Aim: The purpose of this study is to further develop the newly-developed measure, The Scale of Social Activities among Community-dwelling Elderly People（SSAC）.
Method: The Subjects were 2,928 persons over 65 years old, randomly extracted from A City in Japan. First, a pool of items was developed by literature reviews and qualitative data from our previous studies. Second, the construct validity was determined by a confirmatory factor analysis（CFA）and the criterion-related validity was evaluated with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale（PGC）, and going-out frequency. And lastly, the internal consistency was calculated by Cronbach’s α of the SSAC.
Results: The number of responses was 906（valid response rate: 87.1 %）, of whom 53.5% were male and 46.5% were female. The mean age ±SD was 72.3 ± 5.9 years old. The CFA showed two main factors; Factor Ⅰ : ‘self-enlightenment activities’ and Factor Ⅱ : ‘community contributive activities’ with six items in the SSAC（GFI=0.992, AGFI=0.987, CFI=0.988, RMSEA=0.026）. The scores of the SSAC had a significant correlation with PGC and going-out frequency respectively. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of total items of the SSAC was 0.78.
Conclusion: It was concluded that the SSAC demonstrated adequate psychometric properties to measure social activities among community-dwelling elderly people.
Objective: The objective of this study was to explore factors related to perceived health by sex among community-dwelling elderly in an urban area and to suggest health promotion activities for the elderly.
Method: We conducted a self-completed questionnaire survey by mail in A city among 2,928 citizen aged 65 years and over. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, life-style behavior, social activities in the community and community commitment. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore related factors to perceived health by sex.
Results: We received 1040 completed questionnaires and analyzed 905 completed questionnaires（valid response rate 30.9%）. Average age was 72.0 ± 5.5 years old. Percentage of female respondents was 44.2%. Factors related to perceived health among males was age（β=-0.116, p<0.01）, disease（β=-0.270, p<0.001）, economic status（β=0.110, p<0.05）, life-style behavior（β=0.133, p<0.01）. Factors related to perceived health among females was age（β=-0.052, p<0.01）, disease（β=-0.248, p<0.001）, employment status（β=0.141, p<0.01）, economic status（β=0.144, p<0.01）, livability（β=0.180, p<0.01）and life-style behavior（β=0.147, p<0.01）.
Conclusion: These results suggested that community activities are important to modify or maintain lifestyle for the elderly. Because association between perceived health and livability or community commitment was different by sex, it is necessary to consider such activity in relation to the awareness or thought about the community in any future study.
Purpose: This study aimed to clarify the end-of-life care experiences of community workers and their problems and to explore possible solutions to promote end-of-life care through community-based services.
Method: A total of 18 staff members from 11 group homes for the elderly with dementia and small community-based multiservice agencies participated in the study. Qualitative and descriptive design was used, and data were collected by focus group session and questionnaires to conduct a content analysis by Berelson’s method.
Result: The participants’ end-of-life care experiences in community-based services were classified into six categories; the extension of everyday life, conflict, skills, support system building, significance, and future challenges. Extracted challenges were facility’s service system, difficulty in collaboration with other medical services, institutional issues, lack of education about death, and lack of understanding toward end-of-life care.
Conclusion: The study suggested that end-of-life care through community-based services was provided as an extension of everyday life and the staff, even though they felt conflicted, obtained necessary skills, made effort to build a support system, and determined the significance of the end-of-life care. To solve the current issues, it was considered to be important to work in cooperation with doctors. The group session in the study assisted workers to build their information network which would be expected to promote end-of-life care.
Aim: The present study explores the intentions and actions of public health nurses（PHNs）during nursing practices to clarify the characteristics of home health nursing practices for children with suspected autism spectrum disorders（ASDs）and their parents, which were elicited from routine health examinations and consultations.
Method: Six cases involving seven PHNs were examined. These PHNs were contacted and interviewed about their “intentions” and “actions” that occurred during their home health nursing and other activities. Surveys were administered to PHNs who provided maternal and child health care in local governments throughout Japan（n = 1,650）. The research proposal was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Medical Ethics Center（No.22-7, 25-90）.
Results: In total, 302 nurses’ “intentions” and 1,575 nurses’ “actions” were recorded, and 740（44.8%）completed questionnaires were returned. Seven characteristics were extracted for the approach to early intervention. The following characteristics were observed. PHNs aimed to:［1］establish relationships with parents;［2］encourage parents;［3］respect the feelings of parents; and［4］take the bitter experiences and anxiety of parents calmly. The following characteristics were also identified. PHNs aimed to: adjust the relationships and agree on the same lines with other childcare providers; and learn from the previous achievements of other cases.
