To investigate the postprocedural cardiovascular events and vascular outcomes, including hand ischemia and neurological compromise, after transulnar (TU) catheterization in ipsilateral radial artery occlusion.
Previous randomized trials have shown that the transulnar (TU) approach for coronary angiogram and intervention has safety and outcomes similar to those of the transradial (TR) approach. However, the safety of the TU procedure when ipsilateral radial artery occlusion occurs is unknown.
We retrospectively reviewed 87 TU cases with ipsilateral radial artery occlusion confirmed by a forearm angiogram. Eighty percent of these patients had a history of ipsilateral radial artery cannulation or surgery. We avoided the use of over-sized sheaths or applied a sheathless approach during surgery.
No ulnar artery occlusion was observed by subsequent Doppler ultrasound or pulse oximetry. No patient developed hand ischemia or serious complications requiring surgery or blood transfusion during the follow-up period of 32.2 ± 24.0 months. Review of the preprocedural forearm angiograms showed that 95.7% of the patients possessed significant collaterals supplying flow from the interosseous artery to the occluded radial artery remnant. Thus, the blood circulation to the palmar arch and digital vessels was maintained even when the ulnar artery was temporarily occluded by an in-dwelling ulnar arterial sheath.
TU catheterization was safe in patients with coexisting ipsilateral radial artery occlusions and feasible for use in complex intervention procedures. Cautious manipulation of ulnar artery cannulation and hemostasis helped decrease the risk of hand ischemia.
Kenichiro Suzuki, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Makoto Mutoh, Hiroshi Sakamoto, Chikara Mori, Takayuki Ogawa, Koichi Hashimoto, Takeyuki Kubota, Kimiaki Komukai, Michihiro Yoshimura, on Behalf of A Multicenter Registry in The Jikei University
We conducted propensity-score matched comparisons of midterm angiographic outcomes of sirolimus (SES) versus either everolimus- (EES) or biolimus- (BES) eluting stents after placements for coronary stenosis in a daily practice environment since previous randomized trials did not demonstrate the superiority of EES and BES over SES in terms of midterm angiographic outcomes.
The present study was a non-randomized, retrospective, and lesion-based study, recruiting angiographically followed-up lesions within 550 days after successful and elective SES (n = 1793), EES (n = 1303), or BES (n = 324) placement for de novo native coronary stenosis during the period from August 2004 to January 2014 at 6 institutes. The endpoint, as an angiographic surrogate marker of clinical efficacy, was the distribution of in-stent follow-up percent diameter stenosis (%DS) which comprised the percentages of 1) follow-up %DS < 20 and 2) follow-up %DS > 50. Propensityscore matched analyses were conducted to adjust 21 baselines.
In 1215 baseline adjusted lesions, the endpoints in the EES group [1) 74.1%, and 2) 4.6%] were significantly different from those in the SES group [57.9%; P < 0.001, 7.2%; P = 0.006, respectively). In 307 baseline adjusted lesions, the endpoints in the BES group [1) 80.5%, 2) 2.0%] were significantly different from those in the SES group [59.3%; P < 0.001, 2) 8.1%; P = 0.001, respectively].
The present study is the first to confirm the superiority of midterm angiographic outcomes after the placement of EES and BES over SES for de novo coronary stenosis in a clinical setting.
This study was conducted to assess whether any relationships exist between glucose fluctuations and electrocardiographic surrogate markers of reperfusion injury in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
We prospectively studied 63 consecutive patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. Patients had either diabetes (n = 30), impaired glucose tolerance (n = 26), impaired fasting glucose (n = 1), or normal glucose tolerance (n = 6). STsegment resolution (STR, %) was measured using electrocardiograms recorded 60 minutes after PCI. STR was categorized as ≥ 30% and < 30%. Glucose fluctuations were assessed by the following parameters obtained from a continuous glucose monitoring system: mean amplitude of glucose excursion (MAGE, mg/dL); and area under curve with reference to mean blood glucose (AUCMBG, mg/ dL/day).
Both MAGE and AUCMBG were significantly higher in STR < 30%. In univariate analysis, MAGE ≥ 70 mg/dL (OR = 17.0; 95%CI, 1.93–150.12; P < 0.01), AUCMBG ≥ 20 mg/dL/day (OR = 10.9; 95%CI, 1.92-61.77; P < 0.01), and reperfusion arrhythmias (OR = 7.6; 95%CI, 1.32-44.29; P < 0.05) were significantly associated with suboptimal STR. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed only MAGE ≥ 70 mg/dL was predictive of suboptimal STR (OR = 22.5; 95%CI, 2.43-208.66, P < 0.01).
