This paper first introduces the concept and the status quo of Multinational Operators for Local Transport Services (MOLTS) such as Arriva, Keolis, Transdev, and Veolia Transport which operate public transport in a number of countries. Their operation in the European context, including American and Oceanic, is encouraged by four motivations, namely: their business model itself as ”Low-Risk, Low-Profit Business with Authorities”; size and nature of the MOLTS; legislative unity to enable the “Low-risk, Low-profit Business with Authorities”; and specialized feature of the MOLTS for tram. Thereafter, the Asian context is analyzed, in which the MOLTS focuses on the development of the urban railway network. The “Low-risk, Low-profit Business with Authorities” foundation is not established overall but possible in some regions. Specialized features are appearing in railway operations in Asia.
The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between bus drivers' job satisfaction and the resulting service quality using the survey data in Korea. From the data analyzed, significant differences in job satisfaction among groups with various pay levels were observed, which may result in inconsistent service quality. To increase bus drivers' job satisfaction and hence, improve service quality, it is recommended that a company should establish job stability, enforce fair policies, enhance employee benefits and encourage individual accomplishment. In addition, a bus company should increase its pay level satisfaction which is not highly correlated with the absolute pay level but rather the relative pay level when compared with that of other companies. Also, it has been shown that the accident rate is inversely proportional to the sufficiency of rest facilities provided by a bus company.
Closed form logit models were used to estimate the impact of the proposed fx megataxi express service on transport mode choices of urban travelers in Metro Manila. Eight urban transport modes in the choice set were considered in the multinomial logit, two-level and three-level nested logit models that were used. In the three-level nested logit model, the modes are basically divided into - private (car-driving, car-passenger and regular taxi) and public, with the latter further split into – airconditioned (light rail, airconditioned bus and fx megataxi) and non-airconditioned (jeepney and non-airconditioned bus). Depending on the point of origin and destination as well as points of transfer of the urban traveler, the proposed fx megataxi express service may or may not affect the individual's mode choices. The analysis looks at whether the fx megataxi is retained as the traveler's mode choice, or part of the traveler's choice set, or is totally replaced by other, competing modes.
With high number of motorcycles, traffic congestion in Phnom Penh is inevitable. In addition, a formal public transport such as bus service is not yet available. In order to introduce an efficient bus service, an understanding of passengers' behavior towards bus service attributes is necessary. In this study commuters' stated behavior towards a new bus service is investigated using a systematic experimental design and stated preference analysis. Several bus service attributes are considered, namely, bus fare, bus headway, walking time, and bus comfort. Statistical models are developed to analyze passengers' trade-offs between each attribute and to shed some lights on factors contributing to potential mode change. The findings of this research are expected to further the understanding of passengers' viewpoint on bus service attributes and the results can be used in strategic planning for establishing a proper bus service in the city.
This study is concerned with estimation of the probable shift of personal vehicle users to bus due to the increase in its level of service as a result of the provision of exclusive bus lanes on Indian city roads. The quantum of increase in level of service of bus due to introduction of exclusive bus lanes was determined using a recently developed simulation model for heterogeneous traffic flow. The data on the other factors (variables) that might cause modal shift from personal vehicles to bus were collected through home-interview survey using a stated preference approach. Mode-choice models to explain the shift behaviour of the users of motorised two-wheelers, auto-rickshaws, and cars to buses are developed. Modal shift probability curves are also developed to serve as a user friendly tool to analyze the probable modal shift for a wide range of the variables.
Focusing on the household behavior of vehicle holding duration and annual traveling distance, this study proposes a Copula-based Multivariate Survival (CMS) model to capture the interdependence between these two behaviors. The copulas can be applied to the multivariate models to accommodate various correlation structures. This study applies the widely-used copulas in other research fields, including Normal, Gumbel, Clayton, and Frank copulas, and explores how these copulas could fit the data in this study. An empirical analysis is carried out based on web-survey data obtained in the Chugoku region of Japan in 2006. Model estimation results confirm the effectiveness of the suggested CMS model form both model performance and applicability. Comparative analyses of the different types of copulas support the use of the Clayton copula, and the relevant CMS estimates that vehicle holding duration and vehicle use are significantly correlated with each other.
A downpour disaster that occurred on the evening of September 11, 2000 seriously damaged the traffic network in Nagoya city. It also created many problems in traffic management and information services. In this study, we explored the return-home behavior of people during disasters; in particular, we analyzed individual behavior and awareness of disaster prevention in a future downpour among public transportation users through a questionnaire survey. The subjects of the survey were mainly people who travel on foot and/or public transportation users. The results showed that many people were obliged to change their destination due to the suspension of railroad services or to return home on foot. We show that we can control reckless journeys of homebound citizens during disasters, and thus, ensure their safety.
This study proposes a “soft” measure, “the Rat-runner MM (Mobility Management),” against through traffic problems that is implemented by residents, and analyzes its effectiveness. The authors conducted a social experiment along a residential street with heavy traffic. Communication tools developed with socio psychological knowledge were distributed to rat-runners. From the questionnaire survey, it was found that the communication tools distributed during the experiment made the rat-runners aware that through traffic causes nuisances to neighborhoods. A follow-up survey conducted one month after the experiment showed the rat-runners' improved behavior. Meanwhile, traffic volume on the residential street decreased by about 10% after the experiment. An attitude survey conducted for residents found that the Rat-runner MM did not face any resistance unlike other hard measures that were proposed for implementation along the residential street.