Conclusion: PHNs should encourage parents to use childcare services. PHNs delivered effective and efficient healthcare that allowed them to meet the health needs of children with ASDs and their parents in cooperation with other caregivers from multiple disciplines.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a lecture, for nursing students, concerned with end of life care for a patient at home. It focused on views of life and death along with attitudes toward caring for the dying.
Method: The subjects included in this investigation were 97 second year nursing students. Before the lecture, the students were all given two sets of questionnaires; Death Attitude Inventory（DAI）and Frommelt Attitude Toward Care Of Dying scale Form B-J（FATCOD-Form B-J）. These were returned unsigned and the results were used for scaling views of life and death along with the students’ attitudes toward the care of the dying.
Result: The number of object-oriented analysis was 67. Scores of DAI’s subscale relating to “fear and anxiety of death” reduced significantly（p＜0.001）. Scores of FATCOD-Form B-J increased significantly（p<0.001, p＝0.029）.
Conclusion: There is a possibility that the lecture reduced students’ fear and anxiety regarding death, and made their attitude toward care of the dying more positive. The questionnaire survey also provided students with the opportunity to think about life and death.
Objective: This study aimed to clarify the relationship between social capital and experience of volunteer activities among university students enrolled in school nursing programs, and which examined appropriate methods of fundamental education in consideration of increasing social capital in school nursing programs.
Method: Subjects were 726 students in their final year or taking one-year special courses at 21 universities which providing school nursing programs throughout Japan. They participated in a questionnaire survey on social capital and experience of volunteer activities.
Results: The relationship with volunteer activities varied between cognitive and structural social capital. While the former was associated with experience of activities independently performed at university or as part of education programs, the latter showed an association with the type of independent activity at university, in addition to the content of independent activity for people. Associations were also observed between cognitive social capital and number of years in residence and between structural social capital and the department, number of years in residence, home region, and present region.
Discussion: These results suggest social capital was associated with volunteer activities characterized by experience of establishing diverse relationships and independently collaborating with others.
Aim: To clarify the factors needed for health promotion volunteers to develop self-reliance, through investigating the process of support activities performed by such volunteers in Town A.
Method: We used the process records made by supporters of regular meetings in each district investigated. Regarding health promotion, volunteers’ attitudes and behaviors regarded as based on self-reliance, the details of such behaviors, as well as the contents of the support provided, were confirmed by supporters.
Results: We extracted 15 categories regarding support provided by supporters, and 10 categories regarding health promotion volunteers’ attitudes and behaviors. Using the PDCA（Plan-Do-Check-Action) cycle, an approach proposed in health nursing practice, these categories were structured. At regular meetings as the core of the support process, “discussions” had been held among health promotion volunteers and between them and supporters. To facilitate the former and latter discussions, there were <requirements for health promotion volunteers> and <those for supporters>, respectively. Furthermore, to hold “discussions” among supporters, <system arrangements within administrative bodies> had been made for secretariat, supporter review, and section meetings.
Discussion: “Discussions” had played a central role in conditions necessary for health promotion volunteers to develop self-reliance. It was also shown that interactions between “discussions” and the establishment of interpersonal relationships promote the development of such an attitude. Based on this, administrative bodies should focus on “discussions” as part of their activities, and hold discussions among health promotion volunteers, between them and supporters, and among the latter. It may also be necessary for them to define requirements for both health promotion volunteers and supporters, and make arrangements to facilitate such “discussions”.
Aim: To elucidate the factors related to the intention to continue working among visiting nurses, focusing on the workplace environment specific to the Visiting Nurse.
Method: An anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among full-time and part-time visiting nurses in visiting nursing stations in Hokkaido, Japan. Administrators of the stations were not included in the survey.
Findings: Of the 437 subjects, 252 responses were received（response rate: 57.6%）. Two categories were identified as significantly related factors of intention to continue working; 1）management entity is an incorporated association, 2）the presence of breaks space in a visiting nursing station: focused.
Discussion: These findings suggest that the philosophy and organizational administration of an Incorporated association affects the intention to continue working among visiting nurses. There is a need for further research. In order to increase the intention to continue working among visiting nurses, it seems valuable to install a breaks space in visiting nursing stations.
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