can be reduced by approximately 70 %. Moreover, the electric tractor could operate continuously for one hour over a work area of approximately 1300 m2 on a single charged battery. From the results of the CO2 emissions estimated on the basis of the above result, it reduced by approximately 70 % rather than the engine tractor.
Fluorescence imaging has been used to detect peel defects in many citrus varieties, but not in lemon and yuzu. In this study, we extract and identify fluorescent components from the peel of lemon and yuzu. The characteristics of excitation and fluorescence of these extracted components were determined, and their identity clarified using NMR spectroscopy. Extracted fluorescent components for both lemon and yuzu have a coumarin structure. Two coumarins (5-7-dimethoxycoumarin,5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin) were identified in lemon and one (5-geranyloxycoumarin) in yuzu. Their excitation and fluorescence wavelength were observed at 320 - 330 nm and 380 - 400 nm, respectively. Moreover, when a fluorescence imaging system was set-up with UV-A illumination, it was shown that this systemcan detect peel defects in lemon, and to a lesser extent in yuzu.
An optimal G-shaped load cell was designed for measuring two ranges of loading. This G-shaped load cell had a mechanical point, by which a light or heavy load could be distinguished. In the shape optimization process, displacements at certain points were maximized without violating stress constraints. The coefficients of elliptical curve functions were treated as design variables. The mass of the load cell was reduced by 6.91 %. The slope of the stress response increased about 19.8 % which significantly improved the sensitivity of the load cell. A prototypical load cell was made. The relation between voltage and load was established with loads from 49 to 490 N. The maximum relative errors in light and heavy loadings estimation are 8.0 % and 1.36 %.
Color change of pupil area was investigated in Red, Green, Blue (RGB) and Hue, Saturation, Intensity (HSI) color models from July to November in 2010 and from May to December in 2011 to estimate the serum vitamin A level of Japanese black cattle during their vitamin A controlled stage. A 2CCD camera was used to acquire the eye images. The results showed lower vitamin A level cattle usually accompanied with higher red component value, lower saturation in their eye images. An estimation model was built based on red and green component ratio. The estimation error is about 10 IU/dL. The reasonable result shows the feasibility to estimate the vitamin A level by color change of pupil area in Japanese black cattle.
To improve planosol soil conditions, a new Three-stage Subsoil Interval Mixing Plough (hereafter, TSIM-plough) was developed in 2010. The TSIM-plough resolved three problems encountered by the original Three-stage Subsoil Mixing Plough (hereafter, TSM-plough) developed in 1996. That is addition of an extra first plough body to the previous design TSM-plough. Firstly, its working width was increased from 460 mm to 920 mm with an extra first plough body installed. Secondly, its calculated draught moment caused on the tractor was reduced, thus allowing the tractor to running straight more easily. Thirdly, the ground trafficability increased with the improved layering of soft and hard subsoil solum, and tractors for harvesting no longer sank under wet field conditions even in the first year of operation.
To improve planosol soil conditions, a new Three-stage Subsoil Interval Mixing Plough (hereafter, TSIM-plough) was constructed in 2010. The TSIM–plough resolved three problems encountered by the original Three-stage Subsoil Mixing Plough (hereafter, TSM-plough) developed in 1996. In this paper, the improved soil penetration resistance (trafficability) and crop yields in the field operated with this TSIM-plough are discussed. The new plough produced greater soil penetration resistance, and so greater trafficability of vehicles. The difference of the soybean yield was small between the TSM-plough and the TSIM-plough, and so the usage of the TSIM-plough is preferred.
Although air circulators are commonly used in agricultural buildings, it is difficult to evaluate the practical performance of many such air circulators currently available in Japan. This study compares the air circulation performances of six commercial air circulators and demonstrates that the distribution of air velocity generation varied among them. Although the power consumption significantly correlated with the range of air circulation observed, the airflow rate listed in the specifications did not. Therefore, power consumption is a better evaluation indicator for the performance of air circulators under the limitation that exceedingly inefficient products are hardly distinguishable. In addition, the energy efficiency in the usage of air circulators is discussed.
The publisher of "Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food (EAEF)" will change from J-Stage (JST) to Elsevier Ltd. on January 1, 2014. New issues after Vol.7 will be browsed on ScienceDirect, whereas Vol.1-6 can be still browsed on J-Stage.
J-STAGE will be temporary out of service due to system maintenance on Nov. 24, 21:00 - Nov. 25, 8:00 UTC.