Parameters of glucose fluctuations correlated with electrocardiographic surrogate markers of impaired myocardial salvage in STEMI after reperfusion therapy. Our results suggest that glucose fluctuations may represent a potential therapeutic target to reduce myocardial reperfusion injury in STEMI.
Vasospastic angina (VSA) is caused by endothelial dysfunction and hypercontraction of vascular smooth muscle cells. Although oxidative-stress can induce endothelial dysfunction, the relationship of VSA and the oxidative-stress marker malondialdehyde-modified low density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) remains unclear. Purpose: Serum MDA-LDL was evaluated in candidate VSA patients.
The subjects were 84 patients admitted to our hospital because of chest pain at rest. We stratified the patients into 3 groups; definite VSA, suspected VSA, and unlikely VSA according to a Japanese Circulation Society (JCS) guideline. The patients classified as definite VSA or suspected VSA were considered as “clinical VSA”.
Forty cases were classified as definite VSA, 35 as suspected VSA, and 9 as unlikely VSA. Thus, clinical VSA was the diagnosis in 75 cases. The patient characteristics showed that the average age of the patients was 60.2 years old (men, 61%). The serum MDA-LDL level of the clinical VSA group (126.3 ± 38.0 U/L) was significantly higher than the unlikely VSA group (98.7 ± 31.1 U/L). Serum MDA-LDL was positively correlated with total cholesterol (T-Chol), lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose. Multivariate analysis showed that serum MDA-LDL was the most predictive marker for making a diagnosis of clinical VSA (Odds ratio 1.064, 95% confidence interval 1.014-1.145, P = 0.008). In a population with positive or borderline ECG change, the positive rate in the acetylcholine provocation test was significantly higher in the MDA-LDL higher group compared to the MDA-LDL lower group (81% versus 37%, P = 0.032).
: Serum MDA-LDL might be a useful biomarker of VSA and have additional value for the diagnosis of clinical VSA.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of the SYNTAX Score-II (SS-II) to predict long-term mortality in patients undergoing left main percutaneous coronary intervention (LM-PCI) treated with second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES).
Data from 487 consecutive patients with de novo left main coronary artery disease undergoing PCI were retrospectively studied. The patients were divided into tertiles according to the SS-II: low SS-II tertile (SS-II ≤ 22), intermediate SS-II tertile (SS-II of 23 to 30), and high SS-II tertile (SS-II ≥ 30). The survival curves were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed to evaluate the possible associations between the SS-II and the rates of long-term mortality. The predictive ability of the SS-II for mortality was assessed and compared with the SYNTAX score (SS) alone by an area under the receiver operator curve (AUC).
The overall SS-II was 27.3 ± 9.1. At a mean follow-up of 5.1 years, the long-term mortality was 6.0%. The rates of mortality were 2.4%, 3.4%, and 11.6%, respectively (P < 0.0001) in the low, intermediate, and high SS-II tertiles. The cardiac mortality rates were 1.8%, 1.4%, and 8.1%, respectively (P = 0.002) among patients in the 3 groups. By multivariate analysis, SS-II was an independent predictor of the long-term mortality (hazard ratio: 1.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 2.32; P = 0.03). The AUC demonstrated a substantially higher predictive accuracy of the SS-II for mortality compared with the SS alone (AUC was 0.689 and 0.596, respectively).
In patients with LM-PCI treated with a second-generation DES, the SS-II is an independent predictor of long-term mortality and demonstrates a superior predictability compared with the SS alone.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the Guidezilla guide extension catheter in a reverse controlled antegrade and retrograde subintimal tracking (CART) technique for chronic total occlusion (CTO) recanalization.
We retrospectively collected 80 CTO cases using reverse CART technology from January 2015 to October 2015 and 20 CTO cases using Guidezilla reverse-CART technology from October 2015 to March 2016. Guidezilla was applied in cases when it was difficult to advance a retro-guidewire through an occlusion segment into the antegrade guide catheter.
