Many countries have conducted various kinds of user satisfaction surveys for public transportation services. It is necessary to develop a methodology to understand how Likert scores represent a user's satisfaction. Satisfaction is a subjective indicator that depends on individual interpretation. For this study, we developed two such methodologies: "maximum satisfaction" and "ratio of satisfaction (ROS)." To evaluate maximum satisfaction, we developed bivariate ordered probit (BOP) models for user satisfaction with headway and access time using survey data from Korea. The ratio of maximum satisfaction to observed user satisfaction (i.e., ROS) provides valuable insight. Based on the ROS, caution should be exercised when interpreting the observed satisfaction level because the maximum satisfaction is not a perfect score of seven. Better understanding of users' attitudes and satisfaction will be essential to attracting more people to public transportation.
Trans Metro Bandung (TMB) is a public bus system planned to be a full BRT system, while at present it can be classified as a BRT-lite system. Since TMB did not have a dedicated right-of-way, an elaboration regarding its operational characteristics becomes important. This study aims to evaluate the operational characteristics of TMB in the second corridor. The operational characteristics are explained by travel time variability, passenger waiting time, bus headway, passenger arrival time, location of access and egress, and loading factor. Results of analyses show the impact of operation in mixed traffic and the deviance from basic features of BRT. This study also provides several lessons learned when planning a BRT system in developing cities, especially when applying staging strategy in the implementation.
Individuals strategically allocate time to maximize their benefits, however social exclusion curbs the freedom to allocate time as per one's choice. To have a holistic understanding of social exclusion, the effects of income poverty, gender, housing conditions, and access to ICT were tested along with various other socio-economic variables. Type II Tobit models were constructed for six different activity types using a time use survey conducted in Mumbai for 1192 individuals. It was observed that individuals who belonged to the high income group participated in lesser number of shopping activities, allocating more time towards it. Significant variations were not observed in female time use patterns engaged in in-home activities, residing in different settlement types. Occupation type together with vehicle ownership significantly affected the time use behaviour in slum rehabilitation housing. In addition, it was observed that ICT enabled people to engage in higher number of leisure activities of smaller durations.
Often marked with limited resources and chaotic situation, early, efficient and timely response of the disaster relief distribution could make a difference between life and death of the affected people whose resilience goes on decreasing with the delay or shortage of the lifeline supplies such as food, water, medicines and shelter. Under the limited resources case, it is possible that some shelters receive less attention of the relief distributors, than others. Therefore, this research presents a multi-period relief distribution model that links the delay or shortage of the relief goods with the decay in the resilience of the affected population, thereby attempting to get an equitable relief distribution. A two-tiered genetic algorithm is also developed to solve the proposed relief distribution model. Computational results confirm that the proposed model can ensure routing efficiency as well as minimizes the deprivation penalty related with the resilience and equity.
This study analyzes how different situations of transport disadvantage can lead to social exclusion, by using well-being indicators (life satisfaction, happiness, and optimism for the future) as outcomes of interest. Data were collected in three major cities of Bangladesh from 700 respondents, and regression models and binary logit models were estimated, where predictors describing travel behavior, transport-based social exclusion and use of time were employed. It is confirmed that the physical accessibility (easiness to use sidewalks and public spaces) together with age and time for working affect all the well-being indicators. Effects of geographical disadvantage (overpopulated urban districts and slums) and time-related disadvantages (longer travel times to work and trips out of the neighborhood), income and use of rickshaws were found to be influential to at least two well-being indicators. Safety-related issues affect happiness and no significant effects of the economic dimension (transport expenditure) on well-being were found.
Urban road networks are exposed to various natural hazard risks, such as flood and earthquake. For avoiding serious damages on road infrastructures caused by a natural hazard, it is necessary to invest in the road infrastructures within a limited budget in advance. Thus, this study proposes a model which allocates financial resources optimally to predefined riparian work zones for strengthening a road network against flood damage. The proposed model is formulated as a total costs minimization problem with equilibrium constraints about traffic flows. The average traffic flows are determined by a stochastic user equilibrium assignment model. In the model, the link travel time that follows a Gaussian mixture distribution considering possible rainfall intensities is addressed. Note that the proposed model considers the uncertainties about the road network, recovery time and states of each link. At the end, numerical calculations are conducted in a test network and the results are shown.
