An Empirical Analysis on the Great East-Japan Earthquake
Hiroyuki Okamuro and Tomofumi Sarugaku
Previous studies suggest that business start-ups increase after natural disaster due to psy- chological, networking, and economic reasons. Yet, no empirical estimations have been done on this issue, considering causal inference. Thus, focusing on the Great East-Japan Earth- quake, we investigate causal impacts of natural disaster on local start-up ratio, by employing standard econometric techniques. Using municipality data from public census, we construct a panel data set with four periods before and after the Great East-Japan Earthquake（2001─ 2004, 2006─2009, 2012─2014 and 2014─2016）and 1,734 municipalities in Japan. We employ fixed-effect panel estimation with DID approach to consider causality, where the treatment group comprises the municipalities officially designated as Special Disaster Area（or speci- fied as Tsunami Area）and the control group covers all other municipalities. Specifically, we distinguish between the effects on gross and net start-up ratio. We also consider the effects on average start-up size measured as the average number of employees. The estimation re- sults show that this disaster had a positive and significant impact on the start-up ratio in the Special Disaster Area, which is even stronger in the Tsunami Area. We also find that the impact is especially evident in the sectors that are essential for the reconstruction or di- rectly related to consumer service. We also confirm these positive effects for independent start-ups. We find that the average size of start-ups is not significantly affected by this earthquake. Finally, the results show that the positive and significant effects of（the recov- ery from）the natural disaster on start-up ratio during 2012─14 become weaker or even sta- tistically insignificant during 2014─16, suggesting that the effects of the disaster may not persist.
Second-person Approach and Convivial Tools as Methods of Entrepre- neurial Research
Chiaki Ito and Toshiki Fukumoto
The purpose of this paper is to explore qualitative methodology that enhances the viability and continuity of fieldwork that tracks entrepreneurs’ trial and error. Capturing the trials and errors of entrepreneurs requires second-person engagement with entrepreneurs and convivial tools. In this article, through examples of the author’s own fieldwork with an en- trepreneur and a researcher, we suggest that the knowledge creation system of manage- ment science can be used as convivial tools for forming and maintaining relationships.
Transformation of Distribution Structure and Shipping Business Persons in the Meiji Era of Japan
The Cases of Nosaka Family and Shirogane Family
This paper discusses how sailboat carriers managed at the Noheji Port in Aomori Prefec- ture, which was a base port for distant transportation in the early modern period, after sail- boat transportation between distant areas was replaced by steamship transportation. Since Noheji was not a port for regular steamers, connections with remote markets weakened as a result of the development of the regular steamship network, and although the size of the port relatively decreased. But the Noheji Port was linked to the expansion of the market in Hokkaido on the opposite shore, and it became a base of the underground transportation network centering on small steamships while taking advantage of the opening of the rail- way. The shipping industry in Noheji Port was flexible in dealing with the development of the Noheji economy ; for example, the Nosaka family had the branch family carry out soy sauce and miso brewing in the modern times, which organically linked the expansion of fish fertilizer production in Hokkaido with the expansion of miso and soy sauce brewing in the Noheji region. The Shirogane family also developed a new transportation route by sailing ships repeatedly between Hokkaido and Noheji, and contributed greatly to the formation of the underground transportation network. The development of the management of the ship- ping business persons in Noheji provided a major impetus for fluidizing the distribution sys- tem of fish fertilizer in Hokkaido and transforming the structure of the Hokkaido fishing in- dustry.