This study on charity sport events in Japan aimed to determine how the participants, event organizer, and beneficial organizations co-create values and make their event effective. Using the Sport Value Framework (Woratschek et al., 2014) as the theoretical framework, questionnaire and interview surveys were conducted on “Value Received” and “Value Created” from the perspective of the three abovementioned stakeholders. The results identified four concepts: “Running event opportunity (marathon participation and commemorative gift),” “Opportunity for interaction,” “Motivation for contributing to society,” and “Psychological benefits” for the values received by the participants, and five concepts of “Financial support,” “Impression of marathon runners,” “Social system supporting fundraising,” “Communication opportunities,” and “Connection with other organizations in the community” for the values created by the participants. These results were presented in a schematic form as a logic model, and allowed for identifying the social impact of charity runs. The present findings will help visualize and communicate the values of these events for communities hosting a charity sport event in the future, event organizers, charity runners, charitable organizations, and donors.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between EI, CSA, and aerobic performance, and to develop a model to predict aerobic performance. Twenty aerobically trained participants had a panoramic ultrasound taken of their rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles on their right leg before performing a maximal aerobic cycling test. Ultrasound derived echo intensity and cross-sectional area were compared to peak oxygen consumption (VO2) and maximal power output. Pearson’s product coefficients were used to determine the relationship between ultrasound measurements and aerobic performance values, while a multiple regression model was used to determine what indicators predict in maximal VO2 and max watt output. Results indicated a significant negative relationship between echo intensity (p<0.05) for max power and VO2 and a positive relationship with cross-sectional area (p<0.05) for max power and VO2. Stepwise regression revealed that muscle echo intensity, cross-sectional area, and sex were good predictors of both max Power and VO2. These findings demonstrate that higher quality muscle values (lower echo intensity) and larger muscle size have a higher aerobic performance output than smaller lower quality muscle.
This study aimed to examine the Collective Efficacy (CE) and Group Cohesion (GC) of players belonging to Japanese high school and university rugby teams, and to verify the associations between these concepts and educational stage and playing opportunities. The sample comprised 766 male high school and college rugby players, who belonged to highly competitive teams that have participated in national competitions. The breakdown of the sample was as follows: high school-roster players (116); high school-non-roster players, (206); university-roster players (108); and university-non-roster players (336). The survey was conducted in-season for control purposes, and only the winning teams in matches preceding and following the survey were targeted. The Japanese translated version of the Collective Efficacy Questionnaire for Sports (CEQS) was used to verify CE, and a Japanese translated version of the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) was used to verify GC. Furthermore, two-way analysis of variance was performed on the values of the dependent variables for each level of the independent variables of educational stages (high school, university) shown as the total score of CE. Simple main effects analysis results indicated that, in the case of high school and university students, roster players displayed higher values than non-roster players. In addition, in the case of roster and non-roster players, high school students displayed higher values than university students. On the other hand, no interaction was shown for the total score of GC. A main effect of educational stage was observed in the analysis results, where high school students displayed higher values than university students. Moreover, regarding playing opportunities, roster players displayed higher values than non-roster players.
In addition, this study's results demonstrate that all subscales of both concepts displayed similarities to the total scores; strongly suggesting that an association exists between different educational stages and playing opportunities, as well as between the concepts themselves. This showed that differences in CE and GC arose from differing educational stages and playing opportunities. The findings obtained in the present study can provide helpful insights that inform coaching and management of team sports in season.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the differences between successful and unsuccessful kicking pullovers in elementary school children. Successful (n=12) and unsuccessful (n=13) kicking pullovers by elementary school children having an approximate age of 10 years using 1 m high horizontal bars were captured, and sagittal plane analyses at 60 Hz were performed using a rigid body link model. The shoulder joint angles were kept constant in the successful movements, whereas those were steadily flexed in the unsuccessful movements after the takeoff. The successful movements had smaller forward velocity of the center of mass (CoM) at takeoff, because of the larger decrease in the forward velocity during the takeoff phase. The angle of the swing leg thigh during the takeoff phase was highly correlated with this change in velocity. In successful movements, the thigh was more downward at touchdown, with the trunk upright and the hip joint of the swing leg largely extended. These results suggest that the downward swing leg in the successful movements allowed for larger and faster swinging during the takeoff phase, resulting in a larger backward reaction force impulse from the ground and decrease in the forward velocity of the CoM. This decreased velocity helps to pull the body towards the bar with upper limb joint torques after the takeoff. Therefore, guiding children to touch down in a posture with the trunk upright and the hip joint of the swing leg fully extended would be effective.