Land transport logistics is a backbone of manufacturing and industrial centers in the road-linked Indochina region. This paper investigates the application of road surface condition analysis to benefit logistics, manufacturing and retail industries. Specifically, it intends to characterize road surface conditions based on the existence of road anomalies and other factors. A concept of a system for safe transport of products is described, and a result of an experiment is provided. The results showed that time-domain and frequency-domain analyses are necessary to detect potential causes of product damages. The time-domain analysis is appropriate for detecting shocks attributed to potholes; however, road segments with anomalies such as patch and gap showed similar characteristics with road not having anomaly. By utilizing wavelet analysis, it is shown that these road segments have exhibited different power variations in specific frequency range.
The purpose of this research is to compare results of Dynamic Traffic Assignment models with to traditional Static Models during Road Vulnerability Analyses. It is hypothesised that Dynamic Assignment models will improve vulnerability analyses results compared to Static Assignment models as it is able to consider temporal effects of traffic. Vulnerability Analyses are conducted for area disruption cases (multiple links affected) with 99% link capacity reduction. Disruption areas are assigned randomly and are the same size for all cases. NEXTA software is used for both assignment models in the case study area of West Jordan, Utah. A total of 256 cases during the AM peak and PM peak periods are simulated using four different queue models. Results showed an insignificant difference of average travel time increase and overall demand during disruptions between Dynamic and Static assignment models for most cases.
The market share of the retail industry and processed food in Vietnam has grown in recent years along with consumer demand for food with high quality and safety standards, and the supply chain structure is changing massively. Rice is the main agricultural product in Vietnam and the comprehensive improvement of the rice supply chain is expected. This study clarifies the structure of the rice supply chain and processed food made from rice, including the mode share of transport volume in the Red River Delta, based on face-to-face interviews. Many intermediate actors were found in the rice supply chain, such as collectors, agencies, and general agencies located in producing areas and distributors and regional agencies in consuming areas. Actors mainly use motorcycles and homemade three-wheeled motorcycles in producing areas and 0.5-ton trucks in consuming areas. Buses are used to carry low volumes over long distances.
The massive tsunami generated by East Japan great earthquake disaster brought serious damage in the Pacific coastal area of the Tohoku district. As the results, is becomes clear that evacuation using car is not always safer evacuation method against tsunami. Horikiri district of Tahara city in Aichi prefecture was focused on in this study. Because it was estimated that a tsunami with 1 meter height will attack this district within 12 minutes after the occurrence of Nankai trough earthquake and the residents in this district are needed to execute quick evacuation. The evacuation simulation was executed to evaluate several scenarios of evacuation condition where the share of the evacuation method was altered. As a result of this study, it becomes clear that the excessive car evacuees make the evacuation in this district less safe and that the increase of bicycle evacuees makes it safer.
Alternate traffic routes are crucial in road networks because car users are given opportunities to avoid congested roads. Meanwhile, the outcome of natural disasters can make road networks vulnerable because it can decrease the entire network’s performance. This paper assessed the vulnerability of alternate traffic routes in Metro Manila to flooding. The Mabuhay Lanes (ML), designed to redirect traffic from busy roads in Metro Manila, were assessed in terms of robustness and serviceability. The assessment noted three Mabuhay Lanes as the most vulnerable in coping with the impacts of flooding affecting the entire network. Compared to the base condition, these routes had a 23 to 32% increase in link costs and traffic volume. In terms of network serviceability, ML2 is the most vulnerable because it has the most links along the route (60%) that are affected by flood waters.
Since privatized from Japan Highway Public Corporation in 2005, three Nippon Expressway Companies (NEXCOs) have surveyed the customer satisfaction for more than ten years. The score of satisfaction is one of the key performance indicators which explain the difference between customers' expectation and experience. This paper shows the change of satisfaction during the decade and possible factors affecting the result of survey. We confirmed that network extensions and facility improvements increased the satisfaction scores. Aging respondents also helped to increase the score. On the other hand, the negative effects were from an earthquake and a major accident. There is a combination of positive and negative effects that changes the satisfaction scores over the years.
