The FMDJ study, a multicenter prospective observational study conducted in Japan, demonstrated the acceptable reliability of measurement of flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) using a semi-automatic device in individual institutions. However, in about 10% of Japanese subjects, adequate scans to determine the brachial arterial diameter failed to be obtained. The prevalence of inadequate scans was higher in women than in men, while obesity had no influence on the inadequate scan rate. The FMDJ study also proposed that attending periodic refresher courses on the measurement of FMD is needed for maintaining competency. Finally, the FMDJ study proposed reference values for FMD. Thus, FMD measurement may be categorized as a clinically applicable tool on the basis of class IIb (exploratory cohort study with good reference standards) evidence.
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most effective gastric acid-suppressing agents and the mainstay medical therapy for a series of acid peptic diseases. In general, the safety profile of PPIs is excellent. However, with long-term drug administration, the safety and potency of PPIs has been questioned. In the cardiovascular field, drug-drug interactions related to PPIs have been identified with particular attention regarding the use of PPIs combined with clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Currently, cardiovascular risks from PPIs may extend from patients with coronary artery disease to the general population. This review summarizes the possible cardiovascular risks in PPI users with no history of cardiovascular diseases and discusses possible biological mechanisms.
Previous studies have identified high on treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) as a potent factor predicting ischemic events for patients with coronary heart disease. We assessed the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor (90 mg twice-daily) and double-dose of clopidogrel (150 mg once-daily) among Chinese patients for elective percutaneous coronary intervention. We enrolled 40 patients with HTPR from among 317 patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes after a successful elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Platelet reactivity was measured by VerifyNow P2Y12 assay. Platelet reactivity was significantly lower for both groups when compared with baseline platelet reactivity after medication adjustment (all P < 0.001). The mean platelet reactivity units (PRU) was significantly lower for the ticagrelor group compared with that of the clopidogrel group over time (all P < 0.001). The differences in the rate of sustained HTPR at different time points between the two groups were significant (2 hours: 0% versus 60%; 8 hours: 5.6% versus 50%; 24 hours: 5.9% versus 43.8%, all P < 0.05). Genetic variation of CYP2C19*2 had no impact on PRU means or rate of HTPR in the ticagrelor group (P > 0.05). During the 30-day follow-up, no MACE occurred in any patient, and the overall risk of bleeding showed no difference between the two groups (35% versus 21%, P = 0.48). Our results suggest that ticagrelor may achieve a more rapid and greater platelet inhibition than double-dose clopidogrel. Further studies are still needed to assess the differences in efficacy and safety between ticagrelor and double-dose clopidogrel administration for Chinese patients post elective PCI.
The purpose was to determine the differences between premenopausal and postmenopausal coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors, clinical manifestation, cardiovascular features, rates of recurrence, and influencing factors.
Premenopausal (n = 57) and postmenopausal (n = 178) CAD women hospitalized during the same period were enrolled. All patients were followed-up, and the combined recurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events was recorded as the clinical outcome. Differences were compared between the 2 groups.
Fewer premenopausal women suffered from hypertension (43.86% versus 75.28%, P < 0.001), type 2 diabetes (12.28% versus 35.96%, P = 0.001), and hyperlipidemia (5.26% versus 34.83%, P < 0.001), but more had a positive family history of premature CAD (40.35% versus 25.28%, P = 0.03). Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was more frequently seen in premenopausal women (82.46% versus 48.88%, P < 0.001), and their left anterior descending branch was the vessel most often involved (65.33%). The cumulative recurrence rate was 1.76 times higher in postmenopausal patients than premenopausal patients. Clinical diagnosis (HR = 2.54, 95%CI: 1.21-4.85, P = 0.02) and type 2 diabetes (HR = 4.10, 95%CI: 2.37-8.83, P = 0.004) were two factors that influenced recurrence in premenopausal subjects, while the clinical diagnosis (HR = 1.93, 95%CI: 1.59-3.46, P = 0.03) and Gensini score (HR = 1.20, 95%CI: 1.11-1.45, P = 0.02) were influencing factors in the postmenopausal patients.
