The effect of inlet and outlet blade angles on a micro regenerative pump head was examined in experiments. The pump head was little increased by changing the blade angles compared with the original pump with the inlet and outlet blade angles of 0 degree. The effect of the axial clearance between the impeller and the casing on the pump head was also examined. The head was increased largely by decreasing the axial clearance. The computation of the internal flow was performed to clarify the cause of the increase of the pump head due to the decrease of the clearance. The local flow rate in the casing decreased as the leakage flow rate through the axial clearance decreased due to the decrease of the clearance. It was found that the larger head in the smaller clearance was just caused by the smaller local flow rate in the casing. In the case of the smaller clearance, the smaller local flow rate caused the smaller circumferential velocity near the front and rear sides of the impeller. This caused the increase of the angular momentum in the casing and the head.
Since large-scale commercial wind turbine generator systems such as MW-class wind turbines are becoming widely operated, the vibration and distortion of the blade are becoming larger and larger. Therefore the soft structure design instead of the solid-design is one of the important concepts to reduce the structural load and the cost of the wind turbine rotors. The objectives of the study are development of the fluid-structure coupled analysis code and evaluation of soft rotor-blade design to reduce the unsteady structural blade load. In this paper, fluid-structure coupled analysis for the HAWT rotor blade is performed by free wake panel method coupled with hinge-spring blade model for the flapwise blade motion. In the model, the continuous deflection of the rotor blade is represented by flapping angle of the hinge with one degree of freedom. The calculation results are evaluated by comparison with the database of the NREL unsteady aerodynamic experiment. In the analysis the unsteady flapwise moments in yawed inflow conditions are compared for the blades with different flapwise eigen frequencies.
Alternate blade cavitation, rotating cavitation and cavitation surge in rocket turbopump inducers were simulated by a three dimensional commercial CFD code. In order to clarify the cause of cavitation instabilities, the velocity disturbance caused by cavitation was obtained by subtracting the velocity vector under non-cavitating condition from that under cavitating condition. It was found that there exists a disturbance flow towards the trailing edge of the tip cavity. This flow has an axial flow component towards downstream which reduces the incidence angle to the next blade. It was found that all of the cavitation instabilities start to occur when this flow starts to interact with the leading edge of the next blade. The existence of the disturbance flow was validated by experiments.
Jets issuing through small holes in a wall into a freestream has proven effective in the control of flow separation. This technique is known as the vortex generator jet (VGJs) method. If a precursor signal of separation is found, the separation control system using VGJs can be operated just before the onset of separation and the flow field with no separation is always attained. In this study, we measured the flow field and the wall static pressure in a two-dimensional diffuser to find a precursor signal of flow separation. The streamwise velocity measurements were carried out in the separated shear layer and spectral analysis was applied to the velocity fluctuations at some angles with respect to the diffuser. The pattern of peaks in the spectral analysis changes as the divergence angle increases over the angle of which the whole separation occurs. This change in the spectral pattern is related to the enhancement of the growth of shear layer vortices and appears just before the onset of separation. Therefore, the growth of shear layer vortices can be regarded as a precursor signal to flow separation.
Experimental investigations were conducted for the internal flows of the axial flow stator and diagonal flow rotor. Corner separation near the hub surface and the suction surface of stator blade are mainly focused on. For the design flow rate, the values of the axial velocity and the total pressure at stator outlet decrease between near the suction surface and near the hub surface by the influence of corner wall. For the flow rate of 80-90% of the design flow rate, the corner separation of the stator between the suction surface and the hub surface is observed, which becomes widely spread for 80% of the design flow rate. At rotor outlet for 81% of the design flow rate, the low axial velocity region grows between near the suction surface of rotor and the casing surface because of the tip leakage flow of the rotor.
Unlike usual turbopump inducers, the axial flow pump tested operates very stably at design flow rate without rotating cavitation nor cavitation surge. Flow visualization suggests that this is because the tip cavity smoothly extends into the flow passage without the interaction with the leading edge of the next blade. However, at low flow rate and low cavitation number, choked surge and rotating choke were observed. Their correlation with the performance curve under cavitation is discussed and their instantaneous flow fields are shown.
Sewage pumps are designed with a wide flow channel by, for example, sacrificing some efficiency and reducing the number of blades, in order to prevent plugging with foreign bodies. However, the behavior of foreign bodies which actually flow into a pump is extremely complex, and there are questions about whether the presumed foreign bodies will actually pass through. This paper proposes a new type of sewage pump impeller designed to further improve pump efficiency and performance in passing foreign bodies. This sewage pump impeller has a structure in which the suction flow channel of a closed type non-clog pump is wound in a helical spiral. The focus of this research was to investigate pump performance and internal flow in this single blade sewage pump impeller. The results clearly indicated the following facts: The developed sewage pump impeller exhibits high efficiency over a wide range of flow rates; internal flow of the pump is very complicated; and the internal flow state varies greatly when the flow rate changes.
This paper presents a numerical study for unsteady flows in a high-pressure steam turbine with a partial admission stage. Compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the high-order high-resolution finite-difference method based on the fourth-order compact MUSCL TVD scheme, Roe's approximate Riemann solver, and the LU-SGS scheme. The SST-model is also solved for evaluating the eddy-viscosity. The unsteady two-dimensional flows through whole nozzle-rotor cascade channels considering a partial admission are numerically investigated. 108 nozzle passages with two blockages and 60 rotor passages are simultaneously calculated. The influence of the flange in the nozzle box to the lift of rotors is predicted. Also the efficiency of the partial admission stage changing the number of blockages and the number of nozzles is parametrically predicted.
In this paper it was attempted to treat the hydrodynamic journal bearing as a time-based nonlinear reaction source in each step of rotor rotation in order to observe the bearing effect more realistically and accurately in stead of the conventional method of simple linearized stiffness and damping. Lubrication analysis based on finite element method is employed to calculate the hydrodynamic reaction of bearing and Newmark's method was used to calculate the rotor dynamics in the time domain. Simulation for an industrial electrical motor showed remarkable results with differences compared to those by the conventional method in the dynamic behavior of the rotor.
The effects of acoustic modes in the penstock on the self-excited oscillation in hydraulic power system were studied by assuming a finite sound velocity in the penstock. The flow in the draft tube is considered to be incompressible assuming that the length of the draft tube is smaller than the wavelength of the oscillation. It was found that various acoustic modes in the penstock can become unstable (amplified) by the diffuser effect of the draft tube or the effect of swirl flow from the runner. Their effects on each mode are discussed.