This paper presents a history of rail-based transportation in Metropolitan Manila. This history focuses on urban transport including rail-based streetcars or trams that started operations in the 1880's but were destroyed during the Second World War and never to be revived. Several plans are discussed. Among these plans are proposals for a monorail network, a heavy rail system, and the more current rail transit plans from recent studies like MMUTIS. An assessment of public transportation in Metro Manila is presented with emphasis on the counterfactual scenario of what could have been a very different metropolis if people could commute using an extensive rail transit system compared to what has been realized so far for the metropolis. Recommendations for the way forward for rail transportation in Metro Manila and further studies are stated in conclusion.
The Great East Japan Earthquake dramatically changed the image of earthquakes and tsunamis of Japan. The concept of tsunami disaster prevention measures was also changed with the viewpoint of "to evacuate" becoming more important. This study focused on the relationship of evacuation distance and inhabitants' degree of peace of mind, considering the change of the degree of peace of mind due to the modification of the evacuation conditions. As a result of the change in conditions, in Kushiro city, the inhabitants' degree of peace of mind is very low, especially concerning individuals who cannot evacuate independently. This study revealed that the daily preparation for earthquakes can improve the degree of peace of mind and revealed the importance of the state of tsunami evacuation planning in Kushiro city.
In socialist countries, centralized political structures had implemented planned economy system for many years, where capital and labor were allocated evenly based on national plans. Especially, transportation networks must have played important roles in distributing goods. The paper collected data of railway transportation construction development in Russia including Soviet Era to understand regional development difference and analyzed the tendency of it by making a difference model using industrial production value, regional population and railway infrastructure length. As a result, we found that there was a huge regional difference in railway development despite of the evenness. To understand the difference, we considered several geopolitical reasons in addition to economic reasons that might prove their decisions were rational.
This paper proposes a stochastic linear mixed-integer programming model for flood evacuation planning to optimize decision related to shelter site selection under a hierarchical evacuation concept and probabilistic scenarios. The proposed model considers two criteria as objective function: travel distance and risk index of shelter. This paper not only provides flood shelters and distribution of communities but also determines hierarchical evacuation concept, evacuee's behavior, financial constraint, and uncertainty of flood events. Since problem is formulated, the epsilon constraint approach is selected to solve this problem. We validate the mathematical model by generating a base case scenario using numerical data for Chiang Mai, Thailand. The results are proposed and discussed which represent several alternatives to decision makers. This paper will be great significance in helping decision makers consider the spatial aspect of the strategic placement of flood shelters and flood evacuation planning under uncertainty of flood scenarios.
The objective of this study is to investigate travelers' adjustment to natural disasters. Japan's 2015 Kanto-Tohoku heavy-rainfall disaster caused severe network disruption. However, due to quick recovery by road administrators, most of the network-closure points recovered within a week. In addition, the authorities started providing specific information concerning traffic congestion to travelers via road signs. Data related to changes in the travelers' access traffic information and plan their travel were collected over two periods: (1) immediately after the disaster and (2) in the longer term. It was observed that the number of respondents who accessed specific information and departed as usual increased with the progress in disaster recovery. In addition, the results revealed that respondents' socio-demographic features and travel behavior in the immediate aftermath of the disaster were significantly correlated with their changes in accessing information and making decisions to plan their travel in the later period.
This study aims to investigate public's perception towards electric vehicles (EVs) in the context of Singapore by means of survey. Specifically, some unique characteristics such as public's awareness of national incentives, e.g., carbon emission-based vehicle scheme (CEVS), are identified as potential influential factors. The stepwise regression analysis is employed to select a best set of factors for the estimation of respondents' purchasing intention of EVs by a multiple linear regression model. Unlike other countries, we find that the two most influential attributes are the high cost of Certificate of Entitlement (COE) and purchase price of EV, whereas only a minority of respondents list the driving range as their major concern. The resale value of EV is an important consideration for majority of respondents. Moreover, compared with normal charging at public stations, Singaporeans are likely to preform fast charging and home charging. Finally, several recommendations are provided to facilitate EVs' deployment.
General trains, characterized by high accessibility, are heavily influenced by competing transportation methods, railroad policies, and environmental change. Thus, the development of a direct demand estimation model that can comprehensively reflect external environmental factors that impact passenger demand is required. This study has selected external determining factors that influence the demand for each train line based on the Saemaul Line, a line that exemplifies the general train lines in Korea, and followed by the construction of a direct demand estimation model based on the gravity model. This study analyzes the influence of the determining factors of railway fare and travel time. The results of the elasticity analysis on railway fare and travel time indicate that general train passengers are more sensitive to railway fares unlike the passengers of high-speed trains who emphasize the value of time. The analysis results can be used as basic data for line-specific train operation planning.
