This study investigated the process of reorganization mainly done by an agricultural legal entity in a paddy field rice-growing area. To make the present Japanese paddy field rice-growing under postproductivism sustainable, it is necessary to reorganize areas with new systematization of production. This research clarified the management conditions of S-nousan enterprise with large-scale paddy field rice-growing operations and the method of accumulating farmland in the Tonami plain, where the wage rate of part-time farmers and the cost of managing a small-scale farmhouse are high. The problems of Japanese paddy field rice-growing under postproductivism are reducing the amount of abandoned cultivated land, finding workers for regional farming, and making agricultural multifunctionality work well. Influenced by the decreased price of rice and the expansion of the production adjustment rate, modern Japanese paddy field rice operations face such difficulties as the decrease in number of farmers and the outdated management of farms. S-nousan enterprise tried to produce original rice to meet consumer demand, reduce machinery costs, and expand management scale, playing an important part in regional agriculture. As the example of this enterprise shows, making Japanese paddy field rice-growing areas sustainable with the severe shortage of successors requires systematizing agricultural management in the entire area and reorganizing regional agriculture into a single unit under that system. In addition, it is important for the entity promoting regional agriculture to have clear management strategies appropriate for the actual circumstances and systematize production while maintaining a cooperative system in the area.
Bullfights are currently held in six regions in Japan. The biggest challenge in these regions is the lack of sufficient young people who can raise bulls. Further, the number of bull owners is decreasing each year. However, on Tokunoshima Island alone many young people are raising bulls. This research studies why bullfighting is popular on Tokunoshima Island while the other five areas are facing a lack of young people willing to carry on the tradition. Bullfighting started as a form of entertainment in agricultural villages. At present, there are 500 bulls used for fighting on the island, the largest number in Japan. I researched the management of bullfighting matches, the means by which the practice is inherited, and its significance on Tokunoshima Island. Three aspects are covered in this paper. First, how do people manage bullfights without any support from municipal offices? Around 3, 000 people attend every bullfighting match; 90% are residents of the island. Tourists make up only 1% of spectators. The bullfighting matches are therefore not organized for tourists but mainly for residents. On the day of a match, the spectators pay an entrance fee; promoters share the income after the matches. These matches are a success insofar as they are enjoyed by a large number of residents. Second, how do people develop an interest in the raising of bulls? I focused on the reason why children, especially adolescents, become interested in bulls. Some teachers state that students should focus on their studies and that bull barns would have a bad influence on them. However, many students take care of bulls for their parents or neighbors regardless of whether their schools allow them to. If a boy can handle a bull well, he will become popular among girls. Bull barns and bullrings are popular spots among some high school students who like to socialize at such places. The owners of bull barns not only teach young people how to handle bulls but also inculcate good values, for example, good manners, kindness to others, and affection for the island. When they become adults, they either continue to work on the island or return to the island from Tokyo, Osaka, and other cities to participate in bullfights. Such individuals then find a job on the island and teach children how to treat bulls and discipline them in the same way that they were instructed. Third, what is the significance of bullfighting on the Tokunoshima? If a particular bull wins, then the cheer group associated with it runs into the ring and dances. The social status of the owner of this bull then increases among residents. In addition, the residents praise the owner's efforts and luck. Even if the owner is not rich, he will receive respect. Therefore, a bull can raise the social standing of its owner. The winners then arrange a celebration after the match and repeatedly watch recordings of their victories throughout the night. If a group unfortunately loses a match, they hold a dinner to console themselves and raise the spirits of their bull. Irrespective of whether a group wins or loses, they share their emotions and develop good relations with their families and neighbors. To ensure that bullfighting continues over the long term, some local rules have been set. For example, bullfights are not held against the same settlements. Furthermore, the residents of the Tokunoshima value sportsmanship. They promote the motto: “Become friends with your rivals after the match.” Therefore, people make new friends after bullfights. After researching the inheritance of the practice of bullfighting and its significance, I arrived at these conclusions. Bullfighting plays a role in the education of young people, enhancement of social standing, and the creation of a local identity. The most important point is that young people on Tokunoshima Island do not raise bulls out of a sense of duty but because they want to. Subsequently, when they realize that bull raising
In the treaty of amity and commerce between Japan and foreign countries in 1858, an article defined the boundary of the permissible travel area as 40km from foreign settlements. It was called “Foreigners' Treaty Boundary.” In Yokohama, the western boundary was the Sakawagawa River east of Odawara. However, in the 1870s after the Meiji Restoration foreign representatives claimed that the distance was uncertain. Therefore the Japanese Ministry of Interior carried out an accurate land survey for redefinition. The results showed that the initial boundary did not require redefinition and the foreigners were satisfied. This paper reviews the results of that survey and shows that the land survey contributed to the progress of Japanese survey techniques and was an important step in the nationwide triangulation survey.
The main purpose of this paper is to explain the development process of environmental perception of children in a new town area. The Nagamine area, Inagi City in Tama new town in the suburbs of Tokyo, was selected as the study area. Six hundred and thirty-six children of nursery school, elementary school, and junior high school age were analyzed. This study used two approaches: a questionnaire survey on children's play behavior, and a sketch map survey of children's environmental perception. From the results of the survey, it became clear that there were various restrictions on both space and time in the children's play behavior. Children so frequently attend private tutoring schools that there is little time to spend playing with their friends in the neighboring environment. Children usually play mainly in the near by town district park and school playgrounds after school. Therefore children have few opportunities to explore distant unknown places with a number of friends. These restrictions become more stringent with higher school grade. Children's environmental perception was analyzed from their sketch maps. They were asked to draw a map of their living environment on a plain sheet of B4 paper. A time limit of about 40 minutes was set, and extra sheets of paper were available upon request. The method of drawing architecture changed from the three-dimensional type to the position type. The number of elements on sketch maps increased from preschool age to elementary school grade 3 age. However, an increase in the number of elements on maps was not obvious from grade 4 until grade 7. In general, so-called physiognomic perception was more prominent among younger children. This tendency influenced environmental perception and the method of drawing a sketch map. The sketch maps also changed very gradually from route maps to survey maps as children became older. The point of view from which children drew a sketch map shifted from the horizontal to the vertical by grade 7. Half of junior high school students drew route maps. This indicates that the change from a route map to a survey map was delayed because it is difficult for children to perceive the environment over a wide area. The restriction of play behavior thus influences the development of environmental perception.
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