The Guidezilla group had more cases with an occlusion longer > 20 mm (100.0% versus 72.5%, P = 0.005) and “bending > 45°” (90.0% versus 63.7%, P = 0.029) than the non-Guidezilla group, while the non-Guidezilla group had more retry lesions (25.0% versus 63.8%, P = 0.002). The septal collateral channel was the preferred choice for retro-recanalization in both groups (90.0% in Guidezilla group and 68.8% in non-Guidezilla group). All cases in the Guidezilla group achieved technical success with a TIMI 3 flow in the distal true lumen (100.0% versus 75.0% in non-Guidezilla group, P = 0.010). Cardiac tamponade and perforation in the epicardial artery was observed in 1 case each in the Guidezilla group. In the non-Guidezilla group, 19 complications occurred during the PCI procedure. No target vessel revascularization or in-hospital death occurred in either group.
CTO lesions using the Guidezilla guide extension catheter to facilitate entry to an antegrade catheter in reverse CART technology is convenient and safe with a high success rate.
To investigate the efficacy and safety of stent versus non-stent in treating acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with single vessel disease and intermediate stenosis culprit lesions.
Between September 2009 and May 2015, 475 acute STEMI patients (time from symptom onset < 12 hours) with single vessel disease and intermediate stenosis culprit lesions were retrospectively studied at Beijing Anzhen Hospital. The patients were divided into a stent group (n = 308) and non-stent group (n = 167) based on whether they received stent implantation or not during primary coronary angiography.
During follow-up, the stent group patients had a lower major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) rate than the non-stent group: 5.5% versus 12.0%; P = 0.01; hazard ratio (HR) 0.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.180.69]). The nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) rate was lower in the stent group (2.9% versus 7.2%, P = 0.03). The cardiac death rate (1.9% versus 3%, P = 0.45) and stroke (0.6% versus 1.8%, P = 0.35) rate were similar between the stent and non-stent groups. The two groups shared similar all cause death rates: 4.9% versus 5.4%, respectively, P = 0.81; HR: 1.23 [95%CI: 0.51-2.99]. The composite ischemia outcome of death/MI/stroke was lower in the stent group (8.1% versus 14.4%, P = 0.02). The stent and non-stent groups had similar repeat revascularization rates (10.1% versus 11.4%, P = 0.67); ischemia driven readmission (19.5% versus 15.0%, P = 0.27), and bleeding (1.3% versus 1.2%, P = 1) rates.
Stent implantation has a better efficacy and safety in reducing adverse ischemia events in acute STEMI patients with single vessel disease and intermediate stenosis culprit lesions.
Previous research revealed that, in patients with coronary pressure-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) in the ‘grey zone’ (0.75–0.85), repeated FFR assessments sometimes yield conflicting results. One of the causes of the fluctuations in FFR values around the grey zone may be imprecise identification of the point where maximal hyperemia is achieved. Identification of the state of maximal hyperemia during assessment of FFR can be challenging. This study aimed to determine whether non-invasive electrical velocimetry (EV) can be used to identify the state of maximal hyperemia.
Stroke volume (SV), SV variation (SVV), and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) were determined by EV in 15 patients who underwent FFR assessment. Time intervals from initiation of adenosine infusion to achieving maximal hyperemia (timemFRR), as well as to achieving maximal cardiac output (CO), SV, SVV, and SVRI (timemCO, timemSV, timemSVV, and timemSVRI, respectively), were determined. TimemCO and timemSVV were closer to timemFRR than other values (timemSVV/timemFRR versus timemSVRI/timemFRR = 1.03 ± 0.2 versus 1.36 ± 0.4, P < 0.05). The maximum of SV was difficult to determine owing to considerable variations, but the maximum of SVV was clearly recognized. TimemCO and timemSVV were significantly correlated with timemFFR, with timemSVV showing a stronger correlation than timemSV (timemSVV: r = 0.92, P < 0.01; timemCO: r = 0.80, P < 0.01).
Maximal SVV is reached close to maximal hyperemia. Monitoring of SVV with non-invasive EV during FFR assessment can help identify the state of maximal hyperemia.
