2021 Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 17-29
Research on ambidexterity in Japanese companies is limited to case studies and single-industry analyses. In this study, we surveyed 2000 major manufacturers in Japan with a mailed or online questionnaire. We performed an empirical analysis of the responses and of the financial data provided by 413 companies. Our results showed that strategic policy and exploration activity positively impacted ambidexterity, and ambidexterity positively impacted sales and productivity. In addition, our multi-level analysis clarified that ambidexterity has a positive effect on sales, even in a challenging industry environment.