International Journal of Sport and Health Science
Online ISSN : 1880-4012
Print ISSN : 1348-1509
ISSN-L : 1348-1509
Current issue
Displaying 1-8 of 8 articles from this issue
  • Zhanyu Liu
    2022 Volume 20 Pages 1-8
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 01, 2022
    Advance online publication: January 19, 2022

    This study examines the public debate triggered by private folk fights in recent years and the failure of wushu to become an Olympic sport. The study highlights that the root causes of traditional wushu's crises of practicality and authenticity of are related to the essential nature of sport wushu. Since modern times, to become a so-called “living tradition,” wushu has continuously remade its value orientation. However, the modernized version of traditional wushu and sport wushu have the following problems: both are losing or have lost the original essence of Chinese martial arts. After analyzing the crisis faced by wushu from the perspective of the cultural philosophy of intimacy/integrity, this study proposes that the modernization of wushu and the invention of its universal value should be based on its particularity.

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  • Akira Konosu, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Senshi Fukashiro
    2022 Volume 20 Pages 9-18
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 01, 2022
    Advance online publication: March 03, 2022

    In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the ground reaction force (GRF) and both leg kinetics in kicking pullovers, with the aim of clarifying the mechanics and techniques for acquiring vertical GRF and moment in single-leg takeoffs for aerial rotation. GRF applied to the support leg foot and kinematics were recorded for the takeoff phase of successful kicking pullovers by 11 adult males. Using a 12-segment, sagittal-plane rigid body link model, the relationship between GRF and kinetics of both legs were analyzed. Although the GRF had its peak in the middle of the takeoff phase, it also contributed to the generation of the moment around the center of mass (CoM) by being tilted forward than to the CoM immediately after touchdown and before takeoff. The support leg was struck against the ground with angular velocities and torques of the hip extension and knee flexion at touchdown. The swing leg accelerated forward in the first half of the takeoff phase. These movements probably contributed to tilt the GRF forward immediately after the touchdown. The torque waveforms of the support leg joints were, on the whole, similar to those in the high jumps. It is suggested that in single-leg takeoffs for aerial rotation, controlling GRF direction with both leg movements while increasing the peak GRF with the takeoff techniques common to running jumps is an efficient strategy to acquire vertical GRF and moment with limited leg strengths.

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  • Yuto Yasuda
    2022 Volume 20 Pages 19-25
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 02, 2022
    Advance online publication: March 03, 2022

    Different cultures have different societal structures and different communication style. Additionally, how sports are organized varies from country to country in terms of structure. These factors make athletes across the world demonstrate different psychological characteristics. Despite these differences, these cultural impacts have been paid little attention to, and psychological universality has been explored in the field of sport psychology even though the importance of cultural differences is remained. This review article explores the consideration of cultural psychology within the domain of sport psychology. Specifically, this article compares East Asian culture and North American culture from an achievement motivation perspective. Self-construal, regulatory focus theory, self-determination theory, and achievement goal theory are investigated in order to compare the two cultures. It is recommended that future researchers in the domain of sport psychology refer to both cultural differences as well as psychological universality to deepen insight into the sport psychology field. Practitioners in sport psychology such as mental performance consultants and coaches, are also suggested to consider cultural differences in order to effectively communicate with players and implement more effective interventions.

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  • Mihoko Takahashi, Kazuhiro Kajita, Randeep Rakwal
    2022 Volume 20 Pages 26-36
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 08, 2022
    Advance online publication: February 04, 2022

    The 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics Games referred to as “Recovery Olympics” are supposed to encourage in recovery of the Tohoku regions affected by the 3.11 Great East Japan Earthquake. Tsukuba International Academy for Sport Studies established in 2015 as part of SPORT FOR TOMORROW initiative under Japan Sports Agency has since been holding Olympic education program every year at Rikuzentakata City, one of the disaster-affected areas. However, few studies have examined the contents of Olympic (or Paralympic) education in these areas. Therefore, this study shares knowledge through practice of Olympic education in a high school with an aim to suggest better practice in the area for its continuation post-2020. In 2019, an Olympic education class for 120 high school students was conducted followed by an open-ended questionnaire survey to the students. Questions consisted of: i) impressions of the class, ii) image of Tokyo 2020 Games, iii) current self-challenges and regional issues, and iv) how to use the Olympics. Text mining the obtained data revealed that respondents had a positive image of the Tokyo 2020 Games. Self-challenges and regional issues associated with reconstruction were clarified in answers to the survey, where some respondents revealed their future designs to contribute towards the development of local community. Some respondents also connected the class learning contents to providing solutions for local issues. Overall, the findings as discussed in this study were considered as useful knowledge for future practical Olympic education.

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  • Yuya Kimura, Toshiharu Yokozawa, Akira Maeda, Jun Yuda
    2022 Volume 20 Pages 37-47
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 09, 2022
    Advance online publication: March 08, 2022

    The present study aimed to investigate kinematic changes in the straight skating motions of world-class speed skaters during a ladies' 3,000-m race. Sixteen elite skaters who participated in the World Cup were included in the study. Three-dimensional motion analyses using 4 synchronized high-speed cameras (300 Hz) were performed on the straight skating motions at the initial, middle, and final stages of the race. As the race progressed, skating velocity decreased and the body center of mass (CM) height and the thigh angle increased. Shank outward tilting time exhibited a significant negative relationship with the official time for both the left and right strokes in the initial stage. In the final stage, skating velocity was significantly, positively associated with hip and knee angular velocity at the end of strokes. These results demonstrated that, in the ladies' 3,000-m race, although the air resistance increases with higher CM position and the skating velocity decreases as the race progressed, the straight skating motion of the excellent skaters was characterized by longer outward tilting of the shank in the initial stage contributes to maintaining skating velocity until the middle and final stages of the race.