Symptoms among younger women were atypical, but the onset of disease was faster and more urgent, and angiography in premenopausal women might underestimate the severity of disease. The risk factors, rate of recurrence, and influencing factors were different between premenopausal and postmenopausal patients.
Elderly people represent the fastest growing portion of cardiovascular patients. We aimed to analyze the clinical presentation, risk factors, co-morbidities, complications, and mortality in patients 90 years or more who underwent coronary angiography and intervention.
We retrospectively studied 108 (0.25% of 43,385) consecutive patients ≥ 90 years undergoing cardiac catheterization and/or intervention in a tertiary specialist hospital between 2003 and 2014.
Most patients (68.5%) were introduced on an emergency basis, especially with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (63.8%). Non-STEMI accounted for two-thirds of the myocardial infarctions. We found higher prevalences of previous coronary artery disease (CAD) (38%), other atherosclerotic diseases (20.4%), cardiac risk factors such as hypertension (84.3%), diabetes (49.1%), hyperlipidemia (50.9%), heart failure (42.6%), atrial fibrillation (AF) (25.0%), severe aortic stenosis (13.0%), severe mitral regurgitation (3.7%), and implantable devices (25.0%), and co-morbidities such as renal impairment (48.1%), COPD (12.0%), and previous stroke (6.5%). Three-vessel disease was present in 34.6% of the patients. The left anterior descending artery (LAD) was the most affected coronary artery (67.6%). Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), mostly with bare metal stents (BMS), was used to manage 54.6% of the patients, and it failed in 4 of the patients. Conservative treatment was used in 39.8% of the patients and 15.7% had no significant CAD.
The incidences of vascular complications, such as bleeding (6.5%), bleeding in other organs (6.5%), blood transfusion (6.5%), in-hospital paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (7.4%), in-hospital successful reanimation (2.8%), complete heart block (5.6%), acute renal impairment (23.1%), associated infection (25.9%), cardiogenic shock (14.8%), and death (15.7%) were high.
Considering the more extensive risk factors, CAD and co-morbidities, acute presentation and age per se, we believe that the reported higher rates of complications and mortality are still acceptable.
Extracorporeal shockwave myocardial revascularization (ESMR) is one of the new treatment options for refractory angina pectoris (RAP), and some studies have indicated its effectiveness. A single-arm prospective trial to assess the feasibility of ESMR using Cardiospec for patients with post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and RAP was designed and performed. The patients were treated with 9 sessions of ESMR to the ischemic areas for 9 weeks. The feasibility measures included echocardiography; cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; troponin T, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), and brain natriuretic peptide testing; and a Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) survey. Three post-AMI patients and 3 RAP patients were enrolled. The post-AMI patients had already undergone revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the acute phase. In two patients, adverse events requiring admission occurred: one a lumbar disc hernia in a post-AMI patient and the other congestive heart failure resulting in death in an RAP patient. No apparent elevations in CK-MB and troponin T levels during the trial were observed. Echocardiography revealed no remarkable changes of ejection fraction; however, septal E/E’ tended to decrease after treatments (11.6 ± 4.8 versus 9.2 ± 2.8, P = 0.08). Concerning the available SAQ scores for two RAP patients, one patient reported improvements in angina frequency and treatment satisfaction and the other reported improvements in physical limitations and angina stability. In this feasibility study, ESMR seems to be a safe treatment for both post-AMI patients and RAP patients. The efficacy of ESMR for post-AMI patients remains to be evaluated with additional studies.
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is the third leading cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI). Emerging evidence has revealed that soluble klotho (sklotho) could be a novel biomarker for early AKI diagnosis. The aims of this study were to assess the predictive role of sklotho for CIN and to develop a prediction nomogram in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study is registered on Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 02650336).