Under the assumption that the society is made up of selfish individuals, the increase in social utility can be achieved by guiding the individual selfishness to be aligned with the common good rather than naively publicizing the importance of following the traffic laws or using public transportation. In this paper traffic congestion issue is explained through game theoretic approach and getting to the equilibrium point is also explained. Policy measures are regarded as altering the utility functions of transport game and their consequences are analyzed in order to get to social optimum.
The provision of passenger through trains is beneficial to both railway companies and passengers. However, railway companies provide passenger through train services differently and with divergent aims in Japan when compared with those in EU countries. In Japan, the integrated railway companies provide passenger through trains with cooperation, and they divide the operational responsibilities clearly at the border station. Conversely, the EU tries to promote through train services across the border on the basis of vertical separation to introduce competition between operators. Even though Japanese rail policies are not aimed at introducing competition on the track, the number of cases of through train services has been increasing substantially and these trains have been operated smoothly and safely. Provided railway operators do not need to follow EU rail policies, it seems worthwhile to learn lessons from Japanese experiences to promote passenger through train services.
The development of sustainable transport system is a major challenge for urban areas. Benchmarking is a well-recognized tool for continuous improvement to achieve sustainability in urban areas. It is one of the various initiatives adopted by different developed nations around the world. This paper is an attempt to conduct comparative study of evaluating performance of urban transport system in selected three Indian cities. A standardized method of developing composite index using set of indicators, Performance Indicators, is adopted. Performance indicators are developed using secondary data related to the relevant set of indicators. Results of the study showed that the cities having better modal share of sustainable modes are at the top with greater index values. The key contribution of the paper lies in a comparative analysis among cities, facilitating better understanding about city- specific sustainability issues with highlighted need of reliable and authentic data.
Rising mobility needs, coupled with the declining level of service of public transportation, has led to worsening congestion and commuting difficulties in urban centers. Ridesourcing transport modes, which allow commuters to book trips through their smartphones, have become popular as an innovative strategy to address these issues. This paper seeks to describe the characteristics of ridesourcing transport modes operating in Metro Manila (Philippines) and evaluate the effect of regulations on their service characteristics. The paper also evaluated the potential contribution of these innovative modes to the promotion of sustainable transportation using four factors: efficiency, safety, affordability, and congestion reduction. The Study establishes that the top reasons commuters use these Transportation Network Vehicle System (TNVS) are convenience, safety, and improved reliability and shorter waiting time. The Study concludes that there is still a need for regulators to supervise its operations to ensure consumer protection.
In Vietnam, a developing country with a large number of motorcycles along with a rapidly increasing number of cars, the authorities give priority to the development of public transport. However, there is a huge gap between reality and planning and so far the results are below expectation. The paper is to introduce a public transport authority (PTA) which has mechanisms and policies to ensure the promotion of public transportation and to close the gap between planning and implementation. A case study of Hai Phong city was employed to carry out an analysis of current traffic and public transportation; and to describe the setup and phasing of the PTA. It was proposed to introduce parking fees in the city center for both cars and motorcycles which may render sufficient revenues to cover both the expenses of the PTA and the indispensable subsidies for transport operation.
This study suggests the concept of social inclusion of public transport, with emphasis on measuring and evaluating the inclusion of mobile rights as a prerequisite for socioeconomic activities. Social inclusion levels are assessed using two measures of spatial and temporal accessibility of the public transport system. Experiments were carried out to verify the method of assessing social inclusion using detailed traffic and geographic information data for 162 cities in Korea. Clustering was used to identify regional inequalities as a measure of social inclusiveness as well as the black and underserved areas of public transport services. The results show that the social inclusion of public transport systems is much better in metropolitan areas with higher population density than rural areas with lower population density. The concept of social inclusion through public transportation is expected to play an important role in establishing the transportation policy direction to secure the basic mobility right.
