This study quantitatively and qualitatively examined how the four systems of Simons’ (1995) levers of control (LOC) framework can be combined to motivate frontline employees’ initiative job improvement using Hotel Company as a research site. Results of the multiple regression analysis and simple slope analysis showed that the belief system, boundary system, and interactive system have a positive influence on frontline employees’ initiative job improvement. Although the main effect of the diagnostic system on initiative job improvement was negative, quantitative results on the synergistic effect of the two systems revealed that the diagnostic system had a moderating effect on the belief system and interactive system effects on initiative job improvement. In addition, the interview results revealed a synergistic mechanism, where negative systems (e.g., the diagnostic system) that constrains behavior combined with positive systems (e.g., the belief system or interactive system) that promotes initiative job improvement, further increasing frontline employees’ motivation to improve their jobs.
Research on ambidexterity in Japanese companies is limited to case studies and single-industry analyses. In this study, we surveyed 2000 major manufacturers in Japan with a mailed or online questionnaire. We performed an empirical analysis of the responses and of the financial data provided by 413 companies. Our results showed that strategic policy and exploration activity positively impacted ambidexterity, and ambidexterity positively impacted sales and productivity. In addition, our multi-level analysis clarified that ambidexterity has a positive effect on sales, even in a challenging industry environment.
The 4th industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) is emerging. The core concepts of Industry 4.0 are the IoT (Internet of Things) and Cyber Physical System (CPS). The aim of this paper is to propose a multilayer structure for an open CPS architecture. We illustrate cases of FANUC and Mitsubishi Electric, which are competing in factory automation. Comparing these companies, we analyze CPS in factories of both companies. The concept of open CPS architecture draws upon the idea of a technology stack with “unit of analysis” not an individual smart connected product but the IoT for a production or construction site.
Japanese mobile phone manufacturers are said to have declined and collapsed. The possible cause is that the industrial structure has changed to an international horizontal division of labor. The reason for the horizontal division of labor of the industrial structure is that technology has become modular. The modularization of technology has made it possible for the division of labor in various functions along the value chain. Then, vertical integration was destroyed as keystone companies of the ecosystem proceeded with unbundling functions that made it possible to divide labor. The current trend of FinTech in the financial industry encourages the horizontal division of labor in the financial services industry. If Japan’s financial industry does not change its industrial structure to a horizontal division of labor, it could decline like he Japanese digital home appliance manufacturers. This paper aims to reveal strategies for FinTech companies to transform the structure of the financial industry. FinTech’s strategy is to unbundle high-value functions and be selected about customers. Moreover, rebundling existing financial institutions by increasing customer value through differentiated services is the strategy to expand the ecosystem. This paper will explain these strategies from the case of the SBI Group, which represents FinTech in Japan.