Patients aged 18 years or older undergoing planned PCI were prospectively recruited between May 2014 and July 2015. CIN was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of 0.5 mg/dL within 48-72 hours after the procedure. Plasma sklotho was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Stratified analysis, interaction test, covariate screening, and curve fitting were performed to explore the association between sklotho and CIN. A nomogram was then developed and validated using the bootstrapped technique.
A total of 192 patients aged 54.75 ± 12.19 years were selected, 32 (16.7%) of whom were diagnosed with CIN. A logistic regression model indicated significant associations between CIN and sklotho, age > 75 years, diabetes, and the Mehran risk score. Saturation effects analysis detected a two-stage change between sklotho and CIN, with the inflection point was 477.4 pg/mL. The area under the ROC curve was 0.758 and the sensitivity and specificity of this point were 90.6% and 53.9%, respectively. A nomogram was developed for the prediction of CIN and showed a bootstrapped-corrected area under the curve value of 0.913. In addition, sklotho significantly increased the predictive value of the nomogram.
A strong association between sklotho and CIN was identified in patients undergoing elective PCI. A lower level of sklotho would be well correlated with CIN. The nomogram with sklotho is a useful tool to predict CIN in patients who will undergo PCI.
To establish a scoring model to predict the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in elderly patients undergoing elective coronary angiography (CAG).
A total of 1286 patients aged > 65 years who had undergone elective CAG between August 2009 and February 2013 were enrolled in this study. They were randomly (3:2) assigned to a development (n = 756) or validation dataset (n = 530). Independent predictors of CIN were identified by using logistic regression and were assigned a weighted integer, which was used to establish a score model.
CIN incidence in the development set was 6.3%. The risk score model contained 3 variables (with the weighted integer): age > 75 years (1.5), creatinine clearance (CrCl) < 60 mL/minute (1), and congestive heart failure (CHF) (1.5). CIN incidence was 3.1%, 9.1%, and 29.0% in the low-risk group (≤ 1), moderate risk group (1 - 3), and high-risk group (≥ 3), respectively. The risk model demonstrated good prediction value in the development (c-statistic = 0.727) and validation (c-statistic = 0.695) datasets. Compared to the non-CIN group, the CIN group had a significantly higher rate of inhospital major adverse cardiac events (P < 0.01).
The risk score model with 3 variables, namely age > 75 years, CrCl < 60 mL/minute, and CHF, is a clinical prediction tool for CIN in elderly patients before elective CAG. CIN is one of the independent risk factors of major adverse cardiac events (MACE).
The use of a novel irrigated multipolar ablation and mapping catheter for pulmonary vein isolation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has demonstrated reasonable acute success rates and short procedure times, however, long-term outcome data are limited. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term efficacy of this novel ablation system utilizing a reduced power setting for safety purposes.
A total of 89 patients with paroxysmal (63 of 89 patients; 71%) or persistent AF underwent PVI with a reduced power setting of maximum 20 Watts (W) unipolar radiofrequency energy and 30 seconds in duration. In cases of persistent AF, atrial substrate ablation was performed additionally. Follow-up was based on outpatient clinic visits at 3, 6, and 12 months and included 5-day Holter ECGs. All of the 347 identified pulmonary veins were successfully isolated. Mean procedure times in PVI and PVI plus substrate ablation were 102 ± 25 minutes and 126 ± 32 minutes, respectively, applying a mean total radiofrequency time of 14 ± 6 minutes and 19 ± 9 minutes. Mean fluoroscopy time was 17 ± 8 minutes and 18 ± 6 minutes, respectively. Follow-up was available for all 89 patients. At one-year follow-up, 44 (70%) patients with paroxysmal AF and 11 (42%) patients with persistent AF remained in stable sinus rhythm after a singleprocedure and off antiarrhythmic drugs.
The use of a novel irrigated multipolar ablation catheter with a reduced power setting is safe and feasible, and demonstrates a one-year success rate of 70% in paroxysmal AF and 42% in persistent AF.