This study proposes a marginal-cost pricing model for the congestion pricing problem under different users' attributes and their influence on the system's total cost. The primary objective is to investigate the effects of the current double tolling policy during congested periods of the national freeway system in Taiwan. The proposed model solves the differential pricing problem by the marginal cost pricing theory under different user characteristics with varying external costs and values of time. The results of the numerical analysis indicate that the toll ceiling by law needs to be relaxed so that the ultimate goal of social welfare maximization can be achieved, and the marginal-cost pricing strategies have an effect on reducing traffic congestion by encouraging users with a high price elasticity to switch to alternative routes. The results found in this study should have implications for the government offices in preparing a desirable tolling policy.
The patterns of economic activities in the Seoul metropolitan area differ from those in other areas of South Korea. Daily commuting trips take a longer time in the capital area, while the percentage of commuting trips is also higher. However, in the current guidelines used to evaluate infrastructure projects, the benefit of travel time savings is derived simply from dividing trip purpose into business and non-business, without considering the regional characteristics of such trips. Accordingly, this study recalculates the value of travel time by reflecting current trip behaviors in the Seoul metropolitan area. This study shows two findings. First, there is a strong evidence that calculating the value of travel time for business, nonbusiness, and commuting trips is better than adopting the two trip purposes. Second, the calculated values of travel time based on these three trip purposes are shown to be higher than the values in the current guidelines.
This study is aimed to analyze illegal parking behaviors in Hanoi City, a typical motorcycle dominant city in Asia. Firstly, the study reviews various factors influencing parking and illegal parking behaviors in motorcycle dominant cities. Secondly, a field investigation is carried out to understand the existing status of parking supply and regulations in the city, particularly in the Old Quarter area. Thirdly, a questionnaire interview survey is conducted to capture the most important factors that contribute to the illegal parking behavior in the city. Totally 360 parking users are interviewed, including both legal and illegal parking users, and motorcycle and car users. Finally, the study suggests solutions to address the illegal parking in particular and improve parking system in general.
This study investigates the preferences of freeway users regarding various rewards programs and their effects on early departure time by using Logit and multi-level interval regression models based on the Cumulative Prospect theory (CPT). Four rewards programs are designed and compared. The estimation results for the rewards program choice model confirm the CPT theory that freeway users are risk averse on reward winning and overestimate low winning probability but underestimate high winning probability. Additionally, male and young drivers favor the program with high reward amount but low winning probability, while high-educated users prefer moderate rewards programs. All rewards programs have significant and positive effect on early departure behaviors. Freeway users who are allowed to choose their own preferred rewards programs are willing to depart 21.7 and 78.4 minutes earlier for weekday and weekend trips, respectively, implying the effectiveness of rewards effect in congestion relief.
As one approach to reach a transit-friendly city, many of policy makers are trying to measure user satisfaction with their public transportation service since the performance of their policy instruments can be readily evaluated by it. In line with the approach, we aim to identify and prioritize the transit service factors associated with user satisfaction. To achieve this aim, firstly, a survey on Koreans' satisfaction with public transportation was conducted. Secondly, the entire survey dataset was segmented into four cases by two dichotomous segmentation variables: transfer service experience and information service usage. Finally, we present the SEM estimation results with their implication. The result showed that 'Operation Service' was the most influential service factor determining Koreans' satisfaction following by 'Providing Information Service'. In other words, policy makers should give top priority to the two services in order to effectively improve Korean public transportation service based on Koreans' perceived satisfaction.
This paper uses empirical data to estimate the subjective value of travel time (VOTT) for commuting trips in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study team (including the authors) collected data regarding travel episodes and stated preferences on modal choice for home-to-work/school trips and individual attributes through a face-to-face interview-based questionnaire survey in Hanoi, Vietnam in December 2016. Respondents were requested to answer a series of hypothetical modal choice questions, where two options of motorbike or bus under specific combinations of cost and time were presented. Then, binary logit models were estimated using 6,096 sample data collected from 762 respondents. The results show that the estimated average VOTT is 257.4 VND/min, and the value increases for higher-income subgroups. The estimated VOTT of commuting trips is approximately 43.7% of the average wage rate, which is similar to the corresponding values for other developed countries.
