This research investigates the level of infrastructure readiness in three countries to support investors in apparel and textile, electronic parts and agro-processing industries. Infrastructures and utilities in this study are transportation to market and ports, electricity and power, water supply, and telecommunication. Ten economic zones are Myawaddy, Yangon and Dawei in Myanmar, Poipet-Sisophon, Koh Kong-Sihanoukville and Phnom Penh in Cambodia, and Vientiane, Savannakhet, Pakse and Bokeaw in Lao PDR. This research evaluated the quality of existing and being developed infrastructures through field survey and interview of local investors. After that, investor demands are compiled through in-depth interviews and questionnaires from 51 companies in three segments to rank the importance of infrastructure. Both demand and supply data were compared to show the level of infrastructure readiness for Thai investors. Finally, investment recommendation maps for industries are displayed along with recommendations for Thai government to develop infrastructures according to investor demand.
Current guidelines arguably do not properly address how much priority high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes should be over general-purpose (GP) lanes. In response to this issue, this study developed a scheme to measure HOV speed priority via mathematical derivation. The concept of vehicle occupancy was incorporated to reflect the HOV core value－carrying more persons in fewer vehicles. As traffic increases, the scheme leads to HOV lanes' speed increasingly greater than GP lanes’. Contrasts were made between the proposed scheme and the conventional travel time saving principle. Two case studies were implemented; the local one indicates that Taiwan’s first HOV lane was under-prioritized while the foreign one shows that the HOV lane of SR-60 in California was well-prioritized. The results can be used to further assess the necessity of HOV policy adjustment.
Due to more complicated behavior than controlled access roadway, congested estimation on arterial road network has become a challenging topic for all traffic professionals in recent years. To indicate the traffic condition, link travel speed is considered as one of the important markers for representing traffic status on roadway network and most understood pointer for all road users. This paper describes the implementation of Running Speed and Stopped Delay (RSSD) technique for investigating the urban link travel speed and discusses on the limitation of error in speed associated from each GPS device to maintain the advantages of proposed technique in travel speed estimation. The results from real observation traffic data on urban roadway also confirm that the accuracy of travel speed estimation is significantly improved when RSSD was employed as the estimation technique compared to baseline approach particularly in the links with highly congested condition.
This paper presents the results of a limited preliminary on-road and vehicle laboratory tests of 2% (B2) and 5% (B5) CME-Diesel blends on local public transport where data will be used as one of the inputs, among others such as economic, logistics, and fuel quality issues, to deliberations to decide for the introduction of B5 in Philippine commercial diesel fuel. The study is conducted to determine fuel consumption of B2 vs. B5 under near actual operating conditions where it utilized public utility jeepneys from five routes in Metro Manila where travel distance, fuel consumption and load factor are monitored. Mileage is increased by 5.9% and reduction in idling smoke opacity of 12% are observed using B5. Drive cycle tests are conducted where an improvement of 4.6% in specific fuel consumption is observed for B5. The improvement in mileage for B5 is estimated to be 3.0%.
Public bicycle sharing programs (PBSPs) is gaining worldwide attention as an important climate-smart, active transport alternative. Despite becoming permanent fixtures in the urban landscape of the West, PBSP implementation in Asia, except for China, has been relatively dismal. Many of the pilot models have been adaptation of Western examples that do not appropriately fit the distinct physical, cultural, economic and political context of Asia-Pacific cities (e.g. diverse set of land uses, the relatively dense urban centres and formal/informal transport interaction). This research explores the glocalisation of bikesharing schemes in five selected Asia cities. Drawing upon a systematic review of literature, this paper aims to building the evidence base to increase our understanding of PBSPs implementation as an important first step in planning for a low carbon society and advance the limited information to effectively inform low-carbon planning and policy especially from the perspective of active transport within the Asian context.
This paper proposes a mathematical planning model to find the most effective links to be fortified, in order to secure the inter-city passenger transportation service facing to interdiction risk of each link in the network. If interdicted, the passengers must find a minimum time detour route and endure additional travel time. We assume that fortification of a link can avoid the risk of interdiction. The planning model is formulated based on the Multi-modal Network Planning (MNP) model formulated by the authors. This paper shows the model formulation and case study on a simple network including the introduction of emergent airline service after interdiction of railway links, as an illustration of the potential of the model.