There have been no reports evaluating the impact of long-acting loop diuretics (LLD) on the outcome of heart failure (HF) and arrhythmia treatment in HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients implanted with a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device.
This was a prospective, single-blind, randomized crossover study. We allocated 21 consecutive CRT implanted patients into 2 groups. The furosemide group received furosemide as a first treatment and azosemide as a second treatment. The azosemide group received this treatment in the reverse order. The first treatment was given to each group for 6 months and the second treatment continued for an additional 6 months. We combined the data of each medication regimen in each group and analyzed it at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year. The primary endpoints were the variation of fluid index and thoracic impedance measured by CRT at 6 months.
The baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. The difference in the primary endpoints was not statistically significant between the 2 medication arms (fluid index: -29.6 ± 64.4 versus 16.2 ± 48.2; P = 0.22, thoracic impedance: -0.49 ± 17.8 versus 2.45 ± 12.5; P = 0.56). Likewise, the clinical outcome of HF and the CRT derived parameters in both arms were comparable.
HFrEF patients taking LLD after CRT implantation might be comparable to those taking short-acting loop diuretics in the treatment of HF and HF-associated arrhythmias.
This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and surgical treatment of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) infective endocarditis (IE) compared with tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) IE in China.
The relevant pre-, intra- and post-operative materials of all IE patients undergoing cardiac surgery in our center between January 2003 and December 2012 were investigated and analyzed retrospectively.
From January 2003 to December 2012, 345 consecutive IE patients received surgery in our center. A total of 171 native aortic valve IE patients were enrolled in this study, accounting for 49.6% of the total population. Among these 171 IE patients, 29.8% (n = 51) were BAV, and the remaining (n = 120) were TAV. There was a strong male predominance (92.2% versus 70.8%, P = 0.002) and a higher frequency of aortic perivalvular abscess (45.1% versus 18.3%, P < 0.001) in the BAV IE group compared with the TAV IE group. In multivariate analysis, BAV was the only independent predictor associated with an increased risk of aortic perivalvular abscess (OR = 4.365, 95% CI 1.30-14.65, P = 0.017). Six patients died postoperatively and no significant difference was found about in-hospital mortality between the BAV IE group and TAV IE group (2.0% versus 4.2%, P = 0.793).
BAV is common in patients with confirmed aortic valve IE. BAV IE patients have a significantly increased risk of perivalvular abscess. Prompt diagnosis and timely surgery for BAV IE patients might be needed to prevent the formation and extension of perivalvular abscess.
MitraClip (MC) is an alternative therapeutic option for patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) who are at high surgical risk. Most candidates for MC have severe heart failure (HF) with increased N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP) levels. We sought to clarify the response of NT-pro BNP after MC and to identify the determinants of NT-pro BNP nonresponders. Among 136 consecutive patients successfully treated with MC, we excluded 20 patients due to low baseline NT-pro BNP levels and therefore examined 116 patients. NT-pro BNP responders were defined as patients whose NT-pro BNP levels decreased by > 30% at 6 months after MC. Mean NT-pro BNP levels significantly decreased from 6,117 pg/mL at baseline to 4,143 pg/mL at 6 months after MC (P < 0.001); 61 patients (53%) were responders. Diabetes mellitus (DM) (51% versus 25%; P = 0.003) and atrial fibrillation (67% versus 49%; P = 0.049) were more common in nonresponders. Baseline New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and NT-proBNP levels were higher in responders. Right ventricular systolic dysfunction (RVSD) defined as tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) < 15 mm was more common in nonresponders (41% versus 18%; P = 0.008). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that DM (odds ratio [OR], 2.966; P = 0.014), RVSD (OR, 3.948; P = 0.006), and baseline NT-proBNP > 5,000 pg/mL (OR, 0.204; P = 0.001) were independent determinants of nonresponders. All-cause death tended to be less common in responders to NT-pro BNP (20% versus 31%; P = 0.163). In conclusion, NT-pro BNP levels significantly decreased after MC. DM and RVSD were determinants of NT-pro BNP nonresponse after the MC procedure.
