In Japan, community-based professional sports organizations, which are based in a specific area referred to as a hometown, are increasing. This study focused on players from a team of professional independent Japanese baseball leagues and investigated how these players develop an “appropriate attitude for the hometown” and fostered a “sense of community as responsibility” (SOC-R), a widely discussed construct in community psychology. The purpose of this study was to clarify the antecedents and consequences of players’ SOC-R for the hometown. Current study constructed the SOC-R model that has “passion for the team activity” and “pride in the team” as antecedents of SOC-R for the hometown, and “being a role model” and “maintaining a good relationship” as consequences. The results of structural equation modeling showed that “harmonious passion,” “obsessive passion,” and “pride” had a significant positive relationship with SOC-R, while SOC-R had a significantly positive influence on “being a role model” and “maintaining a good relationship.” As a result of multi-group analysis, it was suggested that the longer the player belongs to the team, the lower the influence on the SOC-R from the obsessive passion, while the higher the influence on the harmonious passion. These results contribute to the existing body of SOC-R and professional sports organization research, and may help sports managers better understand the psychological states of players from community-based professional sports teams.
In 2013, the International Olympic Committee announced that the 2020 Summer Paralympic Games will be held in Tokyo for their first time. Despite the enthusiasm toward disabled sport or Paralympic games, whether citizens will watch the Paralympic games at sport facilities remains to be determined. Increasing the number of spectators and supporters is critical to attract new sponsors and gain additional revenue.
The objectives of this study are two-fold. First, it reveals spectators’ demographic attributes and, second, using the Motivational Scale for Disability Sport Consumption (MSDSC), it tests for moderating effects on future intentions to spectate the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Paralympic Games. Researchers distributed questionnaires to spectators who attended the 46th Japan Wheelchair Basketball Championship Emperor’s Cup on May 19, 2018 (499 valid samples) and May 20, 2018 (487 valid samples). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) eliminated two items from the model. Next, a multiple regression analysis is conducted to test the relationship between spectator motivation and intention to attend a mega sporting event. The results highlight that there is a considerable difference in the effect of the three moderator variables. In conclusion, it is imperative for practitioners to inform spectators about the uniqueness and singularity of wheelchair basketball.
The activity of muscles in the trunk and lower limbs during sidestepping was recorded in nine healthy young men (control group) and three young men with groin pain syndrome. Muscle synergies among subjects were compared. Non-negative matrix factorization was used to extract muscle synergies from electromyographic data. Thereafter, to compare muscle synergies, a scalar product evaluating synergy coincidence was calculated. Three muscle synergies were extracted in both groups from non-negative matrix factorization analysis. In both groups, two out of three synergies were found to be the same by scalar product analysis. In one of these synergies, the oblique muscle, rectus femoris, and adductor muscle were activated before landing in mid-stance during the sidestep motion in the control group. Therefore, this synergy is thought to suppress excessive hip abduction. However, the peak timing of this synergy in the groin pain group was at mid-stance. This delay may cause hip instability because muscles must be activated before landing to enhance joint stability. Risk factors for groin pain are dysfunctional coordination between trunk and lower-limb muscles and decreased hip stability. Even though the number of subjects in this study was small, it is possible that delayed activation of this synergy may be related to the mechanism of injury in groin pain.
This study aimed to elucidate the relationships among unilateral stance isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTPUni) variables, sprint times, and single-leg jump performance in collegiate football players. A total of twenty male collegiate football players participated in this study. Participants were instructed to perform IMTPUni by pulling a fixed bar on a force plate to measure the ground reaction force (GRF). Based on the GRF, two variables were calculated; force output from onset of pull (F100) and peak force (PF). Sprint performance was measured by light gates over a distance of 30 m. The height of single-leg countermovement jumps (CMJ) and the single-leg drop jump index which was the jump height divided by contact time was measured for single-leg jump performance. The legs were divided by two types of definition such as kicking/supporting legs and dominant/non-dominant leg based on PF. As the result, sprint times were significantly correlated with single-leg CMJ only in the kicking and dominant legs. On the other hand, PF of IMTPUni was significantly correlated with sprint times in the supporting leg as well as both the dominant and non-dominant legs. However, no significant correlations were found between F100 and sprint time in both definitions. Therefore, the PF of IMTPUni as well as CMJ can be used as an effective predictor of strength for sprint.