Low-income population is one of the groups that are vulnerable to transport disadvantage because of its limited resources, especially if they also live in areas which are not served by adequate public transportation. In such conditions, a motorcycle becomes an alternative solution to meet their mobility needs. Unfortunately, how motorcycle is used by low- income people and the influencing factors have not been fully understood. This study aims to understand the motorcycle usage in low-income people and identify the factors that contribute to the motorcycle usage in low-income people. Districts and household level of analysis were conducted in Yogyakarta Urbanized Area (YUA), Indonesia in 2014. Based on the results, the study suggests a more inclusive public transport planning in YUA by considering the need of low-income people so that efforts being made to reduce the use of motorcycles will not compromise the mobility of low-income people.
In this paper, a regional econometric model that enables to analyze the time-series impacts of the increase in the number of tourists from inside and outside the regions on the regional economy resulting from the construction of a high-speed railway such as the Shinkansen is developed. As a result of an empirical analysis with the model for the Hokkaido Shinkansen whose completion is planned in 2030, it is indicated that, although the Hokkaido Shinkansen would annually generate about 570 thousand more tourists from inside or outside Hokkaido, the economic effects after its completion (stock effects) are expected to be relatively smaller than the flow effects during its construction period.
Confronted with the general dilemmas besieged by limited land resource and traffic congestion, land transport authority of Singapore has successfully implemented the Vehicle Quota System (VQS) to control the vehicle population. The VQS requires each new vehicle buyer to bid for a license, called Certificate of Entitle (COE), for the registration of her/his new vehicles. This study will examine the quantifiable and unquantifiable determinants of the COE premium for cars in Singapore firstly, based on a revealed reference (RP) survey and some related literature reviews. Through the collected real data, the impacts of these determinants are further analyzed by formulating an autoregressive model with exogenous variables, which is verified to well fit the trend of the COE premium. Thus, the autoregressive model can be used by the authority or bidders to understand the feasibility of VQS and to estimate COE premium changing trend more reasonably.
In November 1996, the City of Seoul imposed a fee on motorists driving through two tunnel corridors, Namsan 1st and Namsan 3rd tunnel, to mitigate traffic congestion. This research examines the effectiveness of pricing scheme and analyzes the toll elasticity at the two tunnels over the 12 years of operation. The traffic volume decreased 14% during the first two years and maintained almost constant after that. By implementing congestion pricing, travel speed increased from 22 km/h to 32 km/h for two years even though overall speed along other monitored roadways in Seoul remained unchanged. Also, the number of passenger cars has been considerably reduced up to 34% during the same period with increases in buses (62%) and taxis (211%). The toll elasticities estimated from empirical data in Seoul are -1.47 on Namsan 1st tunnel which is larger than those found in other countries, while -0.38 on Namsan 3rd tunnel.
To maximize social welfare under transportation sustainability, bi-level budget allocation models are proposed, where the upper level maximizes the social welfare of trip makers by allocating budget to subsidize bus fare discount and bus frequency and to acquire green land for accommodating excess footprint. Two models are developed: the single generation (SG) model and the across generation (AG) model. The SG model assumes these decisions are made under the consideration of the contemporary generation alone, while the AG model compromises these decisions with the consequent generation. A case study on an exemplified network is conducted. Results show that the measures of bus fare discount and bus frequency increase can attract remarkable bus patronage and achieve almost the same social welfare. The optimal decision of the contemporary generation compromises the total utility of the contemporary generation with that of the next generation by leaving partial budget to the next generation. In contrast to traditional transit network design model, the proposed model further considers the trade-off and decisions across generations.
This paper presents the studies and processes for implementing the pilot project of Transportation Demand Management (TDM) for the historical area of Istanbul, namely, Smart Parking System (SPS), which is a parking guide system using information devices, as well as the evaluation results. SPS made it easier to find a parking space by using smart phones and parking information boards without looking/waiting for parking space. This system should also help to reduce traffic congestion in the historical area because car drivers can find a reasonable and comfortable parking space before their destination. While the results from the SPS Pilot Project suggested that it had limited impact on drivers' choices, the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and other relevant organizations are working out the future activities for SPS toward continuance or expansion based on the lessons learned from this pilot project.