Although adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) therapy has beneficial effects on chronic heart failure (CHF), a relatively large number of CHF patients cannot undergo ASV therapy due to general discomfort from the mask and/or positive airway pressure. The present study aimed to clarify baseline patient characteristics which are associated with the smooth introduction of ASV treatment in stable CHF inpatients.
Thirty-two consecutive heart failure (HF) inpatients were enrolled (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 45%, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) > 10 mL/minute/1.73m2, and apnea-hypopnea index < 30/hour). After the patients were clinically stabilized on optimal therapy, they underwent portable polysomnography and echocardiography, and then received ASV therapy. The patients were divided into two groups: a smooth introduction group (n = 18) and non-smooth introduction group (n = 14). Smooth introduction of ASV treatment was defined as ASV usage for 4 hours and more on the first night. Univariate analysis showed that the smooth introduction group differed significantly from the non-smooth introduction group in age, hemoglobin level, eGFR, HF origin, LVEF, right ventricular (RV) diastolic dimension (RVDd), RV dp/dt, and RV fractional shortening. Multivariate analyses revealed that RVDd, eGFR, and LVEF were independently associated with smooth introduction. In addition, RVDd and eGFR seemed to be better diagnostic parameters for longer usage for ASV therapy according to the analysis of receiver operating characteristics curves.
RV enlargement, eGFR, and LVEF are associated with the smooth introduction of ASV therapy in CHF inpatients.
Stem cell therapy has shown therapeutic benefit in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), but doubt remains about the most appropriate stem cell subpopulation. The current study compared the efficacy of intracoronary administration of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) or mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) in patients with DCM.
Fifty-three patients with DCM and reduced (< 40%) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), were randomized to intracoronary infusion of BMMC (BMMC group, n = 16) or BMSC (BMSC group, n = 17) or equal volume normal saline (CTRL group, n = 20). LVEF, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd), and myocardial perfusion were assessed at baseline and at 3-month and 12-month follow-ups. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were also recorded.
At the 3-month follow-up, LVEF, NYHA class, and myocardial perfusion had improved significantly in the BMSC group (P = 0.004, 0.020 and 0.019, respectively) along with significant changes in LVEF and NYHA class in the BMMC group compared with CTRL (P = 0.042 and 0.047, respectively), however, LVEDd remained unchanged. In comparison with CTRL, LVEF, NYHA class, and myocardial perfusion improved significantly in the BMSC group at the 12-month follow-up (P = 0.005, 0.050 and 0.038 respectively), but not in the BMMC group (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences between the transplantation groups during follow-up (P > 0.05). There were no differences in MACE among the 3 groups (P = 0.817).
Intracoronary bone marrow stem cell transplantation in DCM is safe and effective, while BMSC and BMMC infusion possess comparable effectiveness.
Inflammation plays an important role in heart failure and diabetes mellitus. Traditional serum markers have limited predictive value in heart failure and diabetes. TNFR1 and TNFR2 (TNFR1/2) have been proven to be strongly associated with heart failure and diabetes complications. This study aimed to assess the association of sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels and incidental HF risk in diabetes patients.
We detected the mRNA, protein, and serum expression of TNFR1/2, their downstream signaling pathway protein NF-kB, and JNK expression and some traditional serum inflammatory markers in a heart failure group without diabetes mellitus or abnormal glucose tolerance (n = 84), a diabetes mellitus group without heart failure (n = 86), and a heart failure with diabetes mellitus group (n = 86).
TNFR1/2 were significantly higher in patients with heart failure and diabetes mellitus based on mRNA expression to protein expression and serum expression. However, there were no differences in mRNA, protein, and serum levels of TNFR1/2 between the HF group and DM group. Furthermore, there were no differences between the groups in some traditional serum inflammatory markers.
