The interaction of pinostrobin (PS), a multitherapeutic agent with serum albumins of various mammalian species namely, goat, bovine, human, porcine, rabbit, sheep and dog was investigated using fluorescence quench titration and competitive drug displacement experiments. Analysis of the intrinsic fluorescence quenching data revealed values of the association constant, Ka in the range of 1.49 – 6.12 × 104 M−1, with 1:1 binding stoichiometry. Based on the PS–albumin binding characteristics, these albumins were grouped into two classes. Ligand displacement studies using warfarin as the site I marker ligand correlated well with the binding data. Albumins from goat and bovine were found to be closely similar to human albumin on the basis of PS binding characteristics.
Dendritic cell immunoreceptor (DCIR) is a C-type lectin receptor containing a carbohydrate recognition domain in its extracellular portion and an immunoreceptor tyrosine–based inhibitory motif, which transduces negative signals into cells, in its cytoplasmic portion. Previously, we showed that Dcir–/– mice spontaneously develop autoimmune diseases such as enthesitis and sialadenitis due to excess expansion of dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that DCIR is critically important for the homeostasis of the immune system. In this report, we analyzed the role of DCIR in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an autoimmune disease model for multiple sclerosis. We found that EAE was exacerbated in Dcir–/– mice associated with severe demyelination of the spinal cords. The number of infiltrated CD11c+ DCs and CD4+ T cells into spinal cords was increased in Dcir–/– mice. Recall proliferative response of lymph node cells was higher in Dcir–/– mice compared with wild-type mice. These observations suggest that DCIR is an important negative regulator of the immune system, and Dcir–/– mice should be useful for analyzing the roles of DCIR in an array of autoimmune diseases.
Rats with dwarfism accompanied by skeletal abnormalities, such as shortness of the limbs, tail, and body (dwarf rats), emerged in a Jcl-derived Sprague-Dawley rat colony maintained at the Institute for Animal Experimentation, St. Marianna University Graduate School of Medicine. Since the dwarfism was assumed to be due to a genetic mutation based on its frequency, we bred the dwarf rats and investigated their characteristics in order to identify the causative factors of their phenotypes and whether they could be used as a human disease model. One male and female that produced dwarf progeny were selected, and reproduction was initiated by mating the pair. The incidence of dwarfism was 25.8% among the resultant litter, and dwarfism occurred in both genders, suggesting that it was inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. At 12 weeks of age, the body weights of the male and female dwarf rats were 40% and 57% of those of the normal rats, respectively. In soft X-ray radiographic and histological examinations, shortening and hypoplasia of the long bones, such as the tibia and femur, were observed, which were suggestive of endochondral ossification abnormalities. An immunohistochemical examination detected an aggrecan synthesis disorder, which might have led to delayed calcification and increased growth plate thickening in the dwarf rats. We hypothesized that the principal characteristics of the dwarf rats were systemically induced by insufficient cartilage calcification in their long bones; thus, we named them cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats.
The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a preclinical model widely used for vascular and anti-vascular effects of therapeutic agents in vivo. In this study, we examine the suitability of CAM as a predictive model for acute toxicology studies of drugs by comparing it to conventional mouse and rat models for 10 FDA-approved anticancer drugs (paclitaxel, carmustine, camptothecin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cisplatin, aloin, mitomycin C, actinomycin-D, melphalan). Suitable formulations for intravenous administration were determined before the average of median lethal dose (LD50) and median survival dose (SD50) in the CAM were measured and calculated for these drugs. The resultant ideal LD50 values were correlated to those reported in the literature using Pearson’s correlation test for both intravenous and intraperitoneal routes of injection in rodents. Our results showed moderate correlations (r2=0.42 − 0.68, P<0.005–0.05) between the ideal LD50 values obtained using the CAM model with LD50 values from mice and rats models for both intravenous and intraperitoneal administrations, suggesting that the chick embryo may be a suitable alternative model for acute drug toxicity screening before embarking on full toxicological investigations in rodents in development of anticancer drugs.
Isoflurane is a representative inhalant anesthesia used in laboratory animals. However, isoflurane mediates respiratory depression and adverse clinical reactions during induction. In the present study, we established a novel balanced anesthesia method in mice that combined isoflurane anesthesia with midazolam and butorphanol (MB). Thirty-four male C57BL/6J mice received either isoflurane alone or isoflurane with an intra-peritoneal MB premedication (3 mg/kg midazolam and 4 mg/kg butorphanol). The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in each group was evaluated. Induction time and adverse clinical reactions were recorded in each group. Core body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation (SPO2) were assessed before and for 1 h after induction. Premedication with MB achieved a significant reduction in MAC compared with isoflurane monoanesthesia (isoflurane, 1.38 ± 0.15%; isoflurane with MB, 0.78 ± 0.10%; P<0.05). Induction time was significantly shortened with MB premedication, and adverse reactions such as excitement or incontinence were observed less frequently. Furthermore, isoflurane anesthesia with MB premedication caused increase of respiratory rates compared to isoflurane monoanesthesia. No significant decrease of SPO2 was observed in MBI anesthesia, while a decrease in SPO2 was apparent with isoflurane monoanesthesia (baseline, 98.3% ± 1.1; 10 min after induction, 91.8 ± 6.4%; P<0.05). In conclusion, premedication with MB was effective for the mitigation of respiratory depression induced by isoflurane in mice, with rapid induction and fewer adverse clinical reactions.
