Thin circular-arc blade is often used as a guide vane, a deflecting vane, or a rotating blade of low pressure axial-flow turbomachine because of its easy manufacture. Ordinary design of the blade elements of these machines is done by use of the carpet diagrams for a cascade of circular-arc blades. However, the application of the carpet diagrams is limited to relatively low cambered blade operating under optimum inlet flow conditions. In order to extend the applicable range, additional design data is necessary. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a promising method to get these data. In this paper, two-dimensonal cascade performances of circular-arc blade are widely analyzed with CFD. The results have been compared with the results of experiment and potential theory, and useful information has been obtained. Turning angle and total pressure loss coefficients are satisfactorily predicted for lowly cambered blade. For high camber angle of 67°, the CFD results agree with experiment for the angle of attack less than that for shockless inlet condition.
Water hammer pumps can effectively use the water hammer phenomenon in long-distance pipeline networks that include pumps and allow fluid transport without drive sources, such as electric motors. The results of experiments that examined the effect of the geometric form of water hammer pumps by considering their major dimensions have been reported. In addition, a paper has also been published analyzing the water hammer phenomenon numerically by using the characteristic curve method for comparison with experimental results. However, these conventional studies have not fully evaluated the pump performance in terms of pump head and flow rate, common measures indicating the performance of pumps. Therefore, as a first stage for the understanding of water hammer pump performance in comparison with the characteristics of typical turbo pumps, the previous paper experimentally examined how the hydrodynamic characteristics were affected by the inner diameter ratio of the drive and lifting pipes, the form of the air chamber, and the angle of the drive pipe. To understand the behavior of the components attached to the valve chamber and the air chamber that affects the performance of water hammer pumps, the previous study also determined the relationship between the water hammer pump performance and temporal changes in valve chamber and air chamber pressures according to the air chamber capacity. For the geometry of components attached to the drain valve, which is another major component of water hammer pumps, this study experimentally examines how the water hammer pump performance is affected by the length of the spring and the angle of the drain pipe.
The turbo-type blood pump studied in this paper has an impeller that is magnetically suspended in a double volute casing. The impeller rotates with minimal fluctuations caused by fluid and magnetic forces. In order to improve stability of the rotating impeller and to facilitate long-term use, a careful investigation of the pressure fluctuations and of the fluid force acting on the impeller is necessary. For this purpose, two models of the pump with different volute cross-sectional area are designed and studied with computational fluid dynamics software. The results show that the fluid force varies with the flow rate and shape of the volute, that the fluctuations of fluid force decrease with increasing flow rate and that the vibratory movement of the impeller is more efficiently suppressed in a narrow volute.
Single-blade centrifugal pumps are widely used as sewage pumps. However, the impeller of a single-blade pump is subjected to strong radial thrust during pump operation because of the geometrical axial asymmetry of the impeller. Therefore, to improve pump reliability, it is necessary to quantitatively understand radial thrust and elucidate the behavior and mechanism of thrust generating. This study investigates the radial thrust acting up on a single-blade centrifugal impeller by conducting experiments and CFD analysis. The results show that the fluctuating component of radial thrust increases as the flow rate deviates from the design flow rate to low or high value. Radial thrust was modeled by a combination of three components, inertia, momentum, and pressure by applying an unsteady conservation of momentum to the impeller. The sum of these components agrees with the radial thrust calculated by integrating the pressure and the shearing stress on the impeller surface. The behavior of each component was shown, and the effects of each component on radial thrust were clarified. The pressure component has the greatest effect on the time-averaged value and the fluctuating component of radial thrust. The time-averaged value of the inertia component is nearly 0, irrespective of the change in the flow rate. However, its fluctuating component has a magnitude nearly comparable with the pressure component at a low flow rate and slightly decreased with the increase in flow rate.
Water turbines have been used in electricity generation for well over a century. Hydroelectricity now supplies 19% of world electricity. Many hydro power plants are operated with Pelton turbines, which is an impulse turbine. The main reasons for using impulse turbines are that they are very simple and relatively cheap. As the stream flow varies, water flow to the turbine can be easily controlled by changing the number of nozzles or by using adjustable nozzles. Scientific investigation and design of turbines saw rapid advancement during last century. Most of the research that had been done on turbines were focused on improving the performance with particular reference to turbine components such as shaft seals, speed increasers and bearings. There is not much information available on effects of blade friction on the performance of turbine. The main focus in this paper is to analyze the performance of Pelton turbine particularly with respect to their blade friction.