In recent years, leisure, including sports and physical activity, has been shown to have positive effects on life satisfaction. However, enough empirical evidence regarding long-distance running has not yet been provided. Additionally, running event participants’ attitudes regarding life satisfaction with life-long sports needs to be understood. Community sports events are expected not only to have economic impacts but also to promote sports. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sports event satisfaction and life satisfaction through life domain satisfaction. In particular, this research focused on long-distance runners. I collected 377 data out of the participants in the event, and valid responses were received from 340 respondents. The sample consisted of 223 males (66%) and 117 females (34%), most of whom came from the host prefecture (n = 284, 84%). The results indicated that there is a significant indirect effect of event satisfaction on life satisfaction through life domain satisfaction partially. However, life satisfaction did not affect life satisfaction directly. This study contributes to understanding the relationship between event satisfaction and life satisfaction. Future research should examine the involvement and daily sports and physical activity levels of event participants to develop individualized strategies for runners.
The purpose of this study was to present a new perspective on the problem of attempting to lose a game on purpose through a consideration of whether doing so threatens the existence of sport. We began by hypothesizing the concept of “failed athletic contests”, which has been discussed in the field of sport philosophy, as jeopardizing the existence of this activity. We then examined the concept of “losing games on purpose” with reference to the “failed athletic contests” theory of Kawatani (2013). We examined 2 broad categories of “losing games on purpose”: one where defeat is clearly the goal, and the other where players deceive referees and spectators by behaving as though they want to win, while in fact actually trying to lose.
Kawatani claims that games where an ethos (internal purpose) is not achieved, even though the contest is based on athletes playing according to the rules, constitute “failed athletic contests”. He found that player commitment to winning is necessary as a condition in achieving the ethos of the game, suggesting that “losing games on purpose” in either category constitutes a “failed athletic contest” in that athletes are not committed to victory and the ethos is not established. On the other hand, it was also clarified that there is a dilemma for players in athletic meets when a commitment to winning is called for, but when this is occasionally in conflict with the ethos of individual games.
For the second category, it was also revealed that referees and spectators were not aware of the nature of such a defeat when it was concealed. This suggests that the second category of “losing games on purpose” is more problematic than the first.
Limited data on the response of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) to acute exercise are available. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of FABP4 to incremental maximal exercise in exercise-trained and untrained men. Eleven exercise-trained young men (T group; age, 20.4 ± 1.2 years) and 9 untrained young men (UT group; age, 20.7 ± 0.5 years) performed an incremental maximal exercise after a 12-h fasting period. Before and immediately after the incremental maximal exercise, venous blood was drawn to measure circulating FABP4, free fatty acid, and glycerol concentrations. Body composition, and aerobic capacity were also assessed. Glycerol concentration significantly increased during the exercise in the T group (group × time interaction: p = 0.034; group effect, p = 0.088; and time effect, p = 0.003), and the percentage increase in glycerol concentration was greater in the T group than in the UT group (p = 0.046; ES(r): 0.45). Although circulating FABP4 concentration significantly increased in the two groups (group × time interaction: p = 0.766; group effect, p = 0.114; and time effect, p = 0.001), the percentage increase in FABP4 concentration was similar (p = 0.210; ES(r): 0.28). Additionally, the change of FABP4 concentration was not correlated with that of glycerol (r = -0.04, p =0.872). These results indicated that circulating FABP4 concentration increased during incremental maximal exercise regardless of difference in lipolysis and exercise training status in healthy young men.