The benefits of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with high sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk are uncertain. To clarify the effects of receiving an ICD in CKD patients, we conducted this meta-analysis to identify the effects of ICDs on patients with CKD, including those on dialysis. We searched the Cochrane library, EMBASE, PubMed, and clinical trials for studies published before July 2016. Eleven studies including 20,196 CKD patients were considered for inclusion. The pooled analysis suggested that patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 would benefit from receiving treatments with ICDs compared with patients without an ICD device (aHR = 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 0.95). This is the first report of a subgroup analysis on the survival rate of ICD implantation in CKD patients according to an eGFR group. The subgroup analysis indicated a similar protective association of ICDs in stage 3 CKD patients (aHR = 0.71; 95%CI, 0.61 to 0.82) compared with the control group. However, there was no significant improvement in all-cause mortality in stage 4 CKD patients (aHR = 1.02; 95%CI, 0.75 to 1.37) or stage 5 CKD patients (aHR = 0.80; 95%CI, 0.60 to 1.31). This is the first meta-analysis reporting that ICD implantation reduces all-cause mortality in stage 3 CKD patients. However, the data do not indicate there is any benefit to ICD implantation in stage 4 or 5 CKD patients.
Medical therapy for severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) is necessary for inoperable patients due to comorbid conditions. Tolvaptan (TLV), unlike other diuretics, resulted in modest changes in filling pressures associated with an increase in urine output, suggesting that TLV improves congestive heart failure (CHF) due to severe AS without hemodynamic instability.
We retrospectively investigated 14 consecutive patients ≥ 80 years of age admitted due to decompensated CHF with severe AS at Juntendo University Hospital from April 2014 to November 2015. Seven of the 14 patients were treated with TLV. We examined the safety and efficacy of TLV treatment for severe AS.
Mean age was 90.0 ± 6.3 years and mean aortic valve area was 0.57 ± 0.22 cm2. Urine volume at day 1 of TLV treatment was increased and urine osmolality significantly decreased at day 1 of TLV treatment (all P < 0.05). New York Heart Association classification and brain natriuretic peptide levels significantly improved 1 week after treatment and at discharge (all P < 0.05) whereas brain natriuretic peptide levels did not improve in the patients without TLV. Severe adverse events did not occur during TLV treatment. During the first 3 days, blood pressure and heart rate were relatively stable. TLV treatment did not affect serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, or the estimated glomerular filtration rate.
In elderly patients with severe AS, TLV treatment improved CHF without hemodynamic instability. Further prospective studies are needed to assess the safety and efficacy of TLV in decompensated heart failure due to severe AS.
We examined whether tolvaptan combined with an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) is more effective than tolvaptan alone in the treatment of patients with heart failure (HF). Sixty-five hospitalized patients with acute decompensated HF were included in this study. They were divided into 2 groups; an ARB/ACE-I group (n = 44, who received ARB or ACE-I before the use of tolvaptan) and a non-ARB/ACE-I group (n = 21). There were no significant differences in patient characteristics including medications at baseline between the non-ARB/ACE-I and ARB/ACE-I groups with the exception of the percentages of hypertension and ischemic heart disease. Urinary volume (UV) at baseline in the ARB/ACE-I group was slightly higher than that in the non-ARB/ACE-I group. The increase in UV after the use of tolvaptan in the non-ARB/ACE-I group was significantly higher than that in the ARB/ACE-I group. The cardiothoracic ratio and the reduction in body weight were similar between the groups after tolvaptan use. Finally, in a logistic regression analysis, a response to the use of tolvaptan was independently associated with the non-use of ARB/ACE-I, but not with age, gender, body mass index, loop diuretic, or human arterial natriuretic peptide. In conclusion, tolvaptan alone might induce an increase in UV in decompensated HF patients without ARB/ ACE-I, although the treatment of HF with ARB/ACE-I is the first choice strategy.
We hypothesized that the effects of adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) therapy were influenced by right-sided heart performance. This study aimed to clarify the interaction between the effects of ASV and right-sided heart performance in patients with stable heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).
Twenty-six stable HF inpatients (left ventricular ejection fraction < 0.45, without moderate to severe mitral regurgitation (MR) were analyzed. Echocardiography was performed before and after 30 minutes of ASV. ASV increased stroke volume index (SVI) in 14 patients (30.0 ± 11.9 to 41.1 ± 16.1 mL/m2) and reduced SVI in 12 patients (36.0 ± 10.1 to 31.9 ± 12.2 mL/m2). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) before ASV was an independent association factor for (SV during ASV - SV before ASV)/LVEDV × 100 (%) (%ΔSV/LVEDV). ROC analysis of TAPSE for %ΔSV/LVEDV > 0 showed that the cut-off point was 16.5 mm. All patients were divided into 2 groups according to the TAPSE value. Although no significant differences were found in the baseline characteristics and blood tests, there were significant differences in tricuspid lateral annular systolic velocity, TAPSE, right atrial area, and right ventricular (RV) area before ASV between patients with TAPSE ≤ 16.5 mm and those with TAPSE > 16.5 mm. Interestingly, ASV reduced RV area and increased TAPSE in patients with TAPSE ≤ 16.5 mm, while it reduced TAPSE in those > 16.5 mm.