This study demonstrated higher expressions of TNFR, NF-kB, and JNK in patients with heart failure and diabetes mellitus. Compared with traditional serum markers, TNFR1 and TNFR2 are associated with heart failure risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.
Diastolic wall strain (DWS) is based on the linear elastic theory, according to which decreased wall thinning during diastole reflects reduced left ventricular compliance and thus increased diastolic stiffness. Increased diastolic stiffness as assessed by DWS is associated with a worse prognosis in patients who have heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction. However, there are no data about the prognostic value of DWS derived by M-mode echocardiography in patients at risk for HF. We retrospectively enrolled 1829 consecutive patients without prior HF who were hospitalized for cardiovascular (CV) diseases in our hospital between 2005 and 2012. Patients were divided into two groups stratified by DWS (median value 0.34). The study endpoint was the composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and hospitalization for HF. Over a 4.2-year median follow-up, adverse events were observed in 322 patients (17.6%). In Kaplan–Meier analysis, patients with low DWS (≤ 0.34, n = 915) showed worse prognoses than those with high DWS (> 0.34, n = 914) (MACE incidence 39.4% versus 31.9%, P = 0.011). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis after the adjustment for age, sex, and echocardiographic parameters, low DWS (≤ 0.34) was significantly associated with the incidence of MACE (hazard ratio: 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.01–1.59; P = 0 .045). In patients without prior HF, DWS is an independent predictor of MACE. Simple assessment of DWS might improve risk stratification for CV events in those patients.
Hexarelin, a synthetic growth hormone-releasing peptide, has been proven to possess cardioprotective actions through its binding to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) 1a and the non-GHSR receptor CD36. However, its effect on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has not been fully clarified in vivo. We aimed to determine whether hexarelin treatment could protect cardiomyocytes from I/R injury and to examine the underlying mechanisms. In vivo hearts of male SD rats underwent 30 minutes of ischemia by left coronary artery ligation followed by reperfusion. The rats were then treated subcutaneously twice daily with hexarelin [100 μg/kg·day], ghrelin [400 μg/ kg·day], or saline for 7 days. Echocardiography, malondialdehyde detection, and histochemical staining were performed after treatment. In addition, Western blot was used to examine the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-1Ra, and IL-1RI. Our study showed that hexarelin treatment improved cardiac systolic function, decreased malondialdehyde production, and increased the number of surviving cardiomyocytes. The beneficial effects of hexarelin treatment were slightly superior to those of equimolar ghrelin treatment. We meanwhile confirmed that hexarelin induced down-regulation of IL-1β expression and up-regulation of IL-1Ra expression in I/R myocardium, which could be neutralized by the GHSR antagonist [D-Lys3]-growth hormone releasing peptide-6 ([D-Lys3]-GHRP-6). These findings suggest that hexarelin protects in vivo cardiomyocytes from I/R injury partly by modification of the IL-1 signaling pathway through the activation of cardiac GHSR1a receptors.
Adult heart suffering from increased workload will undergo myocardial hypertrophy, subsequent cardiomyocyte (CM) death, and eventually heart failure. However, the effect of increasing afterload on the neonatal heart remains unknown. We performed ascending aortic constriction (AAC) in neonatal rats 8-12 hours after birth (P0, P indicates postpartum). Seven days after surgery, in vivo heart function was evaluated using cardiac ultrasonography. Haematoxylineosin and Masson staining were used to assess CM diameter and collagen deposition. Moreover, expression of both EdU and Ki67 were evaluated to determine DNA synthesis levels, and pH3 and aurora B as markers for mitosis in CMs. CM isolation was performed by heart perfusion at P0, P3, P5, and P7, respectively. CM number on P0 was 1.01 ± 0.29 × 106. We found that CM cell cycle activation was significantly increased among constricted hearts, as demonstrated by increased Ki67, EdU, pH3, and aurora B positive cells/1000 CMs. At day 7 (P7), constriction group hearts manifested increased wall thickness (0.55 ± 0.05 mm versus 0.85 ± 0.10 mm, P < 0.01, n = 6), and improved hemodynamics as well as left ventricular ejection fraction (65.5 ± 3.7% versus 77.7 ± 4.8%, P < 0.01, n = 6). Of note, the population of CMs was also markedly increased in the constriction group (2.92 ± 0.27 × 106 versus 3.41 ± 0.40 × 106, P < 0.05, n = 6). In summary, we found that during the first week after birth significant numbers of neonatal CMs can reenter the cell cycle. Ascending aortic constriction promotes neonatal rat CM proliferation resulting in 16.7% more CMs in the heart.
