Objective The Kyoto gastritis classification categorizes the endoscopic characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-associated gastritis and identifies patterns associated with a high risk of gastric cancer. We investigated its efficacy, comparing scores in patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis and with gastric cancer.
Methods A total of 1,200 patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis alone (n=932), early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer (n=189), and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer (n=79) were endoscopically graded according to the Kyoto gastritis classification for atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, fold hypertrophy, nodularity, and diffuse redness.
Results The prevalence of O-II/O-III-type atrophy according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification in early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer groups was 45.1%, which was significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (12.7%, p<0.001). Kyoto gastritis scores of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cancer group were significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (all p<0.001). No significant differences were noted in the rates of gastric fold hypertrophy or diffuse redness between the two groups. In a multivariate analysis, the risks for H. pylori-positive gastric cancer increased with intestinal metaplasia (odds ratio: 4.453, 95% confidence interval: 3.332-5.950, <0.001) and male sex (1.737, 1.102-2.739, p=0.017).
Conclusion Making an appropriate diagnosis and detecting patients at high risk is crucial for achieving total eradication of gastric cancer. The scores of intestinal metaplasia and atrophy of the scoring system in the Kyoto gastritis classification may thus be useful for detecting these patients.
Objective The management of blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients is the key to preventing a progression of organ damage. The brachial BP (bBP) has been used as the representative method for measuring the BP. The central BP (cBP), which is, different from the bBP due to the propagation and the reflection of the pulse wave in the arterial system, has recently received attention because it can now be estimated non-invasively. We examined the relationships between the difference in the central systolic BP (csBP) and the brachial systolic BP (bsBP) (Δ) and other factors in hypertensive patients.
Methods The bsBP and csBP were measured in patients with essential hypertension and the relationships between the bsBP, csBP, or Δ and background factors including age, the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), flow-mediated vasodilation (an index of vascular endothelial function), the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI, an index of arteriosclerosis), and the carotid intima-media thickness (an index of atherosis) were investigated.
Results The data of 191 patients were analyzed. Although there was no significant correlation between the CAVI and the bsBP; positive correlations were observed between the CAVI and the csBP (r=0.249, p=0.001). The Δ value showed significant positive correlations with age, and the BNP, eGFR, and CAVI values.
Conclusion The csBP is more strongly associated with arteriosclerosis than the bsBP. Moreover, the Δ value is more strongly associated with cardiac function, renal function, and arteriosclerosis than the bsBP or csBP. These data suggested that the Δ value may have a greater prognostic value than the bsBP or csBP and may be worth calculating in the clinical setting.
Objective and Methods An SGLT2 inhibitor (ipragliflozin, dapagliflozin, luseogliflozin, tofogliflozin, or canagliflozin) was administered to 132 outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without other antidiabetic drugs for 6 months to evaluate its efficacy, the incidence of adverse events, and its influence on the renal function.
Results The patient's mean glycated hemoglobin level significantly improved from 7.52±1.16% to 6.95±0.98% (p<0.001). The body weight of the patients was significantly reduced from 78.0±15.3 kg to 75.6±15.1 kg (p<0.001). The estimated visceral fat area was also significantly reduced from 108.4±44.6 cm2 to 94.5±45.3 cm2 (p<0.001). The waist circumference, blood pressure, serum alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and uric acid levels also showed a significant decrease. The urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (U-ACR) was significantly reduced in the patients whose U-ACR levels were 30-300 mg/gCr at the baseline. The mean eGFR significantly decreased in the patients with a pre-treatment eGFR value of ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2 but remained unchanged in the patients with a pre-treatment value of <90 mL/min/1.73 m2. A total of 13 adverse events were noted, including systemic eruption (n=1), cystitis (n=2), pudendal pruritus (n=2), nausea (n=1), malaise (n=1), a strong hunger sensation and increased food ingestion (n=1), and non-serious hypoglycemia (n=5).
Conclusion SGLT2 inhibitors seemed to be useful in the treatment of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Furthermore, these data suggest that SGLT2 inhibitors may protect the renal function.
Objective Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are the most frequently prescribed oral hypoglycemic agents in Japan. Although a relationship between the efficacy of DPP-4 inhibitors and the body mass index (BMI) has been reported, this relationship is controversial. We investigated whether the BMI value affects the glucose-lowering efficacy of sitagliptin in obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods One hundred sixty-two outpatients with inadequate glycemic control were divided into four groups based on their baseline BMI values. They were then treated with sitagliptin (a DPP-4 inhibitor) for 3 months and followed-up for 12 months.
Results Sitagliptin significantly reduced the hemoglobin A1c level (HbA1c: -0.71±0.55%) after 3 months, and continued to reduce the HbA1c level until 12 months. There was no significant difference in the efficacy of sitagliptin among the four BMI groups. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the factors contributing to the change in the HbA1c level were the baseline level of HbA1c and the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β). In terms of the relationship between the baseline BMI value and the efficacy of sitagliptin treatment, the number of patients who responded to sitagliptin treatment after 3 months was lowest in the group of patients with the highest BMI values. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the baseline HOMA-β function and HbA1c level and a baseline BMI value of ≥30 kg/m2 significantly contributed to the response to sitagliptin treatment.
Conclusion The results indicated that sitagliptin treatment was effective in controlling glucose metabolism disorder in obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the efficacy of sitagliptin treatment might be attenuated in severely obese patients, such as those with a BMI value of ≥30 kg/m2.
