The study examined a mental model of vague failure using two types of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) techniques to reduce fear of vague failure. An intervention group of 236 participants was compared with a control group of 105 participants using three measures: the AMS-R, the short version of the POMS, and self-acceptance. After a one-hour session, positive effects were seen in terms of decreasing fear of failure, increasing self-acceptance (e.g., satisfaction with themselves and their way of life), and reducing stress (e.g., tension, anxiety, and confusion). The effects were still seen one month later. Our results showed that NLP techniques can reframe the meaning of vague failure, enabling patients to suppress emerging stressors and increase self-acceptance.
A client with aphonia was examined to investigate factors related to the improvement of symptoms that had persisted for over two and a half years. The therapist suggested that the client talk in voiceless sounds (whisper), and that she also talk to herself about her daily behaviors (soliloquy). As a result, the client recovered the ability to speak in a normal voice in approximately ten months. An examination of the factors related to her improvement indicated that “utilization,” and “distraction” were useful interventions for this client. “Utilization,” including whispering, may have been useful in maintaining her willingness to improve her voice. Soliloquy may have functioned as a “distraction” that was effective in teaching the client to talk unconsciously.