During the past 70 years, there has been a continued incremental worsening of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) by a combination of abusing antimicrobials in humans and animals as well as insufficient research and investment for new antimicrobial agents. The current trend of worsening AMR is likely to result in increased mortality and morbidity, longer stays in hospitals and accelerated health care costs. It is estimated that the global mortality attributed by AMR could reach 10 million per year by 2050, which is a massive increase from the current estimated mortality of 700, 000 per year. The year 2014 was the turning point of more than a half century of AMR history, transforming it from technical issue to a political agenda. Major progress includes adoption of the Global Action Plan on AMR at the WHO World Health Assembly in May 2015, followed by completion of a National Action Plan in most parts of the world, enactment of the Global Antimicrobial Surveillance System (GLASS) in October 2015, launch of the World Antibiotic Awareness Week in November 2015, and G20 Leaders’ commitment to create the AMR Global Collaboration Hub in July 2017. Moreover, a comprehensive program against AMR has been implemented in some countries, such as UK, USA, and Germany. The strategic approach through coordination led by WHO with relevant international agencies and other entities was one of the key enabling factors for sustained political commitment on AMR.
The third G20 Health Ministers' Meeting was held in Okayama, Japan on October 19-20, 2019. The authors were involved in the decision making of the substantial issues of this meeting including theme setting, schedule management, facilitating the discussion, and preparation for the ministers' meeting. Here, we summarize our lessons of experience from hosting G20 Okayama Health Ministers' Meeting as: i) Utilizing the occasion of existing major health related meeting to gain efficiency; ii) Collaboration with other G20 tracks such as finance can function as a tool to facilitate inter-sectoral collaboration within other G20 members; iii) Two-day Health Working Group before the ministerial meeting provides sufficient time for negotiation of the declaration text; and iv) Inclusion of residents and representatives of the host city provides great opportunity to create G20 legacy. Such an experience of Japanese policymaking is rarely shared in English and the lessons learned from our experience shall provide meaningful advice for Saudi Arabia colleagues who are to hold the next G20 Health Ministers' Meeting as well as for the preparation of other G20 ministerial meetings.
Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria that are spreading all over the world have caused significant problems. While these problems are becoming bigger, the development of new antimicrobials has remained stagnant, and some essential antimicrobials for treatment may be depleted in the near future. This is a significant problem that may jeopardize the sustainability of healthcare itself. In Japan, the National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance was established in April 2016. Based on the five strategic objectives set out in the World Health Organization's Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance, and by adding a 6th objective of international cooperation as a Japanese unique goal, the goals, strategies and specific actions of each of these six fields are presented. This Action Plan is significantly characterized by setting numerical targets as a performance index to be achieved by 2020.
In recent years, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, such as the Ebola virus disease and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), have been frequently reported. In this review, we summarize the representative outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases since 2000 and outbreaks of various infectious diseases that have occurred around the world and in Japan. Moreover, the emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases that could develop in Japan are also summarized. Especially, for mosquito-borne infectious diseases, viral hemorrhagic fever and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, and avian Influenza and MERS, the disease features, routes of infection, and infection prevention measures are reviewed in this article. Healthcare workers are at high risk of infection, and therefore, a sufficient understanding of disease features and routes of infection and the appropriate infection prevention measures are needed to increase self-protection.
The serum 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol (1,5-AG) level rapidly decreases concomitantly with urinary glucose excretion in hyperglycemia. 1,5-AG is a sensitive clinical marker of short-term glycemic control, postprandial hyperglycemia and glucose fluctuation. Increasing evidence about the relationship between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and glucose fluctuations have been published. In this review, we summarize the possibilities and limitations of 1,5-AG as a marker of CVD. Research showed that 1,5-AG level is associated with prevalence of CVD and is also a predictive value for cardiovascular (CV) events. Especially in a high risk population, the predictive value of 1,5-AG for CV events becomes more effective. Besides, 1,5-AG is an effective glycometabolic marker that complements HbA1c in terms of glucose fluctuation. Appropriate use of 1,5-AG might lead to improved prognosis for patients or decrease medical financial burden of the population through early detection of glucose disorder and quality glucose control.
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), prodrug of tenofovir (TFV), is one of the most widely used nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for the treatment of HIV infection in resource-rich and resourcelimited settings with proven efficacy and safety, and also for the treatment of hepatitis B infections. However, TDF can cause renal proximal tubular dysfunction and also reduces estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) more than other NRTIs. To date, TDF-associated renal dysfunction is generally regarded as mild and tolerable. However, it is notable that low body weight is one of the risk factors for TFV nephrotoxicity and that Asians are generally of smaller body stature and can be susceptible to such nephrotoxicity, as shown in several cohort studies. Until tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), another prodrug of TFV with minimal renal toxicity, becomes widely accessible for people living with HIV and replaces TDF, it is warranted that physicians who prescribe TDF have a good understanding of TFV nephrotoxicity. This paper reviews recent literature on TFV nephrotoxicity among people living with HIV especially focusing on Asians who might be susceptible to TFV nephrotoxicity due to their lower body weight and discusses implications for clinical care and future directions.