Several large scale transportation infrastructure projects have been proposed, with several already under construction, in Metro Manila by the current Administration such as the elevated expressway above the PNR line also known as the NLEx-SLEx connector, the NAIA expressway, the CALA and Lakeshore expressway projects as well as the proposed LRT line 1 South Extension, BRT lines, subway, among others. Some of these transportation infrastructure projects are for possible Public-Private Partnership (PPP) funding. Aside from the National Government's proposals, several private groups have also proposed transportation infrastructure projects in Metro Manila. This research analyzed and evaluated the impact of these proposed transport infrastructure projects on urban travel using the Transport Co-Benefit Analysis as developed by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES). This research provides a macroscopic analysis regarding which proposed infrastructure projects would be beneficial to the people of Metro Manila.
After the decades of conflict and political transition, Nepal is going to embark on an accelerated economic growth for which transport development has been recognized as one of the core strategies. With an objective of providing some valuable insights to the policy makers, this paper adopts a broad-brush approach to review the past efforts, identify current challenges and opportunities, explore linkages with theoretical concepts, and finally list out important strategies that would guide Nepal's transport development towards a sustainable ends. Most importantly, the paper highlights some of the agenda which can potentially serve as the corner stones for sustainable transport system but have not yet been properly discussed at the policy making level. It is expected that the contents of this paper would provide useful guidelines for the transport policy makers in Nepal.
In this study, we present an international comparative study on urban public transport and paratransit in six Asian countries. The paper focuses on benchmarking legal aspects and intermodal issues among existing urban paratransit, aiming for a better future policy in fulfilling the need of urban population growth. Results indicate that many modes are actually has not yet been legalized in the six countries. From the typology of typical paratransit modes, it is found that there are still paratransit modes with fixed route that might respond to the travel demand enough for sustaining route service if the vehicle size is minimized. Finally, there are many cases where BRT and other public transport projects face the issue of restructuring of existing public transport network mostly with bus mode. Development of intermodal facilities is considered as one of the solutions for overcoming the issue. It is also noted that common ticketing system, or integration in terms of systems, should be regarded as an important measure for promoting the integration.
This paper reported the current traffic conditions in Yangon and discussed the issues with the mobility and the future direction of the urban transportation system. The achievements of the large-scale survey are so valuable that the traffic conditions have been successfully revealed for understanding the current problems and for planning the future transportation policy/network in Yangon. The evidence from these surveys are expected to contribute to the data-based approach in the urban transportation planning and decision-making process in Myanmar.
Japan has the fastest growth of aging ratio in the world. In addition to population decrease, the combination of the aging population with a diminishing number of children is becoming a critical issue. It is said that aging reduces the total railway demand. The study clarifies the number of immigrants and emigrants in each area along railway lines. The migrations between the railway lines having different characteristics of trends in age-structure are compared in the study. In the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, aspects of the population migrations are different in each area, and as a result, the difference in age structure causes a difference of railway passengers. In considering the details of population migration as presented in this study, additional strategic railway policy is necessary in the near future.
To enhance social acceptance of road pricing policy, a parking deposit system (PDS) has been proposed in Japan to replace conventional congestion charging scheme. In the PDS, a full or partial of entry toll to the charging area is refunded to drivers who use parking facilities and/or have a business within the charged area. This paper investigates how the PDS affects travel mode choice behavior in Hanoi, which has been suffering from road congestion for years. Since the PDS has not been implemented in practice, a stated preference survey was conducted in 2013 and 932 SP cards from 233 persons were collected. To reflect the influence of heterogeneous responses of different persons, a latent-class travel mode choice model was estimated. Model estimation results confirm that the PDS only has a significant influence on motorcycle drivers.
This paper uses non-parametric techniques to estimate the variation in the value of travel time. Stated choice data are used for an empirical analysis in the context of a binary route choice between an expressway route and a non-expressway route. The data were collected in a pivot-style survey in Japan. Local constant regression and local linear regression are used for the model estimation. The empirical analysis shows that the estimates based on the local linear regression behave well as a cumulative function, while those using the local constant regression do not. Then the variations in the value of travel time are compared among different subgroups in the dataset. The results showed that individuals in their forties and fifties place a higher value on travel time, as do those whose household earns a higher annual income and those who spend more time traveling.
