Newborn mouse glomeruli are still immature with a morphological feature of an early capillary loop stage, but infant mice do not manifest proteinuria. Little is known about the molecular mechanism whereby infant mice are resistant to proteinuria. Nephrin and synaptopodin are crucial for slit diaphragm and foot process (FP) formation for avoiding proteinuria. Nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation means a transient biological signaling required for FP repair or extension during nephrotic disease. Using an immunohistochemical technique, we examined the natural course of nephrin, Wilms’ tumor-1 (WT1) and synaptopodin at 16.5 days of embryonic age (E16.5d) and E19.5d, 7 days of post-neonatal age (P7d) and P42d during renal development of mice. As a result, nephrin and synaptopodin were detected at E19.5d in S-shaped bodies. WT1, a transcriptional factor for nephrin, was detected in nucleus in podocyte-like cells in all stages. Nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation was evident in glomeruli at P7d, and this was associated with an early-stage of FP extension. Inversely, nephrin phosphorylation became faint at P42d, along with maturated FP. Based on the present results, we suggest the sequential molecular mechanism to protect growing mice from proteinuria: (i) WT1-induced nephrin production by podocytes in S-shaped bodies at E19.5d; (ii) Synchronized induction of synaptopodin at the same period; and (iii) FP extension is initiated at a milk-suckling stage under a nephrin tyrosine-phosphorylated condition, while it is arrested at an adult stage, associated with a loss of nephrin-based signaling.
Although non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is widely seen in men, most laboratory studies of new intravesical therapies to prevent NMIBC have been conducted on female animals. In addition, ozone (O3) has been shown to be a beneficial agent as an intravesical application in the treatment of various disorders. In the current study, we evaluated the immunohistopathological and oxidative-antioxidative effects of intravesical O3 treatment on n-methyl-n-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced NMIBC. Male Wistar-Albino rats (n=51) were divided into four groups: sham (n=6), O3 only (n=15), MNU only (n=15), and MNU+O3 (n=15). The MNU-only and MNU+O3 groups received MNU, and the O3-only group received saline every other week for 10 weeks. The MNU-only group received 1 ml saline in place of O3 treatment, whereas the O3-only and MNU+O3 groups were treated with 1 ml 25 µg/ml O3 between the 7th and 12th weeks. Rat bladders were collected in the 15th week for immunohistopathology and oxidant-antioxidant quantitation. Oxidant-antioxidant parameters were determined by ELISA. Although all surviving rats in the MNU-only group had preneoplastic (4/11, 36.4%) or neoplastic changes (7/11, 63.6%), a completely normal urothelium was observed in 2 rats (2/12, 16.7%) in the MNU+O3-group (P=0.478). More high-grade lesions were observed in the MNU-only group (4/11, 36.4%) than in the MNU+O3 group (1/12, 8.3%) (P=0.120). All oxidant-antioxidant parameters significantly increased (P<0.05) in the O3-only group compared with the sham group. However, only antioxidant superoxide dismutase was remarkably higher (178.9%, P=0.060) in the MNU+O3 group compared with the MNU-only group. This is the first methodologically and pathologically well-described male rat orthotopic bladder carcinogenesis model with intravesical MNU and administration of O3 in NMIBC.
More than 30 strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) have been isolated from mice, hamsters and humans in the United States, Europe and Japan. Experimentally infected mice exhibit different clinical signs and lethality depending on a combination of LCMV epitope peptides and host major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. This study examined the pathogenicity, clinical signs and lethality, of two new LCMV strains (BRC and OQ28) using three inbred mouse strains with different genetic backgrounds having different H-2D haplotypes. Strain OQ28 (OQ28) infected mice exhibited clinical signs and lethality, whereas strain BRC (BRC) infected mice showed no clinical signs of infection. The viral genome load in tissues of C57BL/6 mice infected with two strains was determined using one-step real time RT-PCR. In C57BL/6 mice, higher levels of OQ28 viral genome load were detected in all tissues rather than were present in BRC infected mice. The viral genome load in lungs of both virus strains remained higher levels than in other tissues at 28 days post infection. Comparing sequences of the three LCMV epitope peptide regions revealed one non-conservative amino acid substitution codon in OQ28 and two amino acid differences in BRC. These results suggest that the varied pathogenicity and viral genome load of LCMV strains are not based only on differences in the host MHC class I molecule.
Potassium oxonate, a selectively competitive uricase inhibitor, produced hyperuricemia (HUA) in rodents in a previous study. In this study, we employed the tree shrew as an animal model to study potassium oxonate-induced HUA. The effect of allopurinol (ALLO), a uric acid reducer, was also examined in this model. Potassium oxonate at doses of 5, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 1,000 mg/kg was given intraperitoneally to tree shrews. The results showed that potassium oxonate can effectively increase the levels of uric acid in tree shrews at doses ranging from 40 to 100 mg/kg. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that the xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO) mRNA expression level was significantly higher in the liver tissue of tree shrews with high levels of uric acid. There were no changes in serum urea nitrogen, or serum creatinine values. ALLO can significantly decrease serum uric acid levels (P<0.01) and raise XDH/XO mRNA expression levels in the liver tissue of tree shrews with HUA. XDH/XO mRNA expression levels did not change in untreated tree shrews. Studies on acute toxicity in the tree shrew did not show any significantly abnormal signs. There were no adverse effects at the macroscopic level up to doses ≤100 mg/kg. Potassium oxonate induced acute HUA in tree shrews at lower doses compared with other animal models. Potassium oxonate-treated tree shrews may be a potential animal model for studying pathogenic mechanism and evaluating a new therapeutic agent for treatment of HUA in humans.
