This paper focuses on the single stage and multistage performance characteristics of centrifugal mixed flow submersible borewell pump. This study reveals that the performance of single stage pump is higher than that of multistage pumps. The head, input power and efficiency of single stage pump are higher than the per stage head, per stage input power and efficiency of multistage pumps. This study is divided into three parts. In the first part, five prototype pumps were made in single stage and multistage construction and the performance tests were conducted. In the second part, numerical validation has been done for different turbulence models and grid sizes. k-Omega SST model has been selected for the performance simulation and was validated with the performance of the test pump with static pressure tappings .In the third part, single and three stage pump performance were simulated numerically and compared with experimental results. The detailed analysis of pressure and velocity distributions reveals the difference in performance of single and three stage pump, due to non-uniform flow and difference in averaged flow velocities at the subsequent impeller inlets except the 1st stage impeller inlet.
This work presents the numerical investigation of an unsteady cavitating flow around a balancing drum of a multistage pump. The main attention is focused on the cavitation phenomena, which occur in the rear part of the drum clearance, cause the erosion of the drum material and influence the pressure losses and the flow rate through the clearance. The one-way coupling of the URANS equations and the full Rayleigh-Plesset equation is employed to analyse the flow field as well as the dynamics of cavitating bubbles. The numerical simulations show that the erosion processes are highly influenced by shaft vibrations, namely by periodic deformations of the annular clearance in time. The calculated results are verified by erosion tests on a real pump.
An experimental investigation was carried out to improve the performance of a counter-rotating type horizontal-axis tidal stream power unit. Front and rear blades were designed separately based on modified blade element momentum (BEM) theory, and their performances at different conditions of blade tip speed ratio were measured in a wind tunnel. Three different groups of blades were designed successively, and the results showed that Group3 possessed the highest power coefficient of 0.44 and was the most satisfactory model. This experiment shows that properly increasing diameter and reducing chord length will benefit the performance of the blade.
Variable Geometry System (VGS) is widely applied to the nozzle vane for the radial inflow turbine constituting automotive turbochargers for the purpose of optimizing the power output at each operating condition. In order to improve the performance of radial turbines with VGS, it is necessary to clarify the influences of the setting angle of nozzle vane on the internal flow of radial turbine. However, the experimental measurements are considered to be difficult for the flow in radial turbines because of the small size and the high rotational speed. In the present study, the numerical calculations were carried out for the flow in the radial turbine at three operating conditions by applying the corresponding nozzle vane exit angles, which were set up in the experimental study, as the inlet boundary condition. The numerical results revealed the characteristic flow behaviors at each operating condition.
In this study, a method for the multi-objective optimization of an impeller for a centrifugal compressor using fluid-structure interaction (FSI) and response surface method (RSM) was proposed. Numerical simulation was conducted using ANSYS CFX and Mechanical with various configurations of impeller geometry. Each design parameter was divided into 3 levels. A total of 15 design points were planned using Box-Behnken design, which is one of the design of experiment (DOE) techniques. Response surfaces based on the results of the DOE were used to find the optimal shape of the impeller. Two objective functions, isentropic efficiency and equivalent stress were selected. Each objective function is an important factor of aerodynamic performance and structural safety. The entire process of optimization was conducted using the ANSYS Design Xplorer (DX). The trade-off between the two objectives was analyzed in the light of Pareto-optimal solutions. Through the optimization, the structural safety and aerodynamic performance of the centrifugal compressor were increased.
In this paper, a new framework that works the automatic execution with less design cycle time and human intervention bottlenecks is introduced to optimize the vortex shedder design by numerical integration method. This framework is based on iSIGHT combined with the pre-processor GAMBIT, and flow analysis software FLUENT. Two vortex shedders, circular with slit and triangular- semi circular cylinder, are employed as the designed models to be optimized, and DOE driver is used for optimization. According to the essential properties of a vortex shedder, it has found that the best diameters are 30mm for circular cylinder with slit and 30 to 35 mm for tri-semi cylinder. For slit ratio, 0.1 and 0.15 are the optimized values for circular with slit and tri-semi cylinder respectively. And it is found that these optimal results generated by DOE automated design cycle are in well agreement with the experiment.
In high speed turbopumps, cavitation occurs and often causes the flow instabilities such as cavitation surge and rotating cavitation. The occurrence of these cavitation instabilities is considered to relate to dynamic characteristics of the cavitation, which are modelled using a cavitation compliance and a mass flow gain factor. Various types of cavitation such as a blade surface cavitation, a tip leakage vortex cavitation, and a backflow vortex cavitation occur at the same time in the inducer and the dynamic characteristics of each cavitation have not been clarified yet in experiments. Focusing on the blade surface cavitation as one of fundamental cavitation, we investigated the dynamic characteristics of the blade surface cavitation on a flat plate hydrofoil in experiments in the present study.
A cross-flow wind turbine has a high torque coefficient at a low tip speed ratio. Therefore, it is a good candidate for use as a self-starting turbine. Furthermore, it has low noise and excellent stability; therefore, it has attracted attention from the viewpoint of applications as a small wind turbine for an urban district. However, its maximum power coefficient is extremely low (10 %) as compared to that of other small wind turbines. In order to improve the performance and flow condition of the cross-flow rotor, the symmetrical casing with a nozzle and a diffuser are proposed and the experimental research with the symmetrical casing is conducted. The maximum power coefficient is obtained as Cpmax = 0.17 in the case with the casing and Cpmax=0.098 in the case without the casing. In the present study, the power characteristics of the cross-flow rotor and those of the symmetrical casing with the nozzle and diffuser are investigated. Then, the performance and internal flow patterns of the cross-flow wind turbine with the symmetrical casings are clarified. After that, the effect of the side boards set on the symmetrical casing is discussed on the basis of the analysis results.
Contra-rotating rotors have been adopted for some of the cooling fans to meet the demand for the high pressure and large flow rate. Therefore, it is important to clarify its inlet and outlet flows by experiments for the high performance and stable operation. PIV measurements were conducted at the design and partial flow rates. In the present paper, the inlet and outlet flow conditions of the contra-rotating small-sized cooling fan with a 40mm square casing are studied by using PIV measurement. Furthermore, improvements of the flow condition and design guideline to increase the performance were discussed based on the experimental results.
Introduction of intermittent electricity production systems like wind and solar power to electricity market together with the deregulation of electricity markets resulted in numerous start/stops, load variations and off-design operation of water turbines. Hydraulic turbines suffer from the varying loads exerted on their stationary and rotating parts during load variations since they are not designed for such operating conditions. Investigations on part load operation of single regulated turbines, i.e., Francis and propeller, proved the formation of a rotating vortex rope (RVR) in the draft tube. The RVR induces pressure pulsations in the axial and rotating directions called plunging and rotating modes, respectively. This results in oscillating forces with two different frequencies on the runner blades, bearings and other rotating parts of the turbine. This study investigates the effect of transient operations on the pressure fluctuations exerted on the runner and mechanism of the RVR formation/mitigation. Draft tube and runner blades of the Porjus U9 model, a Kaplan turbine, were equipped with pressure sensors for this purpose. The model was run in off-cam mode during different load variations. The results showed that the transients between the best efficiency point and the high load occurs in a smooth way. However, during transitions to the part load a RVR forms in the draft tube which induces high level of fluctuations with two frequencies on the runner; plunging and rotating mode. Formation of the RVR during the load rejections coincides with sudden pressure change on the runner while its mitigation occurs in a smooth way.