This paper analyzes the relationship between rain intensity and commuters' return home behavior to clarify the extent to which rain affects commuters' departure decisions. Results show that about 60% of respondents changed their departure time. Although weather forecasts predicted torrential rain for the day examined in this study, the percentages of respondents who checked the weather directly or obtained weather information were only 42% and 26%, respectively. In order to statistically analyze the above relationship, an ordered logit model was estimated. The result showed that commuters are likely to change their departure time early when rain intensity is 50 mm/h or more. This result can thus serve as a criterion of commuters' departure decision on days of torrential rain. Additionally, those who obtained weather information while in their destination area and who went home at peak rush hour showed a strong tendency to change their departure time early.
In this paper, the problem that consists of the four travel choices (i.e., trip generation, trip distribution, modal split, and traffic assignment) with variable demand is deliberately formulated as a non-linear mathematical model. The associated optimality conditions are presented. A heuristic solution algorithm that adopts combined model concept was proposed. By way of supernetwork techniques, each combined model can be addressed as an “extended” traffic assignment problem and solved using any available traffic assignment solution algorithm. As compared with the traditional four-step travel demand forecasting procedure, this heuristic has advantage of considering the travelers' travel behavior throughout the solution procedure and hence more suitable to be applied to the transportation planning applications in the real world.
Neural Network (NN) expansion can be categorized into three crucial stages, namely before 1960, 1960-1986, and after 1986 periods. The era before 1960 is when NN was discovered and developed; the next period saw a decline in NN research, while the last period has witnessed advanced developments in NN, especially in improvement of the training algorithms. Therefore, training algorithm is considered as the key in the successfulness of NN application. However, inappropriate choice of training algorithms may lead to poor NN performance. This paper reports the performance of NN models for spatial interaction modelling trained by three different algorithms and discusses some fundamental issues such as the training error and gradient, connection weight update, mapping output, performance consistency, and over fitting. These issues are rarely discussed in previous studies. Findings from this study are expected can assist the transport modeller in using NN as a robust and sound modelling tool.
This study empirically analyses domestic travel patterns pertaining to social, pilgrimage and health trips in India. Logistic regression and exploratory spatial analysis were undertaken to understand the relationship of regional travel, destination and purpose with individual and travel characteristics. The results suggest that the odds of preferring to travel outside one's district as compared to traveling within decreases for both urban and rural areas. Positive influence of availing public transportation and specific time of the year on destination choice were observed. Spatial non-stationarity of the choices revealed regions of local clustering. Spatial clustering in case of social and pilgrimage trips hinted towards satisfaction attainment of travelers, whereas the high value clusters of long distance travel for health trips pointed towards probable gaps in infrastructure coverage. These findings suggest that incorporating purpose based travel patterns into transport policies can effectively reduce impedance towards trip taking leading to better quality of life.
This study aims to measure and evaluate convenience of access by residents to the nearest railway station in housing development areas in the suburbs. Mode choice model for access to the nearest railway station is built employing random utility theory in order to measure accessibility to the station. The results show that accessibility decreases as travel distance to the nearest railway station increases; however, even if the distance to the station is the same, the level of accessibility could be different because of differences in the slopes of routes to the station, or the number of buses in neighborhood districts within each development area. Travel modes needed to maintain accessibility to the nearest railway station, therefore, differ among the districts. It is necessary to increase the level not only of accessibility but also of railway service of the nearest railway station so that residents could utilize railway more frequently.
This study aims to explore students' trip chaining within their activity decisions based on questionnaire distribution to students of Parahyangan Catholic University, Bandung, Indonesia. Besides that the findings of this study are partly consistent with earlier studies, this study also reveals a new finding. It is found that the variables of status of home ownership and number of family member living together with the students are found as general predictor variables in distinguishing travel characteristics of students. It is argued that the selection of residential location of student is influenced by the city of origin of the students, where at the end, it will influence their travel behavior.
