With expanding antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Vietnam, the use of second-line ART with ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) is increasing. However, little is known regarding the effect of LPV/r on dyslipidemia (DL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people with HIV in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was performed in a cohort of HIV-infected Vietnamese patients on ART at the National Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Hanoi, Vietnam. In addition to DL, we included hypertension (HT) and hyperglycemia (HG) as non-communicable diseases. Blood pressure, casual blood sugar levels, and the lipid profile were evaluated cross-sectionally in October and November 2016. The incidence of CVD was calculated in the cohort. We determined factors associated with diseases by univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 1,346 subjects were evaluated for their non-communicable diseases. The subjects' mean age was 39.2 years and 41.8% were women. A total of 10.5% of the subjects had exposure to LPV/r. DL, HT, and HG was diagnosed in 53.5%, 24.4%, and 0.8% of the subjects, respectively. In multivariate analysis, age (OR = 1.040; 95% CI, 1.025-1.055), female sex (OR = 0.335; 95% CI, 0.264-0.424), and LPV/r exposure (OR = 3.251; 95% CI, 2.030-5.207) were significantly associated with DL. The incidence rate of CVD was 1.87/1,000 person-years (15 incidental cases in 8,013 person-years). LPV/r exposure was not a risk factor for the incidence of CVD. Although a causative relation with LPV/r and CVD was not identified in this study, attention should be paid to CVD for patients on LPV/r in the future.
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