We report a case of a life-threatening ruptured renal angiomyolipoma (AML) that did not meet the criteria for prophylactic treatment (tumor >4 cm or intratumoral aneurysm >5 mm) during follow-up. A woman in her 70s was followed up for a 2.5-cm AML with a rich vascular component. An intratumoral aneurysm >5 mm was not identified for 2 years. She complained of a sudden abdominal pain with hypotension, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a retroperitoneal hematoma with contrast media extravasation from an intratumoral aneurysm. Emergency transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed using N-butyl cyanoacrylate glue. Rupture can occur in small AMLs or in AMLs not identified with intratumoral aneurysms during follow-up. AMLs with a rich vascular component at the kidney surface are more likely to rupture.
Pelvic fractures are severe trauma that can cause hemorrhagic shock. The mortality rate is high when patients fall into shock. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment are necessary. Hemostasis for hemorrhage associated with pelvic fractures is achieved through the mechanical stabilization of the fracture site, preperitoneal pelvic packing, and transcatheter arterial embolization. These techniques are frequently employed in hemodynamically unstable patients presenting with pelvic fractures. Among them, transcatheter arterial embolization is often considered the first-line choice: it is a particularly effective hemostatic method for arterial hemorrhage caused by pelvic fracture. An embolization technique and embolic agents should be considered comprehensively while considering the patient's hemodynamics, angiographic findings, and the urgency of the situation. This article describes the indications, techniques, results, and complications of transcatheter arterial embolization for pelvic fractures.
Hepatocellular carcinoma invading the bile duct (bile duct tumor thrombus) is an unfavorable condition. Although overall survival following surgical resection among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombus is significantly better than that among those treated with transarterial chemoembolization or chemotherapy, surgical resection can be indicated for selected patients. Additionally, systemic therapy is indicated only for patients with Child-Pugh class A. Therefore, transarterial therapy plays an essential role in the treatment of bile duct tumor thrombus. Transarterial chemoembolization with iodized oil and gelatin sponge particles is an established first-line transarterial treatment that can necrotize most bile duct tumor thrombi. However, we should pay attention to symptoms caused by intraductal hemorrhage during transarterial chemoembolization and the sloughing of necrotized bile duct tumor thrombi.
A 40-year-old man was incidentally found to have right-sided pelvic arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with an aneurysmal dominant outflow vein (DOV). The AVM had two main feeding arteries forming a cluster of fine vessels shunt to the DOV. As transvenous approach was impossible due to anatomical difficulty, transarterial ethanol embolization was performed under simultaneous double microballoon occlusion of the two feeding arteries in combination with protective coil embolization of the prostatic branches. Ethanol (13 mL) was intermittently injected from both microballoon catheters until the AV shunt was completely occluded. At 1-year follow-up, contrast-enhanced CT revealed shrinkage of the thrombosed DOV without any symptom. Our case demonstrated the usefulness of simultaneous double microballoon-occluded ethanol embolization for treating a localized pelvic AVM with a few feeding arteries.
Purpose: This study aims to measure job satisfaction among interventional radiology physicians in Japan and analyze the factors affecting job satisfaction.
Material and Methods: A web-based survey was conducted among the members of the Japanese Society of Interventional Radiology between October and December 2021. Participants were questioned regarding their job satisfaction, workplace, work status, and demographic information. Principal component analysis was applied to 15 reasons related to job satisfaction, and the factors affecting job satisfaction were analyzed.
Results: Valid responses were obtained from 901 (31.9%) of the 2,824 interventional radiology physicians invited to participate. Job satisfaction was reported as "very satisfied" in 79 (8.8%), "moderately satisfied" in 426 (47.3%), "neither satisfied nor dissatisfied" in 230 (25.5%), "moderately dissatisfied" in 133 (14.8%), and "very dissatisfied" in 33 (3.7%) respondents. Thus, there were 505 (56.0%) satisfied physicians. Three principal components were extracted from the reasons for job satisfaction. Job satisfaction tended to be higher among those who reported performing a higher number of interventional radiology procedures and was positively associated with a higher rate of work time dedicated to interventional radiology and the first principal component (the environment of clinical practice, research, and interventional radiology education). The third principal component (salary and work environment) and the absence of an "IkuBoss" [a boss who takes initiative in creating a work environment supportive of the work-life balance of colleagues] were associated with lower job satisfaction.
Conclusions: More than half the participants reported high job satisfaction. Job satisfaction of interventional radiology physicians in Japan was positively associated with a favorable clinical, research, and educational environment and negatively associated with the absence of an "IkuBoss," noninterventional radiology work, overtime work, and salary.
Transarterial chemoembolization is still an effective treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide and is categorized into conventional transarterial chemoembolization with ethiodized oil transarterial chemoembolization and transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting spherical material transarterial chemoembolization. Several randomized controlled trials conducted in Europe have shown the equivalent efficacy of ethiodized oil transarterial chemoembolization and drug-eluting spherical material transarterial chemoembolization. However, a recent randomized controlled trials in Japan established the superiority of ethiodized oil transarterial chemoembolization in terms of complete response rates although higher liver toxicity for ethiodized oil transarterial chemoembolization. Nevertheless, the survival advantage of ethiodized oil transarterial chemoembolization is yet to be substantiated. The adverse effects of drug-eluting spherical material transarterial chemoembolization are milder than those of ethiodized oil transarterial chemoembolization, rendering drug-eluting spherical material transarterial chemoembolization an advantageous option for patients with bilobar tumors and impaired liver function/performance status. This article aims to provide an overview of these embolization techniques and a review of recent literature.
