Objective To investigate the effect of twice-daily rabeprazole doses on health-related quality of life in refractory patients.
Methods and Patients Reflux esophagitis patients with an insufficient response to once-daily proton pump inhibitor therapy (Los Angeles Classification grade A-D) received rabeprazole 10 mg or 20 mg twice daily for 8 weeks. The health-related quality of life (SF-8™) and symptoms, using the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of Gastroesophageal reflux disease, were evaluated before treatment and at weeks 4 and 8. Endoscopy was performed at baseline and at weeks 8 and 32 where possible. The rabeprazole dose was determined by the attending physician.
Results There were 1,796 patients analyzed for the efficacy of the twice-daily treatment. Of these cases, 1,462 were treated with rabeprazole 10 mg twice daily, and 334 were treated with rabeprazole 20 mg twice daily. The factors that affected the selection of the twice-daily rabeprazole dose by physicians were evaluated, and as expected, "endoscopic findings when treatment was started" had a strong effect on the selection of the rabeprazole dose. With both regimens, health-related quality of life and subjective symptoms were significantly improved at weeks 4 and 8 compared to baseline (p<0.001). The recurrence rate of erosive esophagitis at week 32 was 9.7% in rabeprazole twice daily-treated patients and 28.4% in proton pump inhibitor (PPI) once daily-treated patients. Both regimens were well tolerated.
Conclusion Twice-daily treatment with rabeprazole improved the subjective symptoms and health-related quality of life in patients with refractory reflux esophagitis more effectively than the standard once-daily dose.
Objective A previously developed sputum antigen detection kit for Streptococcus pneumoniae enabled the early diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia using sputum samples. We conducted a prospective study to compare the sensitivity of the sputum and urinary antigen kits.
Methods Pneumonia patients who were treated from April 2014 to September 2015 were recruited for the present study. Patients with pneumococcal pneumonia who could not participate in the prospective arm of the study were analyzed in the retrospective arm.
Results Nine of the 69 participants in the prospective study had pneumococcal pneumonia. The sputum antigen kit results correlated well with the sputum culture results. The sensitivity of the sputum antigen kit was 88.9% (8/9), which was higher than that of the urinary antigen kit (5/9; 55.6%). When patients from the retrospective arm of the study were included, the sensitivity of the sputum culture was 93.5% (29/31), which was significantly higher than that of the urinary antigen kit (19/31; 60.6%). False positives were obtained using the sputum antigen kit in four cases. Three of the four false positives were suspected to have resulted from the administration of antibiotics prior to the use of the kit; the remaining case likely occurred due to a false reaction to S. milleri-induced pyothorax.
Conclusion Collectively, our findings suggest that the sputum antigen kit has a higher sensitivity for detecting S. pneumoniae than the urinary antigen kit. However, the prior administration of antibiotics can render the sputum culture results negative or lead to a false-positive result.
Objective The objective of this study was to confirm the efficacy of low-dose mizoribine (MZR), an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, as part of synchronized methotrexate (MTX) therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with an inadequate response to various combination therapies of MTX, other synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological DMARDs.
Methods Low-dose MZR was administered to 56 uncontrolled RA patients being treated with MTX and various biological DMARDs. The observation period was 12 months, and the disease activity was evaluated based on the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28)-ESR, Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) and serum MMP-3 level.
Results All of the disease activity indices were significantly improved within three months, and the serum MMP-3 levels were also significantly decreased around four months after starting low-dose MZR therapy. No patients experienced any adverse effects.
Conclusion The present preliminary findings suggest that low-dose MZR therapy with MTX should be considered for the treatment of RA patients with an inadequate response to various combination therapies including MTX, other synthetic DMARDs and biological DMARDs or in whom increasing the dose of MTX is difficult for reasons such as adverse effects and complications.
We herein report a rare case of ileal adenocarcinoma that was completely removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) without any complications. An 80-year-old man was referred to our hospital to undergo treatment for an ileal tumor. Conventional colonoscopy showed a reddish depressed lesion that was classified as type 0-IIc according to the Paris classification. The ileal tumor was successfully removed en bloc by ESD with a negative surgical margin. The histological findings showed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with no submucosal or lymphovascular invasion. Colonoscopy and CT performed one year after ESD showed no local recurrence, stenosis, or lymph node metastasis.
A 24-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital under suspicion of an exacerbation of her known ulcerative colitis. Colonoscopy revealed an edematous swelling and multifocal discharge of pus throughout the descending colon, concurrent with active ulcerative colitis findings in the rectum and sigmoid colon. Computed tomography showed a thickened wall and multifocal abscesses within the wall of the descending colon. Two weeks after starting antimicrobial therapy, she was discharged home. This is the first case report of multifocal colonic wall abscesses. In order not to increase the risk of serious infection associated with anti-TNF-α therapy, proper qualification and strict monitoring are essential.
We herein report a 68-year-old man with branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (BD-IPMNs) involving type 1 localized autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) with normal serum IgG4 levels. Although he was referred to our medical center due to suspicion of pancreatic cancer concomitant with BD-IPMNs, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) revealed a mass suspected of being pancreatic cancer to be type 1 AIP. Steroid administration notably reduced the mass. Although the clinical diagnosis of pancreatic masses in patients with IPMN can be occasionally challenging, performing a pathological examination by EUS-FNA may prevent unnecessary pancreatic surgery in cases of possible AIP.
22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22qDS) is often complicated by autoimmune diseases. To clarify the causal relationship, we examined the lymphocyte subset distribution and the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) in two female patients (one child and an elderly) with Graves' disease (GD) and 22qDS. Thymus dysgenesis might have contributed to the T-cell imbalance and the lack of negative selection in both cases. Notably, HLA-DR14, a known risk factor for GD in Japanese individuals and the decreased regulatory T-cell numbers that were seen in the pediatric case, may affect the early onset of GD. Central and peripheral tolerance and Th1 cells appeared to be associated with the pathogenesis of GD in 22qDS.