Objective The current study investigated whether or not patients taking multiple daily oral medications for lifestyle-related chronic diseases would have positive perspectives on changing one of their medications to a once-weekly one.
Methods A total of 1,071 Japanese outpatients participated in the current study. We performed a questionnaire-based survey and compared the current satisfaction with the ongoing daily oral treatment (current daily-only treatment) and an expected satisfaction with an imaginary oral treatment changing one of their daily oral medications to a once-weekly oral medication (imaginary daily-and-weekly treatment).
Results Medications were taken for diabetes mellitus in 72% of the patients, for dyslipidemia in 54%, and for circulatory diseases, including hypertension, in 73%. Compared to their satisfaction with the current daily-only treatment, an expected satisfaction with the imaginary daily-and-weekly treatment was on average significantly attenuated (p<0.001, effect size d=0.49). The prevalence of a higher satisfaction score for the imaginary daily-and-weekly treatment versus the current daily-only treatment was 30% in the overall population. The prevalence was 59%, 40%, 29%, 14%, and 8% in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th quintile of the satisfaction score with the current daily-only treatment (p<0.001 for trend).
Conclusion Treatment satisfaction would be on average attenuated if one of the multiple daily oral medications was changed to a once-weekly one. Improvement in the satisfaction was less expected in the subgroup that was more satisfied with the current daily-only treatment.
Objective The arterial concentration of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) in subjects with inflammatory pulmonary disease is higher than that in healthy individuals. We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between the CO-Hb concentration and established markers of disease severity in subjects with interstitial lung disease (ILD).
Methods The CO-Hb concentration was measured in subjects with newly diagnosed or untreated ILD and the relationships between the CO-Hb concentration and the serum biomarker levels, lung function, high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings, and the uptake in gallium-67 (67Ga) scintigraphy were evaluated.
Results Eighty-one non-smoking subjects were studied (mean age, 67 years). Among these subjects, (A) 17 had stable idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), (B) 9 had an acute exacerbation of IPF, (C) 44 had stable non-IPF, and (D) 11 had an exacerbation of non-IPF. The CO-Hb concentrations of these subjects were (A) 1.5±0.5%, (B) 2.1±0.5%, (C) 1.2±0.4%, and (D) 1.7±0.5%. The CO-Hb concentration was positively correlated with the serum levels of surfactant protein (SP)-A (r=0.38), SP-D (r=0.39), and the inflammation index (calculated from HRCT; r=0.57) and was negatively correlated with the partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood (r=-0.56) and the predicted diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (r=-0.61). The CO-Hb concentrations in subjects with a negative heart sign on 67Ga scintigraphy were higher than those in subjects without a negative heart sign (1.4±0.5% vs. 1.1±0.3%, p=0.018).
Conclusion The CO-Hb levels of subjects with ILD were increased, particularly during an exacerbation, and were correlated with the parameters that reflect pulmonary inflammation.
Objective The prevalence of the non-convulsive type of late seizure after stroke is unknown. The aim of the present study was to clarify the characteristics of late seizure in clinical practice, mainly focusing on the prevalence of non-convulsive seizure.
Methods A total of 178 consecutive patients who were admitted and diagnosed with late seizure after stroke were retrospectively enrolled, and the data of 127 patients for whom the complete seizure was observed by a bystander were analyzed. Clinical information was obtained from the medical records and nursing notes.
Results A non-convulsive seizure was observed in 37 patients (29%). A focal seizure and its secondary generalization accounted for 79% of the seizure types. Status epilepticus was observed in 60 patients (47%), including 11 patients (9%) without convulsion. The patients with non-convulsive seizures were significantly younger than those with convulsive seizures, but there were no other significant differences between the two groups with respect to sex, classification or the lesion of stroke.
Conclusion There was a high rate of non-convulsive seizures in patients with late seizure after stroke. A non-convulsive seizure may be caused by any type or location of preceding stroke. More attention is needed in the differential diagnosis of neurological deterioration after stroke.
Objective We performed a prospective study to determine the efficacy and safety of denosumab on bone metabolic indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in 29 patients receiving long-term glucocorticoids (GCs) who had clinical risk factors for fracture.
Methods Among these patients, 16 had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 6 RA, 4 other autoimmune diseases, and 3 renal diseases. All patients received donosumab 60 mg at baseline and 6 months. Serum N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) levels were measured as bone metabolic indices. BMD at the lumbar spine (LSBMD) and femoral neck (FNBMD) were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and expressed as a percentage of the young adult mean (%YAM).
Results Denosumab therapy significantly reduced serum NTX and BAP levels from baseline after 12 months (from 19.2 to 13.9 nmol BCE/L; from 11.9 to 9.2 U/L, respectively). In 18 patients treated with bisphosphonates before the start of denosumab therapy, the improvements in the LSBMD and FNBMD values were 1.5%YAM/year and 1.1%YAM/year, respectively. The LSBMD and FNBMD values were both significantly higher 12 months after denosumab therapy (3.5%YAM/year and 3.0%YAM/year, respectively). The LSBMD gain was significantly higher after denosumab therapy than during bisphosphonate therapy. No fractures were observed in any patients during denosumab therapy.
Conlusion Denosumab is effective and safe in preventing bone resorption and BMD loss in patients treated with long-term GCs for inflammatory diseases. This is the first study showing a significant increase in not only LSBMD but also FNBMD in GC-induced osteoporosis after denosumab therapy.