This paper examines the energy cost saving by adopting plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Toyota City, Japan. Two types of sample data are used in this study, the probe data of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and person trip survey data. The probe data collected in the social experiment of Smart City in Toyota City are used to propose estimation formulations for electricity and gasoline consumption rates for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The person trip survey data collected in 2011 are used to understand the travel distance of ordinary motor cars in Toyota City. The major findings suggest that 1) approximate 81% of vehicles can save energy cost by 85% in workday, and 70% of vehicles can save 85% of energy cost in holiday. 2) 12% of vehicles can save energy amount more than 500 Yen in workday, and 22% of vehicles can save the same amount in holiday.
Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) was designed to be a free-flowing road but the problem of congestion is experienced there nowadays. With this, various traffic management schemes have been implemented by the government to resolve, if not, minimized the traffic congestion. One of the new proposed solutions of the government is the removal of provincial buses and its terminal along EDSA. Under this resolution, the provincial buses and its terminal will be placed outside Metro Manila. This study determined the potential effects of the said resolution to the daily commuters and to the bus operator. Survey questionnaires are used to gather data and collect data. The researchers applied Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test to determine if there is a significant difference between two presented cases: current condition and anticipated scenario. Through this, the researchers determined the potential effects of the proposed removal of south provincial buses along EDSA.
Based on stated preference (SP) data collected in Ho Chi Minh City, this paper applied a latent class (LC) - standard ordered response model (SORM) to explore attitude of respondents towards Park-and-Ride (P&R) and Transportation-Eco-Point (TEP) policies. The LC model assigned the respondents into "altruistic" and "selfish" classes. Then, the SORM determined the respondents' attitude for each class. In the model, some latent variables estimated from multiple-indicators multiple-causes (MIMIC) model were also considered. Generally, the people with less knowledge, less appropriateness and less recognition of the effects of the new policy belong to the selfish class. It was revealed that the price of prepaid shopping ticket (PPT) and return ratio of TEP (RRT) play very important roles in the respondents' attitude for both altruistic selfish class. In addition, our results suggest that the RRT of 15% and PPT from 0.3 to 0.4 million VND would satisfy both users and government.
This paper empirically investigates the impacts of the 3-in-1 policy on the choice of travel mode of the local people in Jakarta, Indonesia, using survey data collected in 2002. Two hypotheses regarding the transportation choices of potential drivers and potential passengers in the context of household joint travel are developed and tested empirically with two models: the multinomial-logit-based individual decision model and the binary-logit-based household joint decision model. The results show that household members make decisions about travel modes jointly rather than independently. They also reveal that the 3-in-1 policy motivates potential drivers from low-income households to use transportation modes other than cars, but this is not so in high-income households. Furthermore, the results show that the 3-in-1 policy provides an incentive for potential passengers from high-income households to choose cars as the travel mode, but this is not the case for low-income households.
Thailand is currently facing rapid growth in the proportion of its aging population, especially in Bangkok. The general concern is that difficulty in daily transportation for elderly people might limit their ability to travel and participate in society, leading to the problem of social exclusion. This study investigated the process that leads to feelings of social exclusion as caused by unsatisfactory transportation, an issue which has received little attention in Southeast Asian countries. Based on Structural Equation Modeling approach, the results of 237 samples collected from elderly users of private cars and ground public transport living in Bangkok indicated that dissatisfaction with driving and the use of public transport generated gaps between actual and desired trip frequencies to engage in social activities, leading to social participation deficits and the subsequent result of feeling social exclusion. Implementation was raised in an effort to remedy feelings of social exclusion among the elderly.
Investment in the transport sector constitutes a significant part of the total investment. This is especially factual in the case of developing nations, where transport is the catalyst for all round development and is one of the basic infrastructures. The traffic forecasting for any particular road depends upon the population in the influence zone, per capita income, Gross domestic product (GDP). So perceptive the travel characteristics of the traffic using a particular stretch is important for forecasting. Road Side Interview (RSI) technique is one of the Origin - Destination survey methods to identify the zone of influence. RSI is the best method which gives the travel pattern of the vehicles at micro level for the calculation of traffic growth rates using Econometric models. In this paper, an attempt has been made to utilize the RSI data analysis results for the calculation of traffic growth rates for Sambalpur - Jharsuguda section of SH-10 in the state of Odisha (India).