DNA damage in the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) was investigated using the sensitive alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)/comet assay.
This case-control study consisted of CAD patients (n = 200; mean age, 59.04 ± 0.75 years) undergoing treatment at local hospitals and age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy controls (n = 200; mean age, 57.88 ± 0.96 years) from the general population.
CAD patients had significantly (P < 0.001) increased DNA damage (tail DNA percent (T-DNA %) 22.45 ± 0.50 versus 5.81 ± 0.28; tail moment (TM) 89.35 ± 3.16 versus 9.98 ± 0.69; Olive tail moment (OTM) 60.50 ± 1.79 versus 10.94 ± 0.63; damage frequency (DF) 91.12 ± 0.93 versus 41.78 ± 2.04, damage index (DI) 173.68 ± 3.36 versus 48.53 ± 2.59) compared to controls. Patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) showed significantly higher DNA damage than patients with unstable angina (UA) (T-DNA % 24.05 ± 0.87 versus 21.06 ± 0.90; TM 100.02 ± 6.19 versus 81.61 ± 5.84; OTM 66.19 ± 3.20 versus 56.47 ± 3.33; DF 94.02 ± 0.84 versus 91.10 ± 1.16, DI 184.13 ± 5.33 versus 166.42 ± 5.89). Moreover, DNA damage was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in patients receiving ecosprin, ramipril, and metoprolol therapy compared to aspirin and nitrocontin.
The increased DNA damage in CAD patients may be the consequence of disease and/or drug therapy. These observations are of concern because unrepaired DNA can lead to malignancy, and the likelihood of increasing mortality and morbidity rates in CAD patients.
A 26-year-old man diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome (NS) 2 years previously presented with chest pain. An electrocardiogram (ECG) performed at a local hospital showed ST-elevation in chest leads. Cardiac troponin-I was significantly positive. Echocardiography revealed mild regional wall-motion abnormalities in the heart apex. Seven days later, angiography (CAG) revealed a thrombus in the left anterior descending branch (LAD). Tirofiban was injected into the LAD for thromboclasis. ECG after CAG showed the ST-segment was much lower than before. The diagnosis after CAG was ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI) and thrombogenesis in the LAD. He continued to receive antiplatelet and anticoagulation medication and atorvastatin after CAG, and was discharged 3 days later. MI is very rare in young males, but the incidence of MI is 8 times higher than normal in patients with NS. For young patients with MI, clinicians should pay more attention to the history of previous diseases with high risk of thromboembolism and they should actively promote prevention and the treatment of renal disease patients to reduce the incidence of complications of thromboembolism.
