Tsurubuchi-Gentôho (The Magic Lantern Shop Tsurubuchi) was one of the first shops that manufactured and sold Western Magic Lantern at the request of the Ministry of Education in the Meiji era. Recently, this shop’s journal, which had a great influence on the spread of Magic Lantern of the Meiji period, was discovered. Mainly with reference to this journal, I verify realities during business such as manufacturing, advertising and selling, and also look into the way to utilize a buyer through the magazine for children Shônen-sekai published by Hakubunkan which is one of the buyers.
Through these verifications, I clarify the one end of the unorganized media as social pedagogy business. For the Magic Lantern which was sold in Tsurubuchi was an essential educational tool for the Meiji government whose aim was to enhance the formation of people as a modern state.
In this paper, I would like to analyze the neglected practices of the Magic Lantern that was related to other media, the technical aspects, and the examples of use from the point of view of manufacturer, salespeople and users, and find out the role played by the Magic Lantern in the Meiji Era by the method of media archeology.
This paper sheds new light on the principle of the Dialogue Cutting Point (CP) in Ozu’s The Flavor of Green Tea over Rice (1952) in relation to character dynamics in the diegetic world of this film. That is, to explore how Ozu, who was under a strong influence of silent film, devised his own norms of the talkies. While the previous studies tend to treat the film from an auteur theory point of view, this paper attempts to reconsider it within a broader analytical framework.
David Bordwell argues that Ozu forced his actors to pause for a measured interval between lines, and set his CP after they finished speaking a line. However, this argument is not sufficient to explain Ozu’s principle because Bordwell’s perspective misses several important aspects of this film. In fact, Ozu sets his CP before they have spoken and sets some scenes that the last word of the speaker’s line overlaps the following shot of the listener. Therefore, he tries to represent the speaker’s psychological dominance over his/her listener by analogizing such a relationship with their mutual one constructed within a narrative level. This psychological pressure can also be considered to be a result of the exertion of authority of “acousmêtre déjà-vu,” which is a voice that cannot be restricted within a body supposed as its audio source. The analysis of the relationship between such a voice and shots will present a new approach for investigating film sound.
In Johnny Belinda (Jean Negulesco, 1948), Jane Wyman, who plays the deaf-mute heroine, Belinda McDonald, does not speak even a word throughout the film. Emphasizing this aspect of the film, previous studies have taken up this film as a typical example of film melodrama or the woman’s film of the 1940s.
One of the important themes of this film, however, is that Belinda learns sign language, which is totally distinct from non-verbal gesture often seen in melodrama. This means that a male doctor in this film, Robert Richardson, has a different role from other male doctors of the woman’s film of the 1940s, whose role is to embody authority and to articulate a heroine’s trauma and truth that she herself cannot verbalize. Therefore, by analyzing the status of his words, this paper attempts to reveal that he is also marginalized from the dominant society as is Belinda. Then I argue that Belinda, Robert, and others who speak minor languages unite in the final sequence, in an attempt to establish a new community of their own keeping a certain distance from the dominant society rather than either fitting into it or completely cutting off themselves. Finally, I discuss the dual nature of the ending and articulate both anxiety and hope their attempt entails.