In recent years, travel time reliability of urban railway in Tokyo metropolitan area has decreased and it becomes a social problem in transportation system in this area. There were many studies investigating this problem from various aspects. This study investigated a statistical distribution of the gap between desired arrival time and actual arrival time of railway commuters. Online survey was conducted to obtain the information on the arrival situation such as arrival early, arrival on time, and arrival late. The distribution of arrival situation was identified by applying Kernel density estimation method. Moreover, expected utility regarding the departure time decision was formulated and it was determined. Meanwhile, the departure time was dependent on the amount of buffer time. Therefore, statistical distribution of the buffer time was estimated by applying the Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation method.
This paper attempts to propose a method to measure and evaluate the network performance by identifying regions with serious mismatch problems between travel demand and transport network services. Performance measures that include temporal, spatial and travel time reliability are generated from travel information in the form of GPS data. Results show that the proposed approach produces better and more accurate results than the ones in the literature. The results of standard deviation and coefficient variation of the identified regions based on the variation of average speed, travel time, and the amount of trips yield a higher reliability for the proposed approach.
The widely used BPR (Bureau of Public Roads) function or volume-delay function (VDF) have some inherent drawbacks where the function should satisfy the representation of the model to the reality. This paper discusses how the calibrated parameters in the BPR function bring improved results of the network assignment by taking an example on the network assignment model in a central business district (CBD) area called Bonifacio Global City (BGC) in Manila, the Philippines. The study area is a newly developed business area where both vehicular traffic and transit are to be well considered in the BGC model. Final recommendation suggested by the paper is to decrease the values of the existing parameters following the Federal Highway Association guideline that sets smaller parameters values. It is proved that the difference of delay between the assignment result and the observation is significantly reduced as the process of calibration is executed.
This paper aims at developing better trip production/attraction models by adding new independent variables which were overlooked in SITRAMP, a master plan study for the Jakarta Metropolitan Area, and by taking more convincing procedures in selecting variables from a statistical point of view. OLS regression models were employed for modeling based on the Gauss-Markov conditions. In most of the new models which are estimated by purpose and income group, the number of independent variables has increased after careful selection of variables based on their significance. Also, automobile ownership is added to the models to be used as an important input to the production/attraction models. Although further research is necessary for actual application of the models, it is hoped that the revised models will contribute to improvement of the first step of the travel demand modeling, which is a "key" process that affects the methods and outputs in the subsequent steps.
Japan International Cooperation Agency in 2012 has conducted a research regarding multi-airport systems in Greater Jakarta which stated that a new airport should be operating in this metropolitan area by 2019 to accommodate future demand. According to the 2012 study, no airports except Soekarno-Hatta Airport were able to handle commercial flights in the city due to regulatory and environmental issues. However, this is not the case. Halim Perdanakusuma Airport, now a secondary airport, has been operating commercially since 2014 and another secondary airport, Pondok Cabe Airport, has the potential to be operational in the future. New air demand forecasts and air traffic distributions with different scenarios have been produced and analysed to reflect current situation in Greater Jakarta. The result of these analyses differs from the Japan International Cooperation Agency study and shows that the operation of the new airport can now be postponed until 2022 at the earliest.
Pick-up/drop-off (P&D) trips for children at school are often made on the way to and/or from work, forming a complex tour pattern. The existence of such tour complexity could be a major barrier to the shift from car/motorcycle to public transport, since spatio-temporal constraints of public transport are usually higher than those of the private mode. In such situation, people could shift to public transport only when (1) the school is located close to public transport stations, or (2) the child can go to school alone. The former may require some land use policies, and the latter may need a safe and secure transport mode for children, such as school bus. This study was aimed to examine the impacts of distance from station to school on parent's commuting mode choice decision where P&D trips needs to be done on the way to and from work, by using the stated preference survey data collected in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in 2016. Our results indicate that location of school would be one of the biggest barriers for MRT use and relocation of school around MRT stations (under 800m) would allow respondents to conduct P&D trips on way to and from work by MRT.
The Activity-based approach has been widely accepted as a more realistic alternative to conventional aggregated trip-based travel demand models with better capability to model individual activity-travel choice behaviors. Attention has recently been given to the relationship between home-work-home activity durations and workers' travel times to develop activitybased models to estimate their activity and travel choices for long-term transport planning. The traditional household interview survey data from the Travel Characteristics Survey (TCS) conducted in Hong Kong in 2011 is used in this paper. With this, we assess the effects of travel times (including departure times to and from work) on the activity durations of workers in Hong Kong. On the basis of these findings, an activity-based model is calibrated to quantify the temporal utility functions of the home-work-home activities of workers. Finally, insightful findings on the data analysis and model results are given in conclusions together with recommendations for further study.