We investigated the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on cardiac function and remodeling in heart failure (HF). Four weeks after HF induction, the rats were administrated with ginsenoside Rb1 (35 and 70 mg/kg) and losartan (4.5 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. Losartan was used as a positive control. Cardiac function was assessed by measuring hemodynamic parameters. Histological changes were analyzed by HE and Masson’s trichrome staining. Cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) levels were evaluated. In the present study, high dose of (H−) ginsenoside Rb1 decreased heart rate, improved cardiac function and alleviated histological changes induced by HF. H-ginsenoside Rb1 attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis by decreasing left ventricular (LV) weight/heart weight ratio and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and reducing the levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), periostin, collagen I, Angiotensin II (Ang II), Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor. Moreover, H-ginsenoside Rb1 decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and enhanced the translocation of GLUT4 to plasma membrane. The TGF-β1/Smad and ERK signaling pathways were inhibited and the Akt pathway was activated. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rb1 might restore cardiac/mitochondrial function, increase glucose uptake and protect against cardiac remodeling via the TGF-β1/Smad, ERK and Akt signaling pathways.
The use of miniature pigs in non-clinical studies for medical drugs or devices has gradually been increasing in recent years. It is anticipated that the use of juvenile miniature pigs in laboratory practice will also increase. Therefore, it is important to investigate various parameters of juvenile miniature pigs. The body surface area (BSA) of an organism is one of the important parameters for evaluating physiological functions. In drug development, normalization by BSA is an appropriate method for extrapolating doses between species. The BSA of animals has generally been estimated by multiplying the k value by 2/3 of the power of the body weight (BW) (Meeh’s formula). To our knowledge, the BSA of juvenile miniature pigs has not as yet been reported. In this study, we measured the BSA of 13 miniature pigs less than 1 month old, using a computed tomography scanner and 3-dimensional analysis software. The measurement results showed the BSAs of these 13 juvenile miniature pigs to be in the range of 386 to 1,672 cm2(working BW range: 278 to 3,200 g). After BSA determination, the k values were calculated from the BSA and the BW. The mean calculated k value was 8.58. We advocate using Meeh’s formula, as follows, for estimating the BSA of juvenile miniature pigs less than 1 month old (before weaning): BSA (cm2)=8.58 × BW (g)2/3.
Vivian Jordania da Silva, Sílvia Regina Costa Dias, Tatiani Uceli Maioli, Luciana Ribeiro Serafim, Luis Fernando Viana Furtado, Maria da Gloria Quintão Silva, Ana Maria Caetano de Faria, Élida Mara Leite Rabelo
Although obesity is well established in hamsters, studies using diets with high levels of simple carbohydrate associated with lipids are necessary to assess the impact of this type of food in the body. In this study a high sugar and butter diet (HSB) and high temperature were employed towards this end. Obesity was successfully induced at a temperature of 30.3°C to 30.9°C after 38 days feeding the animals an HSB diet. It was shown that although diet is important for the induction of obesity, temperature is also essential because at a temperature slightly below the one required, obesity was not induced, even when the animals were fed for a longer period (150 days).The obese clinical condition was accompanied by biochemical and hematological changes, as increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and increased leukocyte numbers, similar to alterations observed in obese humans. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that increasing the intake of simple carbohydrates associated with lipids provided evidence of inflammation in obese animals.
