Researches on the mechanism of surging and the surge behaviors in the systems of pumps, or fans or compressors, and the effects of flow-paths had been initiated and had made a great progress in Japan in the decades from the nineteen-forties to the nineteen-sixties. In 1947, the essential cause of the surges, i.e., self-excited oscillation nature of the flow-system, was discovered analytically by Professor Sumiji Fujii of Tokyo University, and most of the characteristic behaviors of the phenomena had been explained clearly. Successive studies by many other Japanese researchers continued to prove experimentally the mechanism, to extend the analytical studies, and to attempt preventing surge occurrence, etc. in the following two decades. The historical information on the early surge studies could be helpful to some concerned people. At the same time, the basic and plain ways of discussions and reasoning about the phenomena in the pioneering researches could give us much to be learned even in the present time of high-power computing systems. Regrettably, many of the original research works have been published only in Japanese. The present review introduces very briefly the situations in memories of the pioneering researchers and engineers.
Fluid-dynamic design of fluid machinery had heavily relied on empiricism and experimental observations for many years. Since 1980s, thanks to the advancements in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), a variety of flow physics have been revealed. The contribution by CFD is indispensable; however, the challenge is required not only on the advancements in CFD technologies but also innovation of “ design (optimization) technologies ” because of the complex interactions between 3-D flow fields and the complex 3-D flow passage configurations, etc. This paper presents historical perspective on fluid machinery flow optimization in an industry with some messages for the future.
Behaviors of surges appearing near the stall stagnation boundaries in various fashions in systems of a single-stage compressor and flow-path systems were studied analytically and were tried to put to order. Deep surges, which enclose the stall point in the pressure-mass flow plane, tend to have either near-resonant surge frequencies or subharmonic ones. The subharmonic surge is a multiple-loop one containing, for example, in a (1/2) subharmonic one, a deep surge loop and a mild surge loop, the latter of which does not enclose the stall point, staying only within the stalled zone. Both loops have nearly equal time periods, respectively, resulting in a (1/2) subharmonic surge frequency as a whole. The subharmonic surges are found to appear in a narrow zone neighboring the stall stagnation boundary. In other words, they tend to appear in the final stage of the stall stagnation process.It should be emphasized further that the stall stagnation initiates fundamentally at the situation where a volume-modified reduced resonant-surge frequency becomes coincident with that for the stagnation boundary conditions, where the reduced frequency is defined by the acoustical resonance frequency in the flow-path system, the delivery flow-path length and the compressor tip speed, modified by the sectional area ratio and the effect of the stalling pressure ratio. The real surge frequency turns from the resonant frequency to either near-resonant one or subharmonic one, and finally to stagnation condition, for the large-amplitude conditions, caused by the non-linear self-excitation mechanism of the surge.
The flexible control system for hydraulic pile hammer using main control valve is present to the requirement of rapidly reversing with high frequency. To ensure the working reliability of hydraulic pile hammer, the reversing performance of the main control valve should commutate robustness to various interfere factors. Through simulation model built in Simulink/Stateflow and experiment, the effects of relative parameters to reverse performance of main control are analyzed and the main interfere factors for reversing performance are acquired. Treating reverse required time as design objects, some structure parameters as control factors, control pressure, input flow and gaps between spool and valve body as interfere factors, the robust design of the main control valve is done. The combination of factors with the strongest anti-jamming capability is acquired which ensured the reliability and anti-jamming capability of the main control valve. It also provides guidance on design and application of the main control valve used in large flow control with interferes.
A high frequency hydraulic rock drill drifter with sleeve valve is developed to use on arm of excavator. In order to ensure optimal working parameters of impact system for the new hydraulic rock drill drifter controlled by sleeve valve, the performance test system is built using the arm and the hydraulic source of excavator. The evaluation indexes are gained through measurement of working pressure, supply oil flow and stress wave. The relations of working parameters to impact system performance are analyzed. The result demonstrates that the maximum impact energy of the drill drifter is 98.34J with impact frequency of 71HZ. Optimal pressure of YZ45 rock drill is 12.8 MPa-13.6MPa, in which the energy efficiency reaches above 58.6%, and feature moment of energy distribution is more than 0.650.