The purposes of this study were to identify facilitative factors in career patterns of sports participant among middle-aged and older adults, and to compare and examine the characteristics of facilitative factors in each career. This study was conducted as a secondary analysis of the sports monitoring survey of the Kansai Region in 2018. The survey was conducted online, with a random sampling of men and women over 18 years of age throughout the Kansai area. The survey continued until the target sample size (10,000) was reached. The main findings were as follows: (1) Facilitative conditions were extracted in accordance with the free description of the reasons and causes that led the participants to participate in sports, and not from conventional personal and environmental factors. The free description items comprised 44, 35, and 44 conditions on adherence, adoption, and resumption careers, respectively. (2) In relation to the occurrence of facilitative factors in sports participation in order to clarify the characteristics of the extracted facilitative categories, a significant difference was revealed in nine categories. Furthermore, the difference for each career was confirmed. (3) In relation to the facilitative factors and patterns of sports participation, the characteristic facilitative conditions for each participant were clarified. Based on these findings, the facilitative factors are different for each career, and each career has its own characteristics. Specifically, individual subject's attitude, and preparedness in the adherence career, information, and tools in the adoption career, and area and leader in the resumption career revealed their characteristics.
To jump higher or farther, it is important to control the direction of translational momentum without reducing the mechanical energy produced by lower limb muscles. The purpose of this study was to compare the translational momentum and mechanical energy produced by lower limb muscles between horizontal and vertical jumps. Horizontal and vertical squat jumps were simulated using a musculoskeletal system consisting of four rigid segments actuated by six muscles. The translational momenta and mechanical energies produced by the six muscles were calculated. The force development patterns of hamstrings and rectus femoris were different between the two jumps, although other muscles produced similar forces. The hamstrings produced more forward momentum in the horizontal jump, while the rectus femoris produced more backward momentum in the vertical jump. In addition, the work outputs of the six muscles were nearly equal between the two jumps. The hamstrings transferred mechanical energy from knee to hip, while the rectus femoris transferred it from hip to knee. These results suggest that the hamstrings and rectus femoris play an important role in controlling jumping direction without reducing the total amount of work outputs of lower limb muscles.
Aim: It has been reported that the relationships between blood glucose and lactate during incremental exercise has been affected by the training status. Nevertheless, the relationships between blood glucose, lactate, and hormones during incremental exercise in different training states have not been examined. Therefore, the purposes of this study were the examination of these relationships, and the evaluation whether these relationships were influenced by the training status. Methods: Eight male endurance runners (trained group) and eight active men (control group) participated in this study, and all participants participated in incremental running tests. Blood glucose, lactate, adrenaline, noradrenaline, and glucagon were evaluated at each stage during the incremental running test, and Spearman correlation coefficients between blood glucose, lactate, and hormones were calculated for each participant. The group differences in these data were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U test. Results: The relationships between blood glucose and catecholamines were significantly stronger in the trained compared with the control group (p < 0.05). However, the relationships between blood lactate and catecholamines were not significantly different between groups. Furthermore, the relationships between glucagon and blood glucose or blood lactate did not differ significantly between groups, and these relationships were weak. Conclusions: We conclude that the increase in blood glucose may be influenced to a greater extent by catecholamines than by glucagon during incremental exercise. Furthermore, the relationships between blood glucose and catecholamines differed according to training status, and were different compared with the relationships between blood lactate and catecholamines.
Heart rate (HR) monitoring, which reflects exercise intensity and environmental factors, is often used as the basis for pacing strategies in a marathon race. However, it is difficult to obtain appropriate feedback for only the HR value since cardiovascular drift (CV drift) occurs during prolonged exercise. Recently, cardiac cost (CC, which is HR divided by running velocity) has been shown to be a potential index for evaluating CV drift during a marathon race. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between CV drift and performance in a marathon race. Fourteen male university student runners participated. Each took part in incremental tests on a treadmill and subsequently ran a marathon. CV drift was evaluated using differences between CC in the 0-5 km segment of the race and every 5 km segment (ΔCC) thereafter. Marathon performance was examined from two viewpoints: absolute performance (average running velocity during the race, Vmar), and relative performance (Vmar against velocity corresponding to the ventilatory threshold, vVT achv). Significant correlations were found between ΔCC and vVT achv in the 25-30 km, 30-35 km and 35-40 km race segments (r = −0.672, −0.671 and −0.661, respectively), suggesting that excessive CV drift had a negative impact on relative performance. Based on our results, we conclude that suppression of CV drift after 25 km is an important factor for improving relative performance in a marathon race.
