Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) is a rare hepatic vascular tumor with a borderline biological behavior between hemangioma and hemangiosarcoma. It tends to be multiple or diffuse subcapsular lesions across the liver but has no characteristic clinical manifestations or imaging findings. On computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, these lesions usually have a hypodense appearance with heterogeneous enhancement and a "halo sign" or "lollipop sign" may be evident in some cases. HEHE is diagnosed mainly based on a pathological examination along with differential immunohistochemical markers such as CAMTA1, CD31, CD34, CD10, vimentin, and factor VIII antigen. Currently, there are no standardized treatment guidelines for HEHE, and surgery (curative resection and liver transplantation) remains the mainstay of treatment. Studies have indicated that extra-hepatic metastasis might not be a contraindication for resection or transplantation. Systemic chemotherapeutic agents including doxorubicin, vincristine, interferon-a, 5-fluorouracil, and thalidomide, as well as VEGF-related agents are being investigated, but no agents have been approved for the treatment of HEHE.
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