Grave-sweeping is a popular special event in Asia, especially in Chinese societies, in which families visit columbaria to express filial piety to their ancestors. The extraordinarily high travel demands usually associated with visiting columbaria during a relative short period around the grave-sweeping festivals severely affect the local traffic. To design and plan adequate transport facilities and services to cater to the travel needs of these families, modeling of their travel demand is a prerequisite procedure. This paper develops and calibrates a non-linear regression model for trip attraction and a joint logit model for trip distribution and modal split using data from headcount and revealed preference surveys collected at selected columbaria during the Ching Ming Festivals of 2013 and 2014. This paper also discusses policy insights gained from the model results that can be applied to the planning of transport facilities and the provision of feeder services to mitigate local congestion during the festivals.
Congestion and peak loading are key concerns for public transport agencies in Australian cities. Two fare policies, off-peak discounts and volume rebates, have been adopted in South East Queensland (SEQ) attempting to alter passengers' travel behaviour. This research examines how these two fare policies have changed passengers' travel patterns by using newly available smart card data from automated fare collection systems. The findings indicate that current off-peak discounts do not significantly alter passengers' boarding times or encourage peak spreading. Volume rebates, however, do provide incentives to encourage more use of public transport, implying that this could be a way to reduce traffic congestion should most of the additional trips be diverted from other modes. The paper concludes with suggestions for additional, more sophisticated policies to ease congestion and peak loading.
The Korea Transportation Data Base (KTDB) Center in the Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) conducts the Vehicle Use Survey annually for collecting vehicle usage information of passenger cars such as vehicle travel distance, oil consumption, maintenance cost, etc. Considering the increase of smartphones, the survey was extended to mobile applications from 2013. This study was performed assuming there were differences in transport characteristics according to survey methods (paper-based and mobile-based). As a result, the average number of passages per day in the mobile survey was 2.66, while it was 2.11 for paper survey. It was analyzed that both average travel distance and time of mobile survey was smaller than paper survey. To verify the differences in the two methods, statistical test (t-test) was conducted and showed that the average travel distance and time were significantly different in two survey methods at 95% confidence level.
The phenomenon wherein the modal share of cars and the total distance traveled by car begin to decrease—referred to as “peak car”—has been occurring in the Keihanshin Metropolitan Area in western Japan. It is believed that age, sex, cohort, and the built environment, affect patterns of car use. This research aims to quantify the characteristics of car use and estimate the modal share of cars in 2020, taking the above-mentioned factors into account. Data from person trip surveys conducted every 10 years from 1990 to 2010 are used to analyze the longitudinal changes in car use characteristics. The results indicate that characteristics of car use are indeed related to age, sex, cohort, and built environment, and the modal share of cars will decrease in the central regions of the Keihanshin Metropolitan Area by 2020 while increasing on the edges of the metropolitan area.
Asian cities are developing urban mass rapid transit systems to attract a great number of motorcycle and car users. However, there might be uncertainties in modal shift, thereby risking the effectiveness of public transport investments. This study aims to explore patterns of people's travel behavior and anticipate mode choice changes under intervention scenarios. Hanoi City is a case study. A stated preference survey is conducted and SP/RP mode choice models are estimated for different population segments. It is found that a significant number of private vehicle users might still sticking to their vehicles, trip chaining and presence of kids aged 11 or younger in the family may prevent its members from shifting to public transport. Longer travel distances may not necessarily lead to a higher modal shift ratio. The results would be helpful to policy making towards sustainable public transport development and effective control of private transport in developing cities.
Traditional equilibrium models consider transportation networks with well-defined link travel time functions and continuous drivers. Recently, researchers focused on adding the behavioral dimension lacking in traditional equilibrium models by treating drivers as individual decision-makers (atomic drivers). However, there is currently no underpinning theory that supports the shift from macroscopic to microscopic traffic assignment modeling. In this paper, a game theoretical model which provides this link is presented. We will show that this model describe drivers' adaptive behaviors as they perform day-to-day route choices. Drivers acquire payoffs with unknown noise of their chosen and alternative routes. This scenario describes a transportation network with the presence of a Traffic Management Center (TMC). Finally, a simulation-based dynamic traffic assignment simulation is carried out to validate the model using the Simulation of Urban MObility (SUMO) open source software. The simulation shows that Nash equilibrium can be achieved almost surely.