Bronchial Thermoplasty (BT) is an epoch-making treatment that reduces bronchial smooth muscle by using a bronchoscope to reach the basket catheter to the bronchus and directing high-frequency current directly into the bronchi. In GINA Guidelines 2019, BT is considered to be additional treatment at Step V (the most severe), and the evidence level is B. The Japanese guidelines (JGL) also added BT as a treatment for Step 4, but it is reserved because there are still unclear points regarding long-term efficacy and safety. In Japan, as of April 1, 2019, 672 treatments were performed at 123 institutions nationwide. The average age of patients was 54.1 years, but 84 cases were over 70 years old. The average value of %FEV1 was 78.2%, but there were 94 cases less than 60%. There were 32 cases that underwent BT treatment at our institution. Of them, 12 cases with progress up to one year later could be observed. The average age was 56.1 years old, and each of 6 men and women had a %FEV1 of 70.5%. One year later, AQLQ and %FEV1 improved, and the number of exacerbations decreased, but exhaled NO values increased. %FEV1 improvement might be due to poorer lung function (70.5% vs. 77.8%) and more BT activation (average 1.28 times AIR2) compared to the AIR2 trial. In terms of improvement in %FEV1, patients with moderate obstructive disorder from 50 to 80% responded well after BT treatment. In the near future, various new antibody preparations such as IL-4 / 13 antibody and anti-TSLP antibody are expected to be promoted. Therefore, we first consider whether these antibody preparations can be applied to patients with refractory asthma. We consider that BT is indicated only when there is no indication or no expected effect of antibody preparations. In other words, BT treatment is the last resort of intractable asthma, and it is the duty of medical professionals involved in BT treatment to be able to advocate when it is best to give BT to such patients.
The indication for resection of gastric/esophagogastric-junction liver metastasis (GELM) has yet to be established. This study aimed to investigate prognostic factors in patients undergoing GELM resection. From 2001 to 2015, 31 consecutive patients underwent resection for GELM; and factors for poor prognosis were evaluated. Of the 31 patients, 23 (74.2%) developed multiple liver metastases. The histology of gastric cancer was intestinal-type adenocarcinoma in 21 patients (67.7%). Median overall survival (OS) was 3.2 years. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 92.8%, 56.2%, and 42.2%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 58.5%, 31.3%, and 31.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that intestinal-type adenocarcinoma was associated with a significantly lower risk of OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.26; p =0.022) and RFS (HR, 0.25; p = 0.008). In multiple logistic regression analysis, intestinal-type adenocarcinoma (odds ratio, 0.14; p = 0.012) reduced incidence of extra-hepatic recurrence after GELM resection. In conclusion, GELM resection in patients with intestinal-type histology is preferable because intestinal-type adenocarcinoma is associated with better prognosis and a lower incidence of extra-hepatic recurrence than diffuse/other-type adenocarcinoma.
Rapid economic growth and a changing disease burden have increased the demand for pathology services in Cambodia. This paper describes the status of pathological services and international support for pathology professionals in Cambodia, and discusses future needs for strengthening pathology services. In 2016, there were only four pathologists and 18 pathology technologists in Cambodia. A postgraduate course in pathology was created in 2015, and five residents became certified in 2018. Besides multinational support with lectures and practice for pathologists, the Japanese team provides on-the-job training for pathology technologists to improve slide preparation for diagnosis. A clinicopathological conference was introduced to strengthen the communication among pathologists, pathology technologists, and gynecologists. Although there is a long way to go to reach high quality pathological services, coordination among international partners needs to continue, as does the balance between human resource development for pathology professionals, to provide a higher level of care to local citizens.
Perforator flap concept plays an important role in reconstructive surgery, because it allows less invasive and more complex reconstruction by preserving major vessels and muscles with intramuscular vessel dissection. Originally "perforator" represents vessel perforating the muscle, then vessel perforating the deep fascia regardless of muscle perforation. With technical progress in reconstructive microsurgery, the previous definition becomes inappropriate for least invasive flaps, only requiring intra-adiposal vessel dissection, such as superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap. Based on our experience of various least invasive flap reconstructive surgeries, a new concept for perforator flap has been developed. The new definition of perforator is a vessel perforating an envelope of a targeted tissue to be transferred; the superficial fascia for skin, the periosteum for bone, the perineurium for nerve, and the deep fascia for muscle. According to the new definition, all flaps can be precisely classified based on the corresponding "perforator".