Ana Mafalda Matos, Sandra Nunes, José L. Barroso Aguiar
The primary goal of the present paper is to investigate the influence of cracking on water transport by capillary suction of UHPFRC. Prismatic specimens were firstly loaded under four-point bending up to specific crack open displacement (COD). Target COD, under loading, was varied between 200 and 400 μm, in steps of 50 μm. After unloading, a COD recovery was observed with residual COD ranging between 116-334 µm and 75-248 μm for UHPFRC-1.5% and UHP-FRC-3.0% specimens, respectively. The crack pattern created was characterised (number of cracks and crack width) before capillarity testing. Sorptivity results of cracked UHPFRC-1.5% and UHPFRC-3% specimens remained in the range of 0.024 to 0.044 mg/(mm2.min0.5), which are about 2 to 4 times higher than the sorptivity results of non-cracked UHPFRC specimens. However, the maximum sorptivity observed on cracked UHPFRC is relatively low as compared to typical sorptivity results found in good quality conventional concrete or engineered cementitious composites (ECC).
The distribution of restraint stresses in bottom-restrained walls is an important information for the efficient crack control of wall-like concrete members. Practical examples are retaining walls, bridge abutment walls or tank walls, for which the results can be used in order to assess the risk and intensity of harmful separating cracks over the wall height.
Different solutions exist for the determination of these stress distributions, ranging from advanced computational methods over analytical and semi-analytical solutions up to empirical approaches. The aim of the present contribution is twofold. On the one hand, the general applicability as well as commonalities and differences of the investigated solutions were demonstrated by using them for the analysis of a given demonstration example. On the other hand, a para-metric study was carried out in order to assess the dependence of the prediction quality of the applied solutions on changing conditions. Altogether it was found that advanced computational methods and analytical or semi-analytical solutions showed a good agreement for common design tasks. Solutions with empirical modifications, however, were proved to be less satisfying from engineering perspective due to predefined parameters or mechanically inconsistent modifications.
In order to enhancement accuracy of shear design of reinforced concrete (RC) beams, detail understanding of the shear resistance mechanism is required. This study evaluated the shear resistance mechanism of RC beams based on arch and beam actions by using three dimensional Rigid-Body-Spring-Method (3-D RBSM). Firstly, RC deep and slender beams with and without shear reinforcement failed in shear were tested to measure local behavior. Then, the validity of local behaviors obtained from 3-D RBSM was confirmed by comparing with the test results and the applicability of decoupling of shear resistance mechanism using simulated stress distribution was presented. Moreover, the contributions of arch and beam actions in RC beams until failure stage were investigated numerically by changing the shear reinforcement ratio and shear span to depth ratio and was compared with the current shear design recommendations in JSCE Standard Specification. As a significant finding, the numerical results upon the quantitatively evaluation of shear resistance mechanisms that the shear strength of RC beam could be evaluated without classification of deep beams and slender beams was presented.
The aim of this study is to experimentally investigate the effect of drying on a shear wall, and to clarify the mechanism of the changes in the structural performance due to drying. Two sufficiently hydrated wall specimens are prepared. Then, one is loaded without drying, while the other is tested after sufficient drying until the shrinkage of concrete reaches an equi-librium state. The results show a reduction in the initial stiffness and little change in the ultimate shear strength in the dry specimen, in spite of an increase in the compressive strength. Reproduction numerical analysis using Rigid Body Spring-network Model (RBSM) coupled with a truss network model for moisture transport is conducted, and an ac-ceptable agreement is confirmed in the ultimate strength and the crack patterns. From the numerical results, it is revealed that two factors are balanced in the ultimate shear strength after drying in this experiment: 1) an increase in the com-pressive strength due to aging (material scale), and 2) a strength reduction due to lateral strain, which is evaluated using the formula suggested by Vecchio and Collins (1986) (member scale). This indicates that the wall reinforcement ratio and concrete shrinkage have the influence on the ultimate strength through increasing/decreasing the number of cracks and the crack width.
To estimate the remaining life of existing RC bridge decks damaged by alkali silica reaction (ASR), multi-scale numeri-cal analysis with chemo-hygral model is integrated with visual inspection data at site. First, the applicability of the poro-mechanical models for ASR expansion in the multi-scale frame are examined with the experiments of the real scale RC slabs and the model is validated to bring about fair prediction of the 3D anisotropic expansion and the fatigue life of the slabs. Second, visually inspected cracks on bottom surfaces of RC decks are converted to space-averaged strains, and the magnitude of ASR is estimated from the vertical deformation, based on which the internal pre-stress and the damage fields are re-produced by numerical predictor-corrector cycles, and the remaining life of ASR damaged RC bridge decks is fairly estimated. By conducting sensitivity analyses in terms of ASR-gel volumes and cracks, allowable error range of site inspection data is clarified to meet the requirement of asset management.