There is an increasing population rate especially in metropolitan areas and the majority of people living in such areas have to spend some part of their time commuting to their destinations. So, one of the serious concerns for network design is defining an efficient and appropriate network being able to shift passenger's mode from private to public transportation properly. The public transport can have an effective role in deriving passenger satisfaction and reducing the operating cost by means of designing a well-integrated public transit system along with improving the cost-effectiveness network. The main goal of this study is to present an improved model for feeder bus network design problem by minimizing total cost. In this study, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle swarm optimization (PSO) were employed to optimize feeder bus services. The case study and input data which have been applied through the current study were already used by Kuha & Perl (1989). Finally, obtained numerical results of the proposed model, including optimal solution, statistical optimization results, and the convergence rate as well as comparisons were discussed.
Parking management has attracted attention as an effective transportation policy. Although many studies analyzing parking lot choice behaviors have been conducted, most of them utilized data gathered by one-shot questionnaire surveys. Currently, in Japan, it is possible to easily observe parking lot choice behaviors over long time periods since online parking accounting machines have been introduced at many parking lots. In order to analyze and model the parking lot choice behaviors, we utilized massive parking accounting data including membership identification data. From the results of a basic analysis targeted at nine parking lots in Nagoya, we found that users rationally chose different parking lots according to their parking time, and some high-frequency users preferred to choose the same parking lot, indicating a similarity to habitual behavior. Moreover, we compared the characteristics of parking lot choice behaviors between high-frequency users and others by developing a parking lot choice model.
This paper investigates the effects of ATIS (Advanced Traveler Information Systems) accuracy on drivers' compliance with descriptive information and route choice behavior. The approach adopted here examines drivers' compliance with ATIS and the subsequent route choice using a nested logit model. Compliance is modeled as a binary logit model which is then used as an upper branch to the route choice process. Stated Preference (SP) methods are used to collect data on drivers' behavior. The questionnaire incorporated the factors affecting drivers' perception of information accuracy such as travel time error average and variability. The results showed that not only does ATIS accuracy affect drivers' compliance, but it also has an impact on the reliability of each route. Attitudes toward risk were also found important in the decision making process.
When a road network is broken by a large-scale disaster, we have to immediately restore some links and connect the whole network as a first-aid restoration for transporting relief supplies. This study proposes a model to determine the optimal facility locations and routes for working vehicles. The feature of the first-aid restoration is that travel time of a link changes before and after the link is restored. In order to represent the change of travel time, we employ a time-space network and formulate the model as an integer linear programming. The objective function consists of required time taken until all nodes are visited by at least one working vehicle, sum of all working vehicles' travel time, and sum of required time taken until a node is visited by a working vehicle. By applying the model to some example networks, we show the features of the optimal state for first-aid restoration.
How has the frequency distribution of domestic overnight leisure travel changed in the past few decades? What will the distribution be in the next several decades? In order to answer these questions, this paper analyzes the time series change of travel frequency distribution for the Japanese. We conclude that (1) the average annual travel frequency decreased for 20 years, (2) the zero frequency ratio is increasing, the difference of travel frequency between individuals is also increasing, and (3) these time series changes can be explained by the changes in age composition and differences among birth cohort. Moreover, we forecast the travel frequency distribution until 2060, considering changes in age composition. The results indicates that: (4) by 2060, the total overnight travel volume will decrease to half of that in 2010, (5) the difference between individuals will continue to increase, as a result zero frequency ratio will be 65% by 2060.
The reconfigure of expressway toll system is discussed from the view of economic effect to the local area recently. It is the purpose of the present study that the impact to the traffic demand and the traffic flow in the local city are estimated quantitatively for the proper evaluation of the toll policy. Therefore, the integrated user equilibrium assignment model is proposed for impact analysis of toll policy on expressway to local city. The demand function between the objective area and the outside area estimated considering with base site. The demand functions are integrated to the user equilibrium assignment model with variable demand. Finally, the traffic demand for the typical toll policies can be estimated and the impact to the traffic flow in the objective area can be analyzed with the proposed model.