ASV therapy has the potential to increase SVI in stable HFrEF patients with low TAPSE.
The clinical benefit of endothelin receptor antagonists (ERA) for the management of heart failure (HF) remains controversial. To examine this question, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to investigate the clinical and hemodynamic effects of ERA in HF patients.
We searched the PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception to March 20, 2016 to identify the pertinent studies. Risk ratio (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD) were calculated using a fixed or random effect model.
A total of 15 RCTs with 3,624 HF patients were included. Compared with control groups, ERA might not improve the mortality (RR 1.12, 95%CI 0.81 to 1.54, P = 0.51) or incidence of worsening HF or cardiovascular events (WHF/ CVE) (RR 1.06, 95%CI 0.94 to 1.19, P = 0.35) in HF patients. Subgroup analysis also suggested that neither nonselective nor selective ERAs had an impact on mortality and WHF/CVE. However, the hemodynamic variables of HF patients, including cardiac index (WMD 0.32, 95%CI 0.22 to 0.43, P < 0.01), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (WMD -3.10, 95%CI -3.99 to -2.20, P < 0.01), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (WMD -4.42, 95%CI -5.50 to -3.33, P < 0.01), systemic vascular resistance (WMD -276.35, 95%CI -399.62 to -153.09, P < 0.01), and pulmonary vascular resistance (WMD -69.42, 95%CI -105.33 to -33.52, P < 0.01) were significantly improved by ERA.
In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that ERA therapy could effectively improve cardiac output and pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics, but with less benefit to the clinical outcomes of HF patients.
To investigate parameters which were related with long-term mortality in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF).
A total of 287 patients with AHF presenting to the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University were enrolled into the registry from April 2012 to January 2015. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality within 1 year; the association between variables and prognosis was assessed after 1 year.
Among the 287 patients, 17 did not continue follow-up and 47 (17.4%) passed away. Baseline NT-proBNP and sST2 concentrations were higher amongst deceased than among survivors (P < 0.001). Serum sodium concentrations of patients who died were lower (P < 0.001). In receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analyses, the area under the curve (AUC) values for NT-proBNP, sST2, and serum sodium to predict 1-year mortality were 0.699 (95%CI 0.639-0.755), 0.692, (95%CI 0.634-0.747), and 0.694 (95%CI 0.634-0.750), respectively. The optimal cut-off points for NT-proBNP, sST2, and serum sodium were 2137.0 ng/L, 35.711 ng/mL, and 136.6 mmol/L, respectively. In Cox regression analysis, ln-transformed NT-proBNP (HR 1.546, P = 0.039), ln-transformed sST2 (HR1.542, P = 0.049), and serum sodium (HR 0.880, P = 0.000) values reliably predicted long-term mortality after multivariable adjustment.
In patients with acute heart failure, NT-proBNP, sST2 and serum sodium are potential predictors of 1-year mortality.
Many patients still have high blood pressure (BP) after treatment with angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARBs). We compared the efficacy and safety of azilsartan to those of olmesartan in a prospective randomized clinical trial. Sixty-four hypertensive patients who were treated with ARBs other than azilsartan and olmesartan were enrolled in this study. We randomly assigned patients to changeover from their prior ARBs to either azilsartan or olmesartan, and followed the patients for 3 months. Systolic BP (SBP) in the azilsartan group was significantly decreased at 3 months, and diastolic BP (DBP) and pulse rate (PR) in the olmesartan group showed significant reductions after 3 months. There were no significant differences in ΔSBP, ΔDBP, or ΔPR (Δ = the value at 3 months minus the value at 0 months) between the groups. Serum levels of creatinine (Cr), uric acid (UA), and potassium (K) in the azilsartan group significantly increased after 3 months. While the changes in Cr, UA, and K were within the respective normal ranges, ΔSBP was positively associated with ΔCr in the azilsartan group. In conclusion, there was no difference in the depressor effects of azilsartan and olmesartan, and there were no serious changes in biochemical parameters with azilsartan and olmesartan.
microRNA-99a (miR-99a) is recently recognized as a key regulator in various cancers and cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we sought to investigate the effects of miR-99a in rat cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells against oxidative injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
MTT assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, flow cytometry and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were respectively used to explore viability, ROS levels, apoptosis, and cell death in H9c2 cells. Quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to confirm the expression of miR-99a. Western blot was performed to determine the expression of Notch pathway factors.
