Objective The long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may induce adverse events in many organs, including the stomach. The chronic use of PPIs has been associated with the growth of fundic gland polyps (FGPs) and of gastric black spots. This study assessed the incidence of gastric lesions with cobblestone-like appearance in PPI users.
Methods The clinical characteristics and endoscopic findings of patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy after using PPIs for at least six months were analyzed. The biopsy specimens from patients with gastric cobblestone-like lesions (GCLLs) were examined histopathologically.
Patients This study analyzed 171 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy after more than 6 months of PPI use in Mitsugi Public General Hospital from January 1, 2015, to March 31, 2016.
Results Of the 171 patients, 60 (35.1%) had GCLLs and 111 (64.9%) did not. There were no significant between-group differences in age, sex, duration of PPI use, and receipt of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Atrophic gastritis of the corpus was significantly less frequent in the GCLL than in the non-GCLL group (55.0% vs. 47.8%, p=0.0097). Among the GCLL group, histological examinations of 24 patients revealed cystic dilation of the fundic gland in 19 (79.2%), parietal cell hyperplasia in 18 (75.0%), and cytoplasmic vacuolation in 7 (29.2%).
Conclusion GCLLs occurred frequently in long-term PPI users, especially in patients without atrophic gastritis. The pathological findings of GCLLs included parietal cell hyperplasia and fundic gland cysts. The clinical importance of these new lesions remains uncertain, but they should be observed carefully.
Objective This study was performed to confirm the efficacy of long-interval cytapheresis on steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis (UC).
Methods To discontinue steroids in patients with steroid-dependent UC, we previously designed a novel regimen of cytapheresis (CAP), which we termed "long-interval cytapheresis (LI-CAP)", in which CAP was performed as one session every two or three weeks and continued during the whole period of tapering steroid dosage. In this study, we performed LI-CAP therapy 20 times (11 male and 9 female; mean age 41.8 years) between April 2010 and April 2015 for 14 patients with steroid-dependent UC. We evaluated the effectiveness of LI-CAP by examining the improvement in Lichtiger's clinical activity index (CAI), the rate of clinical remission, and the rate of steroid discontinuation. We further examined the rate of sustained steroid-free clinical remission at 6 and 12 months after LI-CAP in patients who successfully discontinued steroid-use after LI-CAP. The primary endpoint was the rate of discontinuation of steroids after LI-CAP.
Results The mean CAI score before LI-CAP (7.550) significantly decreased to 1.65 after LI-CAP (p<0.0001). The rate of clinical remission after LI-CAP was 80%. The rate of steroid discontinuation after LI-CAP was 60.0%. The mean dose of daily prednisolone was significantly decreased after LI-CAP (2.30 mg) compared with that before therapy (17.30 mg) (p=0.0003). The rate of sustained steroid-free clinical remission after LI-CAP was 66.7% at 6 months and 66.7% at 12 months.
Conclusion We confirmed that LI-CAP has therapeutic effects on reducing the dosage and discontinuing steroids in patients with steroid-dependent UC.
Objective In 2011, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification categorized chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients into 4 groups. A report demonstrated that the mortality in Group B was higher than that in Group C. Ischemic heart disease and cancer were suggested to be the cause. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that interstitial lung abnormalities (ILAs) are more prevalent in Group B than Group C and that they may be responsible for the higher mortality in Group B.
Methods Patients were selected based on their pulmonary function test results. The inclusion criterion was a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) of <70% after the inhalation of a bronchodilator. Patients without a smoking history or computed tomography (CT) scan were excluded. The medical records of the patients were retrospectively reviewed, and the selected patients were categorized into Groups A to D. High-resolution CT scans were used to investigate the presence of ILAs and determine the low attenuation area (LAA).
Results Among the 349 COPD patients, ILAs were detected in 10.3% of the patients in Group A, 22.5% of the patients in Group B, 5.6% of the patients in Group C, and 23.1% of the patients in Group D. In Group B, the frequency of ILAs was significantly higher and the area affected by the ILAs was significantly greater in comparison to Group C. Among the patterns of interstitial abnormalities, the area of honeycombing in Group B was significantly greater than that in Group C. Furthermore, among the patients in Group B, the LAA in the ILA-positive patients was significantly greater than that in the ILA-negative patients.
Conclusion In Group B, the area occupied by ILAs-especially honeycombing-was greater than that in Group C. This contributed to the preserved %FEV1 and possibly to the poorer prognosis of the patients in Group B.
Objective Post-stroke cognitive impairment often afflicts stroke survivors and is a major obstacle both for cognitive and physical rehabilitation. Stroke risk scores ["Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 years, Diabetes mellitus, Stroke" (CHADS2) and "CHADS2 + creatinine clearance <60 mL/min" (R2CHADS2)] are used to assess the future risk of cardioembolic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, congestive heart failure, hypertension, aging, diabetes mellitus, stroke, and renal dysfunction are also risk factors for cognitive impairment.
Methods Sixty-two patients with nonvalvular AF-induced cardioembolic stroke underwent cognitive testing, including the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Apathy Scale. The correlations between the MoCA-J/MMSE/Apathy Scale scores and stroke risk scores were examined.
Results The average CHADS2 and R2CHADS2 scores were 4.1±1.0 and 5.6±1.6, respectively. The average MoCA-J, MMSE, and Apathy Scale scores were 17.4±6.2, 22.0±5.3, and 20.0±8.9, respectively. The CHADS2 and R2CHADS2 scores were negatively correlated with the MoCA-J/MMSE and positively correlated with the Apathy Scale. The R2CHADS2 score was more sensitive to poststroke cognitive impairment than the CHADS2 score. This correlation was stronger for MoCA-J than for MMSE, as the MMSE scores were skewed toward the higher end of the range. The results for individual MoCA-J and MMSE subtests indicated that the visuoexecutive, calculation, abstraction, and remote recall functions were significantly decreased after cardioembolic stroke.
Conclusion These results suggest that the R2CHADS2 and CHADS2 scores are useful for predicting post-stroke cognitive impairment.