Mice with dominant white spotting occurred spontaneously in the C3.NSY-(D11Mit74-D11Mit229) strain. Linkage analysis indicated that the locus for white spotting was located in the vicinity of the Pax3 gene on chromosome 1. Crosses of white-spotted mice showed that homozygosity for the mutation caused tail and limb abnormalities and embryonic lethality as a result of exencephaly; these phenotypes were analogous to those found in other Pax3 mutants. Sequence analysis identified a missense point mutation (c.101G>A) in exon 2 of Pax3 that resulted in a methionine to isoleucine conversion at amino acid 62 of the PAX3 protein. This mutation site was located in the N-terminal HTH (helix-turn-helix) motif of the paired domain of Pax3, which is necessary for binding to DNA and is highly conserved in vertebrate species. Alteration of DNA binding affinity was responsible for embryonic lethality in homozygotes and white spotting in heterozygotes. We named the mutant allele as Pax3Sp-Nag. The C3H/HeN-Pax3Sp-Nag strain may be useful for analyzing the function of Pax3 as a new model of the human disease, Waardenburg Syndrome.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a supraventricular arrhythmia that leads to a decrease in cardiac output and impairs cardiac function and quality of life. Dronedarone has an atrial-selective property and has been used for management of AF in humans, but limited information is available in dogs. This study was designed to evaluate efficacy of dronedarone in attenuating the duration of AF in dog model of sustained AF. Six beagle dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane and instrumented to measure atrial action potential duration (aAPD) and atrial effective refractory period (AERP). Then AF was induced by rapid right atrial pacing (20 V, 40 Hz) simultaneously with infusion of phenylephrine (2 µg/kg/min, intravenously) for 20 min. The duration of sustained AF was recorded, and the animals were allowed to recover. Dronedarone was given at a dose of 20 mg/kg, BID, orally for 7 days. On the last day, the dogs were anesthetized again to record aAPD and AERP, and AF was induced with the same procedure as described above. The results showed that after dronedarone administration the aAPD was lengthened significantly from 76.4 ± 4.2 ms to 91.2 ± 3.9 ms (P<0.05) and AERP was prolonged significantly from 97.5 ± 2.8 ms to 120 ± 4.8 ms (P<0.05). The duration of sustained AF was also significantly attenuated after receipt of dronedarone (P<0.05). It can be suggested that oral dronedarone attenuates the duration of sustained AF in a dog model of AF by extending the AERP more than the aAPD, causing post-repolarization refractoriness. Hence, dronedarone may be useful for management of AF in dogs.
Delayed foot wound healing is a major complication attributed to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, and these wounds may develop into foot ulcers. There are at least two types of DM wound models used in rodents to study delayed wound healing. However, clinically relevant animal models are not common. Most models use type 1 DM rodents or wounds created on the back rather than on the foot. An open full-thickness excision wound on the footpad of type 2 DM rats is more clinically relevant, but such a model has not yet been characterized systematically. The objective of this study was to investigate and characterize how DM affected a full-thickness excision open foot wound in n5-streptozotocin (n5-STZ)-induced type 2 DM rats. We hypothesized that elevated inflammation, reduced blood circulation, and cell proliferation due to hyperglycemia could delay the wound healing of DM rats. The wounds of DM rats were compared with those of non-DM rats (Ctrl) at Days 1 and 8 post wounding. The wound healing process of the DM rats was significantly delayed compared with that of the Ctrl rats. The DM rats also had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) and lower blood circulation and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in DM wounds. This confirmed that elevated inflammation and reduced blood flow and cell proliferation delayed foot wound healing in the n5-STZ rats. Hence, this open foot wound animal model provides a good approach to study the process of delayed wound healing.
Major intrinsic protein of lens fiber (MIP) is one of the proteins essential for maintaining lens transparency while also contributing to dominant cataracts in humans. The Nodai cataract (Nat) mice harbor a spontaneous mutation in Mip and develop early-onset nuclear cataracts. The Nat mutation is a c.631G>A mutation (MipNat), resulting in a glycine-to-arginine substitution (p.Gly211Arg) in the sixth transmembrane domain. The MipNat/Nat homozygotes exhibit congenital cataracts caused by the degeneration of lens fiber cells. MIP normally localizes to the lens fiber cell membranes. However, the MipNat/Nat mice were found to lack an organelle-free zone, and the MIP was mislocalized to the nuclear membrane and perinuclear region. Furthermore, the MipNat/+ mice exhibited milder cataracts than MipNat/Nat mice due to the slight degeneration of the lens fiber cells. Although there were no differences in the localization of MIP to the membranes of lens fiber cells in MipNat/+ mice compared to that in wild-type mice, the protein levels of MIP were significantly reduced in the eyes. These findings suggest that cataractogenesis in MipNat mutants are caused by defects in MIP expression. Overall, the MipNat mice offer a novel model to better understand the phenotypes and mechanisms for the development of cataracts in patients that carry missense mutations in MIP.
In earlier ex vivo studies, we reported the biphasic effect of a methanolic extract of unripe Morinda citrifolia fruit (MMC) on dopamine-induced contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. The present in vivo study was designed and undertaken to further explore our earlier ex vivo findings. This study examined the effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of a methanolic extract of unripe Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (EA-MMC; 5–100 mg/kg, p.o.) on the dopaminergic system using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing time and climbing behavior, methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (sniffing, biting, gnawing, and licking) and haloperidol-induced catalepsy using the bar test. Acute treatment with EA-MMC at a low dose (25 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated the apomorphine-induced climbing time and climbing behavior in mice. Similarly, EA-MMC (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior in mice. These results demonstrated that the antidopaminergic effect of EA-MMC was observed at relatively lower doses (<25 mg/kg, p.o.). On the other hand, EA-MMC showed dopaminergic agonistic activity at a high dose (3,000 mg/kg, p.o.), which was evident from alleviation of haloperidol (a dopamine D2 blocker)-induced catalepsy in mice. Therefore, it is concluded that EA-MMC might possess a biphasic effect on the dopaminergic system, i.e., an antagonistic effect at lower doses (<25 mg/kg, p.o.) and an agonistic effect at higher doses (>1,000 mg/kg, p.o.). However, further receptor-ligand binding assays are necessary to confirm the biphasic effects of M. citrifolia fruit on the dopaminergic system.
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