Darko Tasevski, Miguel Fernández Ruiz, Aurelio Muttoni
This paper investigates the behaviour of concrete failing under high stress levels and subjected to different types of loading. The aim of this investigation is to clarify the development of linear and nonlinear creep strains and how they relate to material damage and eventual failure. This research is supported on the results of a new experimental programme performed on concrete cylinders tested in uniaxial compression under varying strain and stress rates. The results of this programme allow investigating the influence of the loading history on the material response in terms both of its strength and deformation capacity. On this basis, a failure criterion related to the inelastic strain capacity of concrete is defined. Such failure criterion, showing consistent agreement for all types of loading histories, allows calculating in a simple manner the reduction of the strength for a long-term loading situation and also its associated deformation capacity. On that basis, a comprehensive method for predicting failure of concrete under different long-term loading patterns is proposed and validated.
Di Qiao, Hikaru Nakamura, Yoshihito Yamamoto, Taito Miura
This paper presents an electro-mechanical model for evaluating the corrosion-induced damage in reinforced concrete under accelerated conditions. The model consists of structural analysis of concrete and the rebar using the Rigid Body Spring Method and corrosion current analysis with the truss networks model. The electric corrosion process is coupled with concrete cracking conditions by relating current efficiency to local crack width; the predicted radius losses of rebars are used to evaluate concrete crack propagation and residual tensile performance of corroded rebars. The model is validated with the results of accelerated corrosion tests using impressed current and a sodium chloride pond on the concrete cover. Good agreement with the test data is obtained with the proposed model, in terms of corrosion degree and profile, concrete crack pattern, and tensile behavior of corroded rebars. The model offers a corroborative tool with the accelerated corrosion technique to study the mechanical behavior of corroded concrete structures.
For estimating remaining fatigue life of RC bridge decks subjected to traveling wheel-type loads, presented is the data assimilation procedure, i.e., coupled life-span simulation with inspection data at site. Multi-scale analysis with hygro-mechanistic models is used for the platform of data assimilation on which the visual inspection of cracking on the members’ surfaces and the acoustic emission (AE) tomography are numerically integrated. For verification, the wheel running load experiments of slabs were conducted with continuous data acquisition of both crack patterns and the acoustic emission data over the life till failure. Visually inspected cracks are converted to space-averaged strains, based on which the internal strains and damage fields are re-produced by numerical predictor-corrector cycles. The 3D field of elastic wave identified by AE tomography is also converted to the fracture parameter of concrete. Although no information on cracking is available, the proposed assimilation method successfully reproduces most probable internal cracks over the volume of analysis domains, and the remaining life of the deck slabs inspected was successfully estimated.
In 2008, Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) (currently integrated to the Nuclear Regulatory Authority) launched a project to develop a soundness assessment method for concrete members subject to a radiation environment. Presently, the soundness of concrete members subject to radiation is evaluated based on whether the predicted fast neutron fluence and gamma-ray dose values are lower than specific reference values in Japan, which are 1×1020 n/cm2 and 2×105 kGy, respectively. These reference values were determined based on report by Hilsdorf et al. This project begins by reviewing Hilsdorf et al.’s report, and we find that the scientific evidence for the current reference values is weak. We thus conclude that new experimental research is required to assess the current reference values and to propose a new alternative soundness assessment procedure if needed. We quantitatively evaluated the influence of neutrons, gamma-rays, and the resultant heating and drying processes on the strength of concrete as well as their underlying mechanisms. The irradiation experiments confirmed the degradation mechanism of concrete due to neutron irradiation. The main reason for this degradation is the metamictization of rock-forming minerals, which, in turn, leads to aggregate expansion. Due to aggregate expansion, cracks around aggregates form, which reduce the compressive strength and Young’s modulus of concrete. Among the rock-forming minerals, α-quartz is the most sensitive to neutron radiation. 60Co gamma-ray irradiation experiments demonstrated that concrete strength increased as the gamma-ray dose and gamma-ray flux does not have a dose-rate impact on the first radiolysis of evaporable water in cement paste within the present study. The effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the properties of concrete is equivalent to that of heating and drying. Concrete strength alteration due to heating and drying is attributed to the colloidal and porous nature of hardened cement paste and crack formation around the aggregate due to a mismatch in the volume changes of the mortar and aggregate. In addition, a numerical analysis code called DEVICE (Damage EValuation for Irradiated ConcretE) is developed to harness knowledge obtained from concrete samples to predict the distribution of the physical properties in concrete members and their changes over time. From these fundamental studies, we propose a new soundness assessment procedure for concrete members subject to radiation. We also recommend a new radiation-induced strength-degradation reference value of 1×1019 n/cm2 for fast neutron.