In preclinical trials, a sensitive functional test is required to detect changes in the motor behaviour of the SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We evaluated changes in body weight and motor impairment in behavioural tests, such as the rotarod, the hanging-wire test and the treadmill, of transgenic and wild type mice. We found differences in detection of the onset of symptoms and progression of the disease between the different tests assessed. Moreover, the data showed significant gender differences in the motor behaviour of this mouse model. The rotarod and the hanging-wire test were more sensitive to detect early motor impairment. Moreover, the results suggested that the rotarod and hanging-wire became the most accurate tests rather than treadmill to characterise the ALS disease phenotype.
Information regarding the prevalence of infectious agents in mice in pet shops in Japan is scarce. This information is particularly useful for minimizing the risk of potential transmission of infections to laboratory mice. Therefore, we surveyed infectious agents in mice from pet shops in Kanagawa and Tokyo, Japan. The survey was conducted in 28 mice from 5 pet shops to screen for 47 items (17 viruses, 22 bacteria and fungi, 10 parasites) using culture tests, serology, PCR, and microscopy. The most common viral agent detected was murine norovirus (17 mice; 60.7%), followed by Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (13 mice; 46.4%), and mouse hepatitis virus (12 mice; 42.8%). The most common agent amongst the bacteria and fungi was Pasteurella pneumotropica (10 mice; 35.7%), followed by Helicobacter ganmani and Pneumocystis murina (8 mice; 28.5%, for both). Tritrichomonas muris was the most common parasite (19 mice; 67.8%), followed by Spironucleus muris (13 mice; 46.4%), Aspiculuris tetraptera, and Syphacia obvelata (8 mice each; 28.5%). Remarkably, a zoonotic agent, Hymenolepis nana, was found in 7 mice (25%). Given these results, we suggest that the workers in laboratory animal facilities should recognize again the potential risks of mice outside of the laboratory animal facilities as an infectious source, and avoid keeping mice as pets or as feed for carnivorous reptiles as much as possible for risk management.
The spontaneously diabetic torii (SDT) fatty rat is a new model of type 2 diabetes showing overt obesity, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. With early onset of diabetes mellitus, diabetic microvascular complications, including nephropathy, peripheral neuropathy and retinopathy, are observed at young ages. In the present study, blood glucose levels of female SDT fatty rats were controlled with phlorizin, a non-selective SGLT inhibitor, to examine whether and how these complications are caused by hyperglycemia. Phlorizin treatment adequately controlled plasma glucose levels during the experiment. At 29 weeks of age, urinary albumin excretion considerably increased in SDT fatty rats. Glomerulosclerosis and tubular pathological findings also indicate diabetic nephropathy. These renal parameters tended to decrease with phlorizin; however, effects were partial. Sciatic nerve conduction velocities were significantly delayed in SDT fatty rats compared with Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density, an indicator of subclinical small nerve fiber neuropathy, significantly decreased in SDT fatty rats. Retinal dysfunction (prolongation of peak latency for oscillatory potential in electroretinograms) and histopathological eye abnormalities, including retinal folding and mature cataracts were also observed. Both nerve and eye disorders were prevented with phlorizin. These findings indicate that severe hyperglycemia mainly causes diabetic complications in SDT fatty rats. However, other factors, such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension, may affect diabetic nephropathy. These characteristics of diabetic complications will become helpful in evaluating new drugs for diabetic complications using SDT fatty rats.
The original pink-eyed dilution (p) on chromosome 7 is a very old spontaneous mutation in mice. The oculocutaneous albinism II (Oca2) gene has previously been identified as the p gene. Oca2 transcripts have been shown to be absent in the skin of SJL/J mice with the original p mutant allele (Oca2p); however, the molecular genetic lesion underlying the original Oca2p allele has never been reported. The NCT mouse (commonly known as Nakano cataract mouse) has a pink-eyed dilution phenotype, which prompted us to undertake a molecular genetic analysis of the Oca2 gene of this strain. Our genetic linkage analysis suggests that the locus for the pink-eyed dilution phenotype of NCT is tightly linked to the Oca2 locus. PCR cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the NCT mouse has a nonsense nucleotide substitution at exon 7 of the Oca2 gene. Examination of three mouse strains (NZW/NSlc, SJL/J, and 129X1/SvJJmsSlc) with the original Oca2p allele revealed the presence of a nonsense nucleotide substitution identical to that in the NCT strain. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the Oca2 transcripts were absent in the skin of NCT mice, suggesting intervention of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Collectively, the data in this study indicate that the nonsense nucleotide substitution in the Oca2 gene underlies the Oca2p allele. Our data also indicate that the NCT mouse can be used not only as a cataract model, but also as a model for human type II oculocutaneous albinism.
Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of tumors are increasingly becoming important tools for translational research in oncology. The NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Sug/Jic (NOG) mouse is an efficient host for PDXs. Thus as a basis for future development of methods to obtain PDXs from various disease types, we have studied the factors that affect the outcome of transplantation of human colorectal cancer in NOG mice. Of the original donor cases examined, 73% had successful engraftment. The outcome of donor-matched tissues was consistent in most cases, and was thought to show that the condition of the host did not affect engraftment. Next we analyzed the tumor aggressiveness in terms of histology grade of the original tumor and found that they were related to engraftment. Detailed histopathological examination of the transplanted tissues strongly indicated that lymphocytes engrafted with the tumor cells affect engraftment. As a factor related to transplantation of lymphocytes, we studied the human IgG concentration in the serum of tumor-bearing mice, but there was no tendency for higher concentrations to result in unsuccessful engraftment. Finally, we studied the type, density and location of T cells in the original donor tissue to determine the immune contexture and found that the unsuccessful engraftment cases tended to have an adequate or coordinated immune contexture compared to successful engraftment cases. From these results, we concluded that the aggressiveness and the T cell infiltration of the original tumor affect the outcome of transplantation in the NOG mouse.
In this study, hypochlorous acid solution, a weak acid, provided as drinking water to rats, was evaluated for its ability to eradicate and prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, while monitoring its simultaneous effect on serum biochemical variables and microbiota in the rat cecum. The results suggest that the solution could not eliminate the bacteria in the experimentally infected rats; however, the administration of a 10-parts-per-million (ppm) hypochlorous acid solution as drinking water was effective in inhibiting horizontal spread of P. aeruginosa infection among cage mates. Additionally, exposure to hypochlorous solution did not have any effect on serum biochemical variables of the rat including levels of total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, total bilirubin, lipase, amylase, urea nitrogen, total protein, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), except for potassium (K) levels. The most frequently isolated bacteria in the rat cecum included species belonging to Bacteroidales, Lactobacillus, Clostridiales, Erysipelotrichaceae, Akkermansia, Coriobacteriales, and Firmicutes. The ratio of the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) peaks did not differ across rats administered with 5 and 10 ppm weak acid solution as compared to the control group for any of the bacteria, except for Erysipelotrichaceae and Firmicutes, where the ratio of T-RFLP peaks was higher in the 5 ppm group for Erysipelotrichaceae and in the 10 ppm group for Firmicutes than that in the control group (P<0.01). The results suggest that the weak acid hypochlorous solution could not eradicate P. aeruginosa completely from rats. The solution was effective in preventing infection without affecting serum biochemical variables; however, some of bacterial microbiota may have changed due to administration of the solution.
Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) are widely used as animal models for a variety of infectious diseases. However, immunological reagents such as cytokines have not been characterized. Two heterohybridomas, D9(E6)C2B3 and D9(E4), obtained by fusion of gerbil splenocytes with mouse myeloma cells (P3-X63-Ag8.653), expressed gerbil CD3G mRNA. These cells were suggested to be T cell heterohybridomas. They also expressed gerbil IL6 [D9(E6)C2B3] and TGFB [D9(E4) and D9(E6)C2B3] mRNAs. The addition of conditioned medium (CM) obtained from the culture of D9(E6)C2B3 significantly enhanced antibody secretion and expression of gerbil Cγ1 and Cε IGHC mRNAs in the B11D2(C2) heterohybridoma, which secretes gerbil IgG1. However, the addition of CM from both heterohybridomas did not improve in proliferation of B11D2(C2) cells. These results indicate that CM from D9(E6)C2B3 improved the culture of gerbil–mouse heterohybridomas, possibly by secreting gerbil IL6.
Oca2p-cas (oculocutaneous albinism II; pink-eyed dilution castaneus) is a coat color mutant gene on mouse chromosome 7 that arose spontaneously in wild Mus musculus castaneus mice. Mice homozygous for Oca2p-cas usually exhibit pink eyes and gray coat hair on the non-agouti genetic background, and this ordinary phenotype remains unchanged throughout life. During breeding of a mixed strain carrying this gene on the C57BL/6J background, we discovered a novel spontaneous mutation that causes darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging. In this study, we developed a novel mouse model showing this unique phenotype. Gross observations revealed that the pink eyes and gray coat hair of the novel mutant young mice became progressively darker in color by approximately 3 months after birth. Light and transmission-electron microscopic observations revealed a marked increase in melanin pigmentation of coat hair shafts and choroid of the eye in the novel mice compared to that in the ordinary mice. Sequence analysis of Oca2p-cas revealed a 4.1-kb deletion involving exons 15 and 16 of its wild-type gene. However, there was no sequence difference between the two types of mutant mice. Mating experiments suggested that the novel mutant phenotype was not inherited in a simple fashion, due to incomplete penetrance. The novel spontaneous mutant mouse is the first example of progressive hair darkening animals and is an essential animal model for understanding of the regulation mechanisms of melanin biosynthesis with aging.