LPS could significantly suppress viability and increase cell death, apoptosis, and ROS level (P < 0.05). However, miR-99a could significantly increase the viability and decrease apoptosis and ROS level of H9c2 cells (P < 0.05). Overexpression of miR-99a could activate a Notch pathway and regulate the expression of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and cleaved caspase 3.
Our study found that overexpression of miR-99a could attenuate LPS-induced oxidative injury in H9c2 cells, possibly via a Notch pathway. These findings suggest that miR-99a may be a key factor in cardiomyocyte oxidative injury and could be a new therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases.
Acute myocardial ischemia causes TQ depression and ST elevation. However, the effects of cardioprotective drugs such as β-blockers and Ca++-antagonists on the extent of TQ depression, ST elevation, and myocardial ischemic injury are not fully understood.
We created a carotid-coronary shunt in 30 pigs, and extracellular K+ ([K+]e), TQ, and ST segments were recorded simultaneously with K+-selective plunge electrodes placed in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) distribution during graded LAD flow reduction before and after administration of propranolol or verapamil. Unipolar DC-coupled electrograms were recorded from the reference pole of the K+-selective plunge electrodes. The microvolt readings from the K+-selective electrodes were converted to [K+]e and then to the changes in potassium equilibrium potential (ΔEK). The shunted LAD flow was reduced in a stepwise fashion at 5-minute intervals.
segment depression at the similar ΔEK was not affected by propranolol or verapamil. However, ST segment elevation was reduced by propranolol but exacerbated by verapamil at the similar ΔEK.
TQ-ST changes recorded by AC coupled ECG are not a reliable index of ischemia and therefore cannot be used to evaluate the effects of drugs that might affect the electrophysiologic properties of ischemic myocardium.
Cardiac regeneration strategies using stem cells have shown variable and inconsistent results with respect to patient cardiac function and clinical outcomes. There has been increasing consensus that improving the efficiency of delivery may improve results. The Helix transendocardial delivery system (BioCardia Inc.) has been developed to enable percutaneous transendocardial biotherapeutic delivery. Therefore, we evaluated cell retention using this unique system compared with direct transepicardial injection and intracoronary infusion in an animal model.
Twelve healthy swine were used in this study. 18Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-labeled bone marrow mononuclear cells were delivered via percutaneous transendocardial route using the Helix system (TE group, n = 5), via direct transepicardial injection using a straight 27-gauge needle in an open chest procedure (TP group, n = 4), or via percutaneous intracoronary (IC) infusion (IC group, n = 3). One hour after cell delivery, the distribution of injected cells within the myocardium was assessed by PET-CT. Regions of interest were defined and their signals were compared in each group. Retention rates were calculated as a percentage of the comparing signal.
The distribution of injected cells in the myocardium was higher in the TE group (17.9%) than in the TP group (6.0%, versus TE, P < 0.001) and the IC group (1.0%, versus TE, P < 0.001). Consistent with previous reports, there were signal distributions in the lungs, liver, and kidneys in qualitative whole body PET assessment.
TE cell delivery using a helical infusion catheter is more efficient in cell retention than either TP delivery or IC delivery using PET-CT analysis.
Understanding the metabolic features of myocardial infarction (MI) is critical to its prevention and treatment. Here, we aimed to characterize the metabolic features of early MI using a tissue metabolomics method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty-four pairs of infarcted myocardia and their matched non-infarcted myocardia were collected from 34 rats that underwent coronary artery ligation (CAL); their metabolic profiles were compared by GC-MS-based tissue metabolomics to characterize the metabolic features of MI. On the basis of differential metabolites, their diagnostic potential for MI was analyzed, and MI-related metabolic pathways were investigated. Serum samples before and post MI were used to validate the results obtained in myocardia. The metabolic profile of the infarcted myocardia was obviously different from that of the non-infarcted myocardia, as indicated by partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) plots. Twenty-two metabolites were identified to be different between the infarcted myocardia and non-infarcted myocardia. These metabolic alterations reflect energy deficit, acidosis, oxidative stress, ionic imbalance, and cardiac injury post MI. Glutamine, glutamate, and lactate were confirmed to jointly confer a favorable potential for diagnosing MI, which can be well validated in serum.