Flood evacuation route choice modeling studies gained its momentum in recent years. However, understanding how various explanatory variables determine flood route choice behavior of evacuees has not been fully investigated. The goal of this study is to understand flood evacuation route choice behavior of households at Bahay Toro and Sto. Domingo sub-districts in Quezon City, Philippines. Binary logit and probit models were estimated with variables selected through backward elimination stepwise method. Results include the presence of elderly person, departure timing, and mode used in evacuating as explanatory variables of households' route choice at Bahay Toro Sub-district. On the other hand, the number of family members, level of education and type of work of the household head, house ownership and the mode are variables that determine route choice of households at Sto. Domingo. Modeling evacuation route choice behavior representing the entire city can be further explored in future research.
This paper provides more insights into the relationships between online searching, e-shopping and shopping trip in Indonesia. It becomes attractive since nearly a fifth of total population use internet for searching product information and online shopping. An online survey was used to collect the data. Out of 312 respondents participating, only 281 respondents were selected residing in thirteen provinces in Indonesia. A Structural equation modeling was used to understand the complex variable relationships. The result shows that online shopping can replace the shopping travel demand. However, in-store shopping has no effect on the demand of online shopping. Meanwhile, online searching is not only increasing the frequency of e-shopping, but also generating a more often shopping trips. This study also found that both e-shopping and in-store shopping are influenced by exogenous factors such as shoppers' demographic features, household socio-economy, shopping characteristic and shopping attitude.
This study investigates the household passenger car ownership in the local city and its difference from that in the metropolis in Japan. Large scale person trip survey data for Toyota City and Nagoya City are used for empirical analysis. A bivariate ordered probit model is developed to analyze the ownership of the light motor car and the ordinary motor one. The Gibbs Sampler algorithm is implemented to estimate the parameters. The major findings suggest: 1) that population density and density of railway stations have different effects on the ownership of two vehicle types between two cities; 2) that population density only significantly and negatively impacts the ownership of the light motor car, and density of railway stations does not impact ownership of two vehicle types in Toyota City; 3) that population density and density of railway stations significantly and negatively impact the ownership of two vehicle types in Nagoya City.
This paper presents calibration methods for individual's and household's activity-travel scheduling models. Various model parameters are calibrated such as the parameters in marginal activity utility function and the coefficients of intra-household interactions. Numerical methods for solving the model calibration problem are optimized based on the mathematical property of the models. Hypothetical numerical experiments are conducted to generate time-series data for model calibration.
The aim of this research is to determine if there is a significant difference in public transport usage between Australian-born and overseas-born travellers in South East Queensland and identify if further investigation into this demographic factor is necessary. Using the household travel survey data of Southeast Queensland, Australia, this paper analyses the travel behaviours of immigrants and non-immigrants in the region. The immigrant population is divided into six sub-groups based on their continent of origin. The analysis results suggest that immigrants are more likely to use public transit in Brisbane over other regions in the study. Overall, this research strongly suggests that in Australia, a higher proportion of the immigrant population is more likely to use public transit compared to the proportion of the local population.
This paper specifies a decision support model devoted for freight forwarders to optimize intermodal logistics route selection across the Taiwan Straits. A multi-objective model is developed for jointly minimizing the total system costs and total transportation time of route selection results based on the estimated hub transfer impedances within the studied ‘Mini-Three-Links’ and the ‘Three-Direct-Links’ networks, while at the same time optimizing the choice of transfer terminals connecting different modes. Findings in this study show that most commodities should be transported by sea through the ‘Mini-Three-Links’ networks due to their lowest transportation costs and reduced freight inspection time. In addition, some higher value commodities should be delivered by sea express due to its low transportation time and costs.
The linehaul-feeder vehicle routing problem with virtual depots and time windows (LFVRPTW) is a new version of city logistics. Four important issues are explored and fifteen sample examples used for demonstration. First, the LFVRPTW always yields better results than the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW). Second, LFVRPTW is advantageous compared with VRPTW. Third, more virtual depot (VD) candidates would yield a bit better results than fewer VD candidates. Fourth, less restricted time window constraints can yield significant benefit to the LFVRPTW. We also test the combined effect of VD candidates and time window constraints. We conclude that: (1) The LFVRPTW problem generally performs better than the VRPTW; (2) The LFVRPTW algorithm embedding the modified sequential insertion heuristic I1 is more effective than that containing the minimum cost insertion method; (3) For LFVRPTW, a looser time window constraint is more critical than the addition of more VD candidates.