In rotational atherectomy (RA), several burr sizes are available, such as 1.25 mm, 1.5 mm, 1.75 mm, or ≥ 2.0 mm. It is important to select an appropriate burr size for each lesion because rotational atherectomy has several unique complications regarding burrs such as entrapment or perforation. When a burr cannot penetrate the lesion, downsizing of the burr is generally recommended. Also, if the smallest burr (1.25 mm) cannot penetrate the lesion, a change to a more supportive or larger French guiding catheter has been recommended. We describe the case of a 68 year-old female who was referred to our department for percutaneous coronary intervention to the calcified stenosis in the middle of the left anterior descending coronary artery. We used the smallest burr (1.25 mm) and a supportive 7 Fr guiding catheter to penetrate the lesion. However, the smallest burr could not pass the lesion even after 14 sessions (total ablation time: 339 seconds). We intentionally increased the burr size from 1.25 mm to 1.5 mm. The 1.5 mm burr successfully passed the lesion without any perforation or burr entrapment. In this manuscript, we discuss why increasing the burr size was successful for this severely calcified lesion that was not penetrated by the smallest burr.
Coronary artery aneurysm following drug-eluting stent implantation is rare in the literature. The presentation combined a life-threatening condition with severe in-stent restenosis. How to treat this condition is a complex problem because a surgical approach for a proximal left circumflex lesion is difficult. A hybrid method that is a combination of coronary bypass surgery and coronary stenting for left main bifurcation in-stent restenosis and proximal coronary artery aneurysm is a feasible strategy.
Coronary spasm is abnormal contraction of an epicardial coronary artery resulting in myocardial ischemia. Coronary spasm induces not only depressed myocardial contractility, but also incomplete myocardial relaxation, which leads to elevated ventricular filling pressure. We herein report the case of a 55-year-old woman who had repeated acute heart failure caused by coronary spasm. Acetylcholine provocation test with simultaneous right heart catheterization was useful for the diagnosis of elevated ventricular filling pressure as well as coronary artery spasm. We should add coronary spasm to a differential diagnosis for repeated acute heart failure.
Valve migration into the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) during transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a life-threatening complication. An 89-year-old female patient was admitted for TAVI due to severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. After deployment of a balloon-expandable prosthesis, the prosthesis had migrated into the LVOT. The prosthesis was reimpacted to the aortic annulus by a balloon-assisted recapture procedure. Immediately after recapturing the prosthesis with an oversized balloon, the patient’s vital signs deteriorated due to acute aortic regurgitation (AR), and a prompt valve-in-valve (V-in-V) procedure allowed us to stabilize the patient’s condition. This is the first reported case of a V-in-V procedure using an oversized balloon and a larger prosthesis to treat migration of the initial prosthesis into the LVOT. Balloon recapture and V-in-V procedure using an oversized balloon and larger prosthesis for a migrated balloonexpandable prosthesis into the LVOT is feasible, but hemodynamic support should be prepared before recapture and Vin-V because overdilatation of the first prosthesis might cause hemodynamic collapse due to severe AR.
Fulminant myocarditis is a highly mortal syndrome. Meanwhile, the clinical course in surviving patients is generally self-limiting. This is a rare case of fulminant myocarditis with prolonged lymphocytic infiltration after hemodynamic recovery. A 64-year-old man was diagnosed with fulminant myocarditis and required intensive care with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Left ventricular function gradually improved but complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) persisted. Follow-up endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) showed prolonged active infiltration of lymphocytes along with 18F-FDG uptake in 18F-FDG PET/CT until about 70 days after the onset. Therefore, he underwent immunosuppressive therapy for 3 months. Follow-up EMB revealed no evidence of infiltration of lymphocytes and no abnormal 18F-FDG uptake despite irreversible CAVB. Although repeated EMB and 18F-FDG PET/CT was not a standard strategy, it played an important role in the treatment decision in the present case.
Veno-venous collaterals are sometimes seen in patients after the Fontan procedure. A 28-year-old female with tricuspid atresia who underwent the Fontan procedure had oxygen desaturation due to a giant veno-venous collateral. Coil embolization was performed for the collateral. After the procedure, she complained of severe back pain. Anti-inflammatory analgesics and steroids were not effective, although carbamazepine promptly relieved the intractable pain. Treatment-related pain after coil embolization for veno-venous collaterals in patients with Fontan physiology is quite rare, although cardiologists must recognize a critical condition to be differentiated from vascular occlusion.
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