In school education, it is important to encourage students to improve their social skills. Umegaki et al. (2016b) have developed an instructional model known as the Acquisition of Social Knowledge in Sport (ASKS) Model for facilitating improvement in social skills in the context of physical education. They consider that the ASKS Model with heterogeneous team organization would improve social skills that would be applicable to daily life outside of physical education classes and help students to maintain these social skills. However, no previous study has examined whether the ASKS Model would be effective for homogeneously organized teams. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the type of team organization that would be most effective for the ASKS Model by comparing physical education classes with the ASKS Model based on homogeneous teams and heterogeneous teams. The study focused on physical education classes for male students in the second year of junior high school. The classes included those without the ASKS Model, those with the ASKS Model based on homogeneous teams, and those with the ASKS Model based on heterogeneous teams. A formative evaluation of friendship-building and the KiSS-18 questionnaire on paper were administered before and after each class. The study confirmed two points: First, the ASKS Model appeared to be effective when heterogeneous teams were organized. Second, the effectiveness was suggested to be improved when heterogeneity of motor skill was maintained rather than heterogeneity of social skills.
This study aimed to compare the load characteristics of sprint interval training (SIT) according to 400-m sprint performance. Eight elite sprinters and ten sub-elite sprinters were separated according to 400-m sprint performance and participated in this study (age: 21.0 ± 2.5 years, height: 176.0 ± 4.0 cm, and body mass: 67.0 ± 5.3 kg). All subjects performed two different SIT protocols on a cycle ergometer. The SIT protocols consisted of two bouts of 20-s maximal sprints interspersed with either 30-s rest (R-30s) or 60-s rest (R-60s). Mean power output over both sprints in R-60s was significantly greater than in R-30s in both groups (p < 0.001). In the elite group, blood lactate did not significantly differ between R-30s and R-60s even though different mean power output was recorded. However, in the sub-elite group, blood lactate from the R-60s condition was significantly greater than from the R-30s condition (p < 0.05). These results indicate different physiological responses to SIT depending on 400-m sprint capabilities. To enhance anaerobic adaptations, it is suggested that elite 400-m sprinters should utilize SIT with very short recovery periods, while sub-elite 400-m sprinters should utilize relatively longer recovery periods
This study evaluates the state of sports at the Fuchu YMA in Tokyo. To this end, the paper analyzed Fuchu Sports, a YMA-published newsletter that specialized in sports and was modeled on the popular sports magazine Asahi Sports. The publication of Fuchu Sport was an indication of the strong interest in sports during the Taisho era (1912-1926). After the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Education announced their directives promoting physical exercise, the Tokyo government hosted conferences on the development of sports and physical education in Tokyo YMA. Accordingly, Tokyo was a step ahead of other regions in Japan when it came to setting up YMA athletic clubs. The founding of the Fuchu YMA Athletic Clubs was mainly supported by the Fuchu YMA, but it also received funding from the local authorities and schools of Fuchu. When the Athletic Club recruited university students to become their coaches, the club’s programming changed and its level of competitiveness went up significantly. Finally, the Athletic Club’s collaborations with surrounding educational institutions, particularly school athletic clubs, led to remarkable successes in competition and expanded the club’s philosophical mission.
[Objective] Various methodologies have been employed for memory rehabilitation. However, inappropriateness of these approaches for patients suffering from marked memory deficit necessitates new effective approaches. Although studies report that physical activity and exercise can affect cognitive function, they lack sufficient empirical evidence. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the effect of aerobic training on memory ability.