Global environmental change has led to frequent climatic extremes. Along with resource allocation and preevacuation measures, transportation systems are crucial in disaster response and recovery, particularly emergent disaster logistics and island rescue. Intercity transportation is vital infrastructure for modern cities, providing access between cities and balancing the development of urban and rural areas. This study defined the indicators of intercity freight transport vulnerability according to node centrality, link importance, zone accessibility, and exposure. The empirical results demonstrated that the Taoyuan living perimeters, which encompasses a major airport and port, and generates substantial operating revenue, is extremely vulnerable because of high exposure and low accessibility, and that freeways are more vulnerable than railways. According to the empirical results, three recommendations are provided, namely enhancing connectivity between nodes, shifting the exposure of links, and balancing the industrial structure among zones.
Urgency and perishability are highlighted during relief operation after the 2011 great east Japan earthquake. Perish rate is influenced by several reasons including poor preserving facilities. This paper presents a dynamic programming model to optimize decisions (i.e., “how much and when to order”) for replenishing a perishable item facing declining demand and urgency. An exponential distribution of declining demand is adopted. The results of the model for exponential distribution demand is compared with that for linear declining demand. The proposed model exhibits a variation in replenishment intervals and order quantity. Herewith, total cost of inventory changes for urgency and perishability. In addition, the trend of delayed satisfied demand in planning horizon have patterns that do not depend on parameter values rather depends on declining demand distribution type.
Transition of domestic freight transportation volume has been tending to decrease in Japan, however the transaction of freight is increasing due to the growth of trading via internet. Logistics industry in Japan has been approaching a great period of change nowadays, which can be seen in the appearance of mega distribution centers, expanding to suburban areas of Tokyo metropolitan. There has been various research relating to identify location factors of freight facility, however it is known that location choice theory has complicated background. The goal of this research is to explore the location factors of freight facility and to forecast the high potential location area after the completion of Ken-O Expressway, using the data of Tokyo Metropolitan Region Freight Survey which was conducted in 2014. Applying the Logit Model and data aggregation, location of mega distribution centers and truck terminals have different features which can be explained by several factors.
This study aims to present the development of the intermodal road-RoRo transport in the Philippines and its current position in the domestic shipping market. A review of the Road-RoRo Terminal System (RRTS) is provided, as well as its development and impacts since implementation in the country. A questionnaire survey with freight forwarders as respondents was conducted to determine the cargo volume shares of intermodal transport. The survey also revealed that travel time followed by transport cost are the top influential attributes in choosing intermodal transport over inter-island shipping and air transport. Transport costs and travel times for transport from Manila to selected destinations were estimated and compared for the two modes, which give insight on the preference of intermodal transport for some of these destinations.
This study is to evaluate the impacts of transport infrastructure development on freight modal share. A national freight transport model was developed and used to evaluate the impacts. Scenarios tested were based on the Thai government's infrastructure plan and pricing policy. The study found that transport infrastructure development with pricing policy could achieve significantly modal shift from road to the alternatives. However, road transport share is still rather high. In order to achieve higher modal shift, rail network should be significantly expanded. Freight rail speed needs to be increased. Inland water way should also be expanded. Connection hubs between road and rail, and between road and inland water port are the key issue of modal shift. Moreover, pricing policy needs to be set up appropriately to encourage the modal shift and also to reflect externality costs.
Promoting more environmentally friendly modes, such as rail, has been a popular topic globally for decades. However, despite several attempts to promote a modal shift to rail, the Japan Freight Railway Company has run a deficit for many years. In the absence of effective policies an increase in the usage of rail freight is unlikely as the country has experienced a long economic recession and the population is declining. A modal choice model was constructed in order to analyze measures to revive domestic rail freight for shipments from the Chukyo Metropolitan Area. Rail is so rarely chosen in Japan that a general discrete choice model can't accurately estimate this tiny fraction. Hence, in this study we employ a method to increase the accuracy of predictions of a rare mode choice, such as rail freight in this study, and apply the model to evaluate some measures to encourage a modal shift from truck to rail.
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