This study argues the activity based model (ABM) simulation can increase its traffic demand predictability by assimilating the Population Distribution estimated from Mobile Phone network data (PDMP) on the central district of Tokyo. ABM has developed to forecast the travel demand in the last twenty years. It, however, faces still some challenges over its validity in forecasting characteristics of activities. Meanwhile, Mobile Network Operators (MNO) has started providing the population estimate on census meshes based on PDMP. MNO presents the observation of the time-sliced population in zones, while the ABM is to forecast the popular traffic demand for certain period. This study will assimilate AMB and PDMP to improve the validity of traffic demand forecast. We found that such assimilation did improve the usefulness of the ABM.
The purpose of this research is to empirically analyze the characteristics and levels of stress experienced by the elderly when they travel by public transport. The levels of stress are indicated using bio-signals. Bio-signal data were collected from the experiments where the elderly group and the young group traveled 2-hour trips, using the subway and bus. Each subject wore a set of equipment that includes sensors to measure ECG signals and 3-axis acceleration speed, and a goggle-type CCD camera to record surrounding conditions. The stress experienced in using public transport was indicated by formulating the variability of several indices such as BPM, the standard deviation of RRI and LF/HF ratio. The results show that the physical activities and resultant stress of the elderly were less varied when they were using public transport. This study shows that there are clear differences in the stress experienced by the elderly and the young.
The main objective of this paper is to study the mode choice behavior of tourist by using Binary Logit Model. Two trip routes chosen for this research were Ho Chi Minh City - Nha Trang and Ho Chi Minh City - Da Nang, Vietnam. Air transportation and railway transportation were taken into account for modeling the mode choice model. The findings showed that socio-economic factors (e.g. Family income, Age of respondent) and trip characteristics (e.g. Total travel time, Budget of the trip) affected the choice of means of transport of visitor in both routes. In addition, some elements, which visitors suggested like Health status, Service Quality, Extreme event, Travel insurance, Type of Planning and Tourist Group Size, should also be concerned and given attention. The results of research initially supported the researchers and authorities in forecasting and managing travel demand as well as planning and adjusting economic and transport policy.
In the past, bus service planning in metropolitan area was a crucial procedure of bus operators, private organizations, or local governments. One of the important topics of bus service improvement is of course how to understand the actual users' decisions, or strong points with which they can attract the users to their bus, in other words. However, there are only a small minority of users announce their thoughts directly. Therefore, in order to understand user's likes or dislikes, we use a time series data analysis technique to large e-ticket data. In order to obtain user's decisions derived from e-ticket system, we propose this new method to cluster the users via user behavior. User behavior transition map is to be drawn from continuous behavior transition data. A quantitative evaluation of user's decisions will be shown in the transition result, and therefore can target cluster by cluster to realize each need.
Generally, relief inventory models assume uniform or normally distributed demand pattern and planning horizon for those models is unbounded. However, relief demand becomes zero after certain period. This study formulates a relief inventory model for a limited relief operation period. Secondary hub collects relief from primary hub and then distributes those relief items to local distribution center. A large stock of relief items in a secondary hub is not rational and may causes shortage in other affected areas. Therefore, inventory replenishment strategy is proposed for different types of demand distributions by changing parameter values. It is found that the system cost for all parameter values is stable. The order quantity in each replenishment cycle varies and has a certain pattern. A sensitivity analysis for several parameters are also presented.
This paper presents an analysis of how rainfall intensity influences the mode choice and departure time of CBD work-to-home commuters in Metro Manila, Philippines. After collection of data through a questionnaire survey, the analysis shows that heavy and intense rainfall significantly changes the fare, travel time, walk time, waiting time, reliability, comfort and safety of the modes servicing the CBD. The level of switching to other alternative public transport modes is at 17.67%, 39.33% and 44.67% during light rain, heavy rain and intense rain respectively. GrabCar/Uber gains the most patronage while FX/van loses the most as rainfall intensity increases. The need for a more comfortable mode is the most prominent attribute that affects the shifting in all rainfall conditions. In addition, 67% of commuters opt to leave the office at a different time than usual when there is heavy rain and this increases further to 72% during intense rains.