[Methods] The subject was a 48-year-old, right-handed man with memory deficit subsequent to hypoxic encephalopathy. We used an A-B-A single-case experimental design. The subject performed delayed word-recall task and word fluency task 10 times in each phase. During the baseline A- and washout A-phases, after memorizing 3 words, the subject performed a paper and pencil task for 15 minutes, and thereafter recalled the 3 memorized words and performed the word fluency task. During the B-phase, after memorizing 3 words, the subject pedaled a bicycle ergometer at an intensity of 50 W for 15 minutes, and thereafter performed the word-recall and word fluency tasks.
[Results] Average performance in the delayed recall task was 0 ± 0 words in the baseline A-phase, 2.3 ± 1.1 words in the B-phase, and 0.1 ± 0.3 words in the washout A-phase (F (2,18) = 37.098, p < 0.0001). The corresponding values in the word fluency task were 2.7 ± 0.9, 2.3 ± 1.3, and 3.6 ± 1.3 words, respectively.
[Discussion] These results suggest that aerobic training can lead to the recovery of memory deficit. Although acute effects were observed, comprehensive recovery of cognitive function was not achieved.
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the minimum number of static stretch repetitions required to induce an increase in range of motion of the ankle joint and a decrease in passive torque of the muscle-tendon unit is different between men and women. Twelve men and 15 women participated in this study. Ankle range of motion and passive torque were measured during the passive dorsiflexion phase of ten 10-s static stretching repetitions. The stiffness of the muscle-tendon unit and stress relaxation were also determined. There was no significant sex difference in any parameter. Ankle range of motion was significantly higher after the first stretch, but thereafter further increases were not observed. Passive torque at submaximal ankle angles was significantly lower after the first stretch, and passive torque at maximal dorsiflexion angle was significantly higher after the first stretch, although further increases were not observed. There were no significant stretching-induced effects on stiffness and stress relaxation. These results indicate that there are no sex differences in the effects of ten 10-s repetitions on flexibility, but show that this protocol is sufficient to induce changes in ankle range of motion and passive torque. Therefore, coaches should prescribe the same short-duration static stretching protocol for both sexes of athlete.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate static stretching and dynamic stretching protocol.
[Methods] 138 coaches of 21 different sports completed a self-reporting questionnaire. The questionnaire was split into four sections and contained fixed-response questions. Section One identified participant demographics. The second and third sections required the participants to detail the static and dynamic stretching they used. The fourth section of the questionnaire identified how participants learned about stretching.
[Results] There were 126 coaches using static or dynamic stretching, while 12 coaches did not. Thirty-nine coaches used only static stretching, 10 coaches used only dynamic stretching, and 77 coaches used both types of stretching. The purposes of static stretching were to increase flexibility and to prevent injuries. The purposes of dynamic stretching were improvement of performance and prevention of injuries. The duration of one bout of static and dynamic stretching in a warm-up were 21.8 ± 13.2 and 22.1 ± 16.2 seconds, respectively. A common way to learn about stretching was participation in training sessions.
[Discussion] Coaches should use SS for a greater length of time to achieve their purposes. The results of the present study showed gaps between evidence and practice.
This study focuses on the Hotokukai, an auxiliary organization of the Ministry of Home Affairs, and aims to clarify the concept of the promotion of physical education for the Young Men’s Association planed by the Hotokukai. First, the Hotokukai sought to encourage physical education for young people to cultivate physical strength and contribute to manual labor. Characteristic of the view of physical education in Hotokukai youth education was the encouragement of physical education that benefitted lives through the link between labor and physical education. To investigate methods of encouraging physical education, the Hotokukai held conferences on matters to be executed with respect to such encouragement. The conferences were attended by Hotokukai trustees and external experts on physical education, education, and medicine. Finally, the Hotokukai compiled the results of these conferences and published matters to be executed with respect to encouraging physical education in Shimin. These matters to be executed listed details of concepts related to physical education for the citizens of the country and physical education in schools, as well as concepts to encourage physical education in the Young Men’s Association.