With the increased use of intravascular catheters and devices, they have become the major non-malignant cause of superior vein cava (SVC) syndrome. We report a patient with liver cirrhosis who had received a peritoneovenous drainage catheter for refractory ascites, and then developed SVC syndrome because of concomitant occlusions of both the SVC and the drainage catheter. The patient regained patency of both the occluded vessel and the drainage catheter through percutaneous transluminal venoplasty, and there was dramatic improvement of clinical symptoms and good performance of the drainage catheter. Percutaneous intervention may be a feasible and effective therapy for SVC syndrome and intra-catheter thrombosis-related dysfunction.
Traumatic tricuspid regurgitation is a rare and progressive disease. Early diagnosis and surgical valve repair are very important. A 57-year-old male was referred to our hospital with a history of blunt chest trauma. Three-dimensional echocardiography showed severe tricuspid regurgitation and demonstrated two main anterior leaflet chordaes of the tricuspid valve rupture and the whole anterior leaflet prolapsed. The diagnosis was severe tricuspid regurgitation due to leaflet chordae rupture secondary to blunt chest trauma. Surgical repair of the tricuspid valve was performed in this patient. At 3-month follow-up, the right ventricle was decreased in size with significantly improved right ventricular function. The signs and symptoms of right heart failure were relieved. In this case, 3-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography enabled fast and non-invasive evaluation of the spatial destruction of the tricuspid valve and subvalvular apparatus to assist in the planning of valve repair.
Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the GLA gene, encoding for the enzyme α-galactosidase A. Although hundreds of mutations in the GLA gene have been described, many of them are variants of unknown significance. Here we report a novel GLA mutation, p.Ile239Met, identified in a large Hungarian three-generation family with FD. A 69 year-old female index patient with a clinical history of renal failure, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and 2nd degree AV block was screened for mutation in the GLA gene. Genetic screening identified a previously unreported heterozygous mutation in exon 5 of the GLA gene (c.717A>G; p.Ile239Met). Family screening indicated that altogether 6 family members carried the mutation (5 females, 1 male, average age: 55 ± 16 years). Three family members, including the index patient, manifested the cardiac phenotype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, while two other family members were diagnosed with left ventricular hypertrophy. Taking affection status as the presence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, left ventricular hypertrophy or elevated lyso-Gb3 levels, all affected family members carried the mutation. Linkage analysis of the family gave a two-point LOD score of 2.01 between the affection status and the p.Ile239Met GLA mutation. Lyso-Gb3 levels were elevated in all carrier family members (range: 2.4-13.8 ng/mL; upper limit of normal +2STD: ≤ 1.8 ng/mL). The GLA enzyme level was markedly reduced in the affected male family member (< 0.2 µmol/L/hour; upper limit of normal ± 2STD: ≥ 2.6 µmol/L/hour). We conclude that the p. Ile239Met GLA mutation is a pathogenic mutation for FD associated with predominant cardiac phenotype.
A 59-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to a nearby hospital with dyspnea and general malaise. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed right ventricular (RV) dilatation with severely reduced systolic function and leftward shift of the intraventricular septum. She was initially diagnosed with acute right heart failure, and fell into cardiogenic shock requiring an intra-aortic balloon pump and inotropic agents. An endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) demonstrated extensive interstitial edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells including numerous eosinophils, and myocytolysis with eosinophil degranulation. She was histologically diagnosed with eosinophilic myocarditis. Steroid pulse therapy was initiated, and her hemodynamic status improved along with dramatic recovery of the RV function. EMB 6 days after the initiation of steroid pulse therapy showed the disappearance of infiltration and degranulation of eosinophils, although lymphocytic infiltration still remained. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) 23 days after steroid pulse therapy showed an increased 18F-FDG uptake in the intraventricular septum and left ventricle, suggesting persistent myocardial inflammation. She was then treated with a maintenance dose of prednisolone. She became free of symptoms and follow-up echocardiography showed normal cardiac function 3 months after the initiation of corticosteroid treatment. In addition, EMB and PET/CT showed no inflammation. This is the first case report of fulminant and right-sided dominant eosinophilic myocarditis successfully treated with corticosteroid.
We present a very rare case of bilateral coronary to pulmonary artery fistulas associated with pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect. The courses of coronary to pulmonary artery fistulas have to be clearly delineated by detailed angiography prior to corrective surgery.
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