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  • Munenori Murata, Norihisa Fujii, Yuta Suzuki
    2022 Volume 20 Pages 48-65
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 09, 2022
    Advance online publication: February 22, 2022

    Mechanical energy is known to be transferred between a body segment and a joint. However, the transformation of this energy has not been classified. By focusing on the racket-holding arm during a tennis serve, the present study examined the transformation between translational and rotational energies due to the joint force, and investigated the kinetic chain from the viewpoint of energetics. Twenty-two tennis players were asked to perform flat services to the deuce side (i.e., the receiver’s right side), and the three-dimensional coordinates of reflective markers attached to each player and racket were collected with a motion capture system. The mechanical power acting on each segment and the mechanical energy generated/absorbed by each joint were divided into the following components: (1) STP = the time rate of change in the rotational energy of a segment due to the joint torque, (2) JTP = the generation/absorption of rotational energy due to the joint torque, (3) JFPt = the time rate of change in the translational energy of a segment due to the joint force, and (4) JFPr = the time rate of change in the rotational energy of a segment due to the moment of the joint force. The findings are summarized below.

    1. The proposed method can divide the power acting on the segment due to joint force into the translational component (JFPt) and the rotational component (JFPr).

    2. The racket-holding arm mainly acquires mechanical energy as translational energy with decreasing rotational energy of the upper trunk (around right-leftward rotation).

    3. The main role of the shoulder joint is not to generate rotational energy but to change the energy form (from translational energy to rotational energy).

    4. The main role of the phase before most of the shoulder external rotation is to store the translational energy in the racket-holding arm.

    5. The main role of the phase after most of the shoulder external rotation is to transfer the translational and rotational energies to the racket.

    6. The proposed method can quantify not only the generation/absorption and transmission of mechanical energy but also the transformation of the energy form. Therefore, this method may produce new findings that have not yet been clarified.

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  • Hirotaka Nakashima, Shuntaro Kuroyanagi, Yuka Ando, Penhao Liao, Shinj ...
    2022 Volume 20 Pages 66-75
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 27, 2022
    Advance online publication: April 06, 2022

    This study aimed to investigate how high school baseball pitchers throw different pitch types with attention to the ball kinematics, to reveal the kinematic characteristics of each pitch type, and to reveal whether the relationship between the speed and spin rate of fastballs thrown by high school pitchers is different from that of fastballs thrown by collegiate, semiprofessional, and professional pitchers (mature pitchers). Eighteen high school baseball pitchers were asked to throw all the pitch types they would normally throw in a game. Among all pitches, this study specifically focused on fastballs, changeups, sliders, and curveballs. First, the kinematics of balls thrown by high school pitchers were compared between each pitch type. Second, the ball kinematics of each pitch type observed in this study were compared with those observed in previous studies investigating mature pitchers. Third, the relationship between the speed and spin rate of fastballs observed in this study was compared with that observed in previous studies. As a result, it was revealed that high school pitchers could throw different pitch types by changing the speed, spin rate, and/or spin axis. In addition, it was indicated that high school pitchers threw different sliders and curveballs compared to mature pitchers. On the other hand, in this study, it could not be asserted that high school pitchers threw different fastballs compared to the mature pitchers. It was revealed that the relationship between the speed and spin rate of fastballs for high school pitchers is similar to that for mature pitchers.

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  • Nobuo Takeshima, Mohammod M. Islam, Yukiya Oba, Bret G. Freemyer
    2022 Volume 20 Pages 76-82
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 26, 2022
    Advance online publication: April 15, 2022

    To compare elderly non-fallers and fallers for differences in the Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction for Balance (CTSIB) and Limits of Stability (LOS). Six hundred forty-six older women volunteers (69.5±6.1 yr) participated in the study. Static and dynamic balance were assessed. The static balance (SB) indices in CTSIB were analyzed for four sway velocity conditions: a flat surface with eyes open (SV1); a flat surface with eyes closed (SV2); thick foam with eyes open (SV3); and thick foam with eyes closed (SV4), and composite scores (SVcomp) calculated based on all of conditions. The LOS components (endpoint excursion (EPE), maximum excursion (MXE), directional control (DCL), reaction time (RT), and movement mean velocity (MVL)) as a dynamic balance index were analyzed based on movements toward all eight targets, and composite scores. The fall incidence within the past 1 year was studied via questionnaire survey (faller=172, non-faller=474). There were significant differences in mean age and height between faller and non-faller groups. No significant differences were found in all balance indices between groups compared by age-adjusted ANCOVA. From the CTSIB and LOS measurement adopted in this study, no difference was observed between older fallers and non-fallers. However, in order to evaluate the presence or absence of falls based only on the balance ability, further measures such as examination by combining indicators are required. It is necessary to perform prospective studies to track the occurrence of falls after the balance ability assessment in the future.

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