Left-sided portal hypertension (LSPH), an uncommon manifestation of portal hypertension, is characterized by conditions such as isolated gastric varices and splenomegaly, which result from impeded splenic venous drainage in the presence of pancreatic disease. We employed a percutaneous transhepatic technique to achieve regression of isolated gastric varices by implanting a covered stent within a blocked splenic vein and by embolizing the posterior gastric vein and varices using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. We report the successful treatment of stenting for LSPH by the covered stent placement.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the guiding modalities used for percutaneous needle insertion during interventional procedures. MRI guidance has several advantages, including multiplanar imaging capability, superior soft tissue contrast resolution, and the absence of ionizing radiation. When performing MRI-guided procedures, it is important to understand the suitable MRI systems, instruments, and imaging sequences for intervention. Furthermore, needle artifact characteristics must be fully understood to ensure safe and accurate needle insertion. In this article, we present the fundamental knowledge as regards the use of MRI guidance for percutaneous needle insertion and review its usefulness in representative interventional procedures, such as biopsy and tumor ablation.
Splenic injury is one of the most common abdominal parenchymal organ injuries.
Since the spleen is a parenchymal organ with abundant blood flow, its injury can easily result in hemorrhagic shock. Therefore, prompt and appropriate management for hemostasis is critical. Management of splenic injury is determined by the hemodynamic status and the grade of injury. Splenectomy is the primary choice in cases with unstable hemodynamics, but splenic repair or non-operative management, including conservative treatment or transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), may be chosen to preserve the spleen if time permits. Non-operative management has advantages over operative management in terms of complications and medical economics. TAE also plays a significant role in non-operative management by contributing to the improvement of patient outcomes.
Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system, which has been identified as the most commonly used staging system in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, was initially published in 1999, and it was updated in 2022. This new Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging shows more flexible strategies for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma based on each stage. Although the roles of trans-arterial chemoembolization were limited in intermediate stage (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer-B) patients in the previous version, its roles have been expanded in the new version of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. In this manuscript, we introduce how trans-arterial chemoembolization is incorporated in a new Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system and explore the new role of trans-arterial chemoembolization and what interventional radiologists seek for in a near future.
One of the major reasons for unresectability of the liver is that the remnant liver volume is insufficient to support postoperative liver function. Post-hepatectomy liver insufficiency is one of the most serious complications in patients undergoing major hepatic resection. Preoperative portal vein embolization is performed with the aim of inducing hypertrophy of the future liver remnant and is thought to reduce the risk of liver insufficiency after hepatectomy. We, interventional radiologists, are required to safely complete the procedure to promote future liver remnant hypertrophy as possible and understand portal vein anatomy variations and hemodynamics, embolization techniques, and how to deal with possible complications. The basic information interventional radiologists need to know about preoperative portal vein embolization is discussed in this review.
Superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer is a combination of intensive local delivery of anticancer drugs using microcatheters and external beam radiation. Unlike conventional chemoradiotherapy, it is highly effective in treating the primary tumor, but it cannot treat distant metastases. In the field of head and neck cancer, where quality of life is significantly impaired by curative surgery from a functional and cosmetic point of view, it is a useful treatment not only for unresectable cases but also for resectable advanced cancers, with the maxillary sinus being a particularly good indication. This treatment is expected to outperform conventional systemic chemotherapy and even comes close to the outcomes of radical surgery if the patient is carefully selected and the appropriate technique is used. Currently, a multicenter phase III clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment for maxillary sinus cancer has been completed, and the results are being analyzed.
It is more than 50 years since the concept of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was first introduced as a percutaneous procedure for patients with refractory variceal bleeding and ascites. TIPS has become widely accepted in the management of complications of portal hypertension because it is less invasive than surgery. In the early days of TIPS, complications included the poor long-term patency of the stent and a high incidence of hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, an excessive shunt diameter after TIPS often resulted in severe hepatic encephalopathy. Although recent covered stents have significantly reduced shunt dysfunction, the development of hepatic encephalopathy and early liver failure remain to be crucial post-TIPS complications. This study reviews the current literature on the status of TIPS in the treatment of cirrhosis.
In 2008, carotid artery stenting was formally approved in Japan. Since then, more than fourteen years have already passed. Much evidence concerning carotid artery stenting has already been published, and several new devices are available. Thus, indications and procedures for carotid artery stenting have changed. In this review, I describe the current status of carotid artery stenting by literature review with particular focus on the evidence regarding its effectiveness and safety, history with the transition of devices in Japan, and complications related to carotid artery stenting procedures. A recent topic (a new category of subtype of carotid stenosis) is also mentioned briefly.