Global Health & Medicine
Online ISSN : 2434-9194
Print ISSN : 2434-9186
Advance online publication
Displaying 1-6 of 6 articles from this issue
  • Mira Namba, Yudai Kaneda, Chiharu Kawasaki, Rajeev Shrestha, Tetsuya T ...
    Article type: letter
    Article ID: 2023.01010
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: May 25, 2023

    Cervical cancer is prevalent among women, with a reported 604,127 cases in 2020 worldwide. The incidence of cervical cancer has been mitigated in most high-income countries by promoting the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. However, in Japan, cervical cancer is still a leading cause of mortality and the most prevalent cancer among women aged between 15 and 39. This can be attributed to the 7-year suspension of HPV vaccination recommendations by the Japanese government. A decline in vaccination coverage followed this suspension, caused by a small number of reported adverse events, resulting in a steep decline in vaccination coverage from over 70% to less than 1%. However, there have been indications of a change in trend in Japan. In 2020, a group of volunteer doctors initiated awareness-raising activities through social networking services and other platforms, and the target population that received at least one dose of the vaccine in 2020 increased to 15.9%. Additionally, in July 2020, the Japanese government approved the updated 9-valent HPV vaccine and resumed recommendations in November 2021. As a result, 30.1% of those eligible for routine HPV vaccination received at least one dose of the vaccine from April to September, 2022. However, the HPV vaccine coverage in Japan is still far from the 90% recommended by the World Health Organization, and continued communication and education on the vaccine’s benefits are necessary to achieve optimal coverage.

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  • Guido Torzilli
    Article ID: 2023.01020
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: May 23, 2023

    Sorafenib is a breakthrough in the medical treatment aiming to control hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression, but there is some controversy in patients' selection. The introduction of Sorafenib has led to several positive effects. New more than promising antiangiogenic molecules have followed. Immunotherapy combined with antiangiogenic therapy has also strongly entered into the treatment of HCC. All of that has induced a significant guideline revision profiling Sorafenib as a second line systemic therapy in the event of advanced HCC. However, for those patients with advanced but resectable HCC, the selection of surgery or systemic therapy should be reviewed and reconsidered.

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  • Jie Song, Ruijia Li, Xiaojing Hu, Gang Ding, Minxing Chen, Chunlin Jin
    Article type: review-article
    Article ID: 2023.01014
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: May 12, 2023

    Cancer is currently a major public health issue faced by countries around the world. With the progress of medical science and technology, the survival rate of cancer patients has increased significantly and the survival time has been effectively prolonged. How to provide quality and efficient care for the increasingly large group of cancer survivors with limited medical resources will be a key concern in the field of global public health in the future. Compared to developed countries, China's theoretical research and practical experience in care for cancer survivors are relatively limited and cannot meet the multi-faceted and diverse care needs of cancer patients. Based on the existing models of care worldwide, the current work reviews care for cancer survivors in China, it proposes considerations and suggestions for the creation of models of cancer care with Chinese characteristics in terms of optimizing top-level system design, enhancing institutional mechanisms, accelerating human resource development, and enhancing self-management and social support for patients.

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  • Eiko Saito, Shiori Tanaka, Sarah Krull Abe, Mayo Hirayabashi, Junko Is ...
    Article type: brief-report
    Article ID: 2023.01001
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: May 04, 2023

    Controlling avoidable causes of cancer may save cancer-related healthcare costs and indirect costs of premature deaths and productivity loss. This study aimed to estimate the economic burden of cancer attributable to major lifestyle and environmental risk factors in Japan in 2015. We evaluated the economic cost of cancer attributable to modifiable risk factors from a societal perspective. We obtained the direct medical costs for 2015 from the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan, and estimated the indirect costs of premature mortality and of morbidity due to cancer using the relevant national surveys in Japan. Finally, we estimated the economic cost of cancer associated with lifestyle and environmental risk factors. The estimated cost of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors was 1,024,006 million Japanese yen (\) (8,460 million US dollars [$]) for both sexes, and \673,780 million ($5,566 million) in men and \350,226 million ($2,893 million) in women, using the average exchange rate in 2015 ($1 = \121.044). A total of \285,150 million ($2,356 million) was lost due to premature death in Japan in 2015. Indirect morbidity costs that could have been prevented were estimated to be \200,602 million ($1,657 million). Productivity loss was highest for stomach cancer in men (\28,735 million/$237 million) and cervical cancer in women (\24,448 million/$202 million). Preventing and controlling cancers caused by infections including Helicobacter pylori, human papillomavirus and tobacco smoking will not only be life-saving but may also be cost-saving in the long run.

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  • Arun K. Ghosh
    Article type: editorial
    Article ID: 2023.01013
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: March 22, 2023

    The treatment of HIV-1 infection and AIDS represents one of the greatest challenges in medicine. While there is no cure for HIV/AIDS, truly remarkable progress has been made for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients today. The advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the mid-1990s dramatically improved HIV-1 related morbidity, greatly prolonged life expectancy, and delayed progression of AIDS. Due to current antiretroviral therapy, the mortality rate for HIV infected patients is closely approaching the mortality rate for the general population. The long-term success of HIV-AIDS treatment requires continued enhancement of cART with further development of novel drugs that would exhibit fewer side effects, higher genetic barrier to the development of resistance, and longer action with durable virologic suppression. This editorial article provides a quick review of four decades of intense drug development research efforts targeting various viral enzymes and cellular host factors leading to the evolution of today's treatment of patients with HIV-1 infection and AIDS. It also touches on challenges of future treatment options.

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  • Wenqian Xu, Siwon Lee, Hiromasa Okayasu
    Article type: review-article
    Article ID: 2023.01005
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: February 08, 2023

    The Western Pacific Region is experiencing rapid population ageing, which has implications for almost all areas of society. Countries will need to prepare for population ageing by investing in health and optimizing living environments. This requires a whole-of-society approach to healthy ageing. Countries in the Western Pacific Region have been making significant progress in healthy ageing. Since the endorsement of the Regional Action Plan on Healthy Ageing, younger societies have also started preparing for population ageing, focusing on social and health systems transformation, community-based integrated care, social and technological innovations and research, monitoring and evaluation. As more countries are interested in healthy ageing and preparing for necessary social and health systems transformation, the case studies in this article can be an inspiration for Member States to transform their approaches to achieving a society where older adults are healthier and can participate fully.

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