This study examines the issues surrounding totalitarian sports instruction with reference to an unfortunate incident involving American football in Japan. Violence and corporal punishment are part of physical education and sports in Japan. Consequently, there have been calls for more democratic governance in sports, mainly from educational institutions and academic societies. However, the dictatorship reminiscent of totalitarianism still remains. In May 2018, it was suspected that a foul committed by a player during a university American football game could have been due to the coach's instructions. A video footage and an interview survey confirmed this suspicion. The final report of a committee lawyer revealed that the coach had subjected the player to a dictatorship. This incident falls into the phenomenon of totalitarianism, as it involves the denial of individual autonomy. Totalitarian sports instruction refers to instruction that disregards player autonomy and fair play, and dominates the player while prioritizing victory. The formative process of totalitarianism is based on the thought of philosopher Hannah Arendt, who presented totalitarianism as a movement that can occur anywhere. Arendt’s examination of the “thoughtlessness” caused by totalitarianism had a direct influence on the theories about the subject. In conclusion, totalitarian sports instruction by a thoughtless coach can lead to cruel consequences that deprive human ability and potential. Particularly when totalitarian dominance is widespread in sports, players are unable to make fair judgments. Therefore, in physical education and sports, it is necessary to deepen the discussion on totalitarian instruction.
The present study aimed to examine whether different exercise intensities, ranging from submaximal to supramaximal, modulate the relative contributions of aerobic and anaerobic energy systems during short-duration exercise. Eight competitive male track and field athletes (22.3 ± 1.0 years) performed a 30-s pedaling test at seven different intensities corresponding to O2 demands of 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 ml/kg/min. The power outputs required at each O2 demand were determined from the extrapolated linear relationships between power and the steady-state O2 uptake obtained during submaximal-intensity exercise. The VO2max test and 30-s Wingate anaerobic test were also performed. Relative aerobic and anaerobic energy contributions were estimated by the ratio of O2 uptake and O2 deficit, the latter being calculated as the difference between O2 demand and O2 uptake. The exercise intensity of the 30-s pedaling test ranged from 73.4 ± 7.4 to 180.9 ± 18.2 % VO2max. As exercise intensity increased, O2 uptake (13.9 ± 2.1 to 26.8 ± 2.1 ml/kg/min) and O2 deficit (26.9 ± 2.1 to 73.7 ± 2.2 ml/kg/min) during the 30-s pedaling test increased (P < 0.05). However, the relative aerobic (34.1 ± 5.1 to 26.7 ± 2.0 %) and anaerobic (65.9 ± 5.1 to 73.3 ± 2.0 %) energy contributions during the 30-s pedaling test did not differ across all O2 demands (P > 0.05). These results suggest that the relative aerobic and anaerobic energy contributions during short-duration exercise remain nearly constant over a wide range of exercise intensity.
The purpose of this case study was to investigate, separately for Mainland Chinese tourists with and without ski experience, differences between four types of ideal and overall tourism affect (i.e., high-arousal positive [HAP], low-arousal positive [LAP], low-arousal negative [LAN], high-arousal negative [HAN]). A questionnaire survey was conducted in Japan for Mainland Chinese tourists, and 80 tourists participated in the survey. The results of dependent t-tests indicated that: (a) among tourists with ski experience, no significant differences were identified in HAP, LAP, and LAN, whereas ideal HAN was significantly greater than overall tourism HAN; and (b) among tourists without ski experience, ideal HAP and LAP were significantly lesser than overall tourism HAP and LAP, respectively, whereas ideal LAN and HAN were significantly greater than overall tourism LAN and HAN. Overall, outdoor sport activities appear to play a prominent role in understanding the discrepancy between Chinese tourists’ ideal and actual affect.