The portable hydraulic turbine we previously developed for open channels comprises an axial flow runner with an appended collection device and a diffuser section. The output power of this hydraulic turbine was improved by catching and accelerating an open-channel water flow using the kinetic energy of the water. This study aimed to further improve the performance of the hydraulic turbine. Using numerical analysis, we examined the performances and flow fields of a single runner and a composite body consisting of the runner and collection device by varying the airfoil and number of blades. Consequently, the maximum values of input power coefficient of the Runner D composite body with two blades (which adopts the MEL031 airfoil and alters the blade angle) are equivalent to those of the composite body with two blades (MEL021 airfoil). We found that the Runner D composite body has the highest turbine efficiency and thus the largest power coefficient. Furthermore, the performance of the Runner D composite body calculated from the numerical analysis was verified experimentally in an open-channel water flow test.
By high speed Liquid Droplet Impingement (LDI) on material, fluid systems are seriously damaged, therefore, it is important for the solution of the erosion problem of fluid systems to consider the effect of material in LDI. In this study, by using an in-house fluid/material two-way coupled method which considers reflection and transmission of pressure, stress and velocity on the fluid/material interface, high-speed LDI on wet/dry material surface is simulated. As a result, in the case of LDI on wet surface, maximum equivalent stress are less than those of dry surface due to damping effect of liquid film. Empirical formula of the damping effect function is formulated with the fluid factors of LDI, which are impingement velocity, droplet diameter and thickness of liquid film on material surface.
Concerning the numerical simulation of high-speed water jet with intensive cavitation this paper presents a practical compressible mixture flow method by coupling a simplified estimation of bubble cavitation and a compressible mixture flow computation. The mean flow of two-phase mixture is calculated by URANS for compressible fluid. The intensity of cavitation in a local field is evaluated by the volume fraction of gas phase varying with the mean flow, and the effect of cavitation on the flow turbulence is considered by applying a density correction to the evaluation of eddy viscosity. High-speed submerged water jets issuing from a sheathed sharp-edge orifice nozzle are treated when the cavitation number, σ = 0.1, and the computation result is compared with experimental data The result reveals that cavitation occurs initially at the entrance of orifice and bubble cloud develops gradually while flowing downstream along the shear layer. Developed bubble cloud breaks up and then sheds downstream periodically near the sheath exit. The pattern of cavitation cloud shedding evaluated by simulation agrees experimental one, and the possibility to capture the unsteadily shedding of cavitation clouds is demonstrated. The decay of core velocity in cavitating jet is delayed greatly compared to that in no-activation jet, and the effect of the nozzle sheath is demonstrated.
An experimental study is conducted for unsteady wet steam flow in a four-stage low-pressure test steam turbine. The measurements are carried out at outlets of the last two stages by using a newly developed fast response aerodynamic probe. This FRAP-HTH probe (Fast Response Aerodynamic Probe - High Temperature Heated) has a miniature high-power cartridge heater with an active control system to heat the probe tip, allowing it to be applied to wet steam measurements. The phase-locked average results obtained with a sampling frequency of 200 kHz clarify the flow characteristics, such as the blade wakes and secondary vortexes, downstream from the individual rotational blades in the wet steam environment.
A method of optimization design for the blade profile of a centrifugal impeller by controlling velocity distribution is presented, and a plenum fan is successfully designed. This method is based on the inner flow calculation inside the centrifugal impeller, and is related to the distribution of relative velocity. The results show that after optimization, the boundary layer separation on the suction surface has been inhibited and the stability of plenum fan is improved. The flow at the impeller outlet is also studied, and the jet-wake pattern at the impeller outlet is improved obviously by optimization. The calculation result shows that the static pressure and static pressure efficiency can be increased by 15.4% and 21.4% respectively.