This paper reviewed the delineation of a new 1:200,000 national soil map and a 1:50,000 cultivated soil map in Japan based on the Comprehensive Soil Classification System of Japan – First Approximation (CSCJ) and the World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006 (WRB2006). These new CSCJ soil maps were compared with the 1:200,000 National Land Survey (NLS) soil map and the 1:50,000 cultivated soil map classified by the Classification System for Cultivated Soils revised 2nd Approximation (2nd CSCS) previously published. The distribution area of Andosols, Brown Forest soils, and Red Yellow soils great groups in the NLS soil map, and that of the Andosols, Lowland soils, and Yellow soils groups in the 2nd CSCS cultivated soil map were changed. These new soil maps easily identified the soil profiles and characteristics from the soil name because the CSCJ adopted precise diagnostic criteria, keying rules, and new soil groups that introduced new knowledge on soil pedogenesis into the NLS soil map and the 2nd CSCS cultivated soil map. Then, the national soil map classified by WRB2006 was delineated from the CSCJ national soil map, and Cambisols were mostly distributed in this map. By using numerous soil data from previously conducted studies in Japan, this soil map could accurately represent the distribution of Japanese soils compared with SoilGrid250m that was published recently and is one of the digital world soil maps. In conclusion, these new soil maps will be useful for the management of agricultural land and for environmental analyses at national and regional scales, and they are consistent with international classification systems, making them suitable for global soil information-sharing through schemes such as the FAO’s Global Soil Partnership.
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the most common causative agents of bovine salmonellosis. This review summarizes the molecular epidemiology of S. Typhimurium isolated from cattle in Hokkaido, Japan. The molecular epidemiology of 545 isolates collected between 1977 and 2009 from cattle in Hokkaido was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Nine main clusters (I-IX) were identified by PFGE. Clusters I and VII were dominant in 1992-2002 and 2002-2009, respectively. Next, we analyzed the features of cluster I and VII isolates. Cluster I isolates produced the ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin, ArtA/ArtB which were fatal in mice. Cluster VII isolates were multidrug resistant and shared a virulence-resistance plasmid. Thus, epidemiological surveillance enables early recognition of epidemic Salmonella clones.
Aspergillus oryzae is a filamentous fungus used for the manufacture of medicines and fermented foods. Glutathione is a tripeptide contained in variety of organisms and is involved in tolerance to various stresses. A. oryzae has a putative γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene (gshA) in its genome. To investigate the effect of the gene expression level of gshA on the amount of glutathione in A. oryzae, we generated a transformant where gshA expression was regulated by the thiamine-repressible thiA promoter. When the transformant was cultured on CzapekDox (CD) agar with added thiamine, the intracellular level of glutathione in the transformant decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Results of this study discovered that in oxidative stress conditions, repression of gshA gene expression with thiamine caused inhibition of growth of the transformant. Also, it was found that the gshA gene plays an important role in glutathione homeostasis in A. oryzae, and this gene may also be necessary for oxidative stress response.
Ten novel microsatellite markers were developed for the western sand lance, Ammodytes japonicus, which has decreased significantly in many fishing grounds because of overexploitation and deterioration of its habitat. The 10 markers were successfully amplified in two sets of multiplex polymerase chain reactions (PCR). A total of 63 individuals collected in two successive years from a single population were used to assess the characteristics of the 10 markers. The number of alleles per locus ranged from seven to 24 with the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.397 to 0.921. None of the loci deviated significantly from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and there was no evidence of linkage disequilibrium between any loci-pairs. Almost all of these novel microsatellite markers were also confirmed to be successfully amplified, not only for the other regional A. japonicus, but also for the closely-related Ammodytes heian and Ammodytes hexapterus. These polymorphic microsatellite markers for multiplex PCR will largely improve the throughput of microsatellite DNA analysis, and contribute to the effective genetic monitoring of A. japonicus and other sand lances around Japan.
To achieve sustainable sugarcane cultivation in subtropical cropland of Okinawa, Japan, it is necessary to improve and maintain the soil fertility by organic matter application. In most islands of Okinawa, green manure (GM) application is commonly used to improve the soil organic matter content because of its cost effectiveness. In this study, we evaluated the effect of application of different GMs, i.e., Crotalaria juncea (CRO) and Sesbania cannabina (SES), on soil nutrient dynamics in relation to soil enzymes, which are a sensitive indicator of land management in a sugarcane field of Kitadaito, Okinawa. We evaluated the fluctuation of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase [DH], β-glucosidase [BG], and phosphomonoesterase [PHO]), soil nutrients (extractable carbon [Ext-C] and nitrogen [Ext-N], and available phosphorus [Avail-P]) with environmental conditions after GM application for seven months. We also measured the sugarcane growth parameters seven months after planting. Application of CRO and SES clearly increased the BG and PHO activities throughout the experimental period and increased the sugarcane number (ca. 11%-20%), but they did not increase the DH activity and soil nutrients (e.g., Ext-C and Avail-P). Application of CRO also increased Ext-N, but SES application had no clear effect, possibly because of the different GM quality and decomposition patterns. Thus, our results showed that CRO is the preferred GM species in terms of improvement of soil enzyme and nutrient conditions for GM-sugarcane cropping systems in Kitadaito.
With the ultimate aim of constructing a recycling loop in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) by introducing the source-segregation of household food waste, applying methane fermentation technology to treat it, using the biogas generated as energy and the resulting digested slurry for agriculture, multiple evaluations were made of the use of digested slurry as follows: 1) a physiochemical analysis of the digested slurry obtained by methane fermentation of household food waste in HCMC; 2) a crop growth experiment using the slurry on green mustard; and 3) a simulation of transporting the digested slurry and applying it in agriculture. The digested slurry had a lower ammonia nitrogen content and a smaller ratio of ammonia to total nitrogen than those in previous studies of digested slurries from food waste in other countries. It also had a low harmful contaminant content. The crop growth experiment using the slurry clarified the positive effects of digested slurry on green mustard: plant yield and height, and the width of the biggest leaf produced per seedling, were significantly greater than when no nitrogen was applied. Yield was highly correlated with the ammonia nitrogen application rate, and almost the same fertilization effects as those with chemical fertilizer are expected to be obtained if fertilization design were based on the ammonia nitrogen levels in the digested slurry. No definitive effects of the digested slurry on soil were found. The simulation revealed that the transport and application of digested slurry in the suburbs of HCMC would likely be more efficient than in Japan due to the longer period for application and smaller required storage capacity of digested slurry throughout the year in a climate warmer than that in Japan.
Bluish transgenic chrysanthemums have already been produced and are expected to be commercialized. As domesticated chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) is known to cross with wild species native to Japan, the risk of transgene flows into the wild population must be considered. However, little research has been conducted on the crossability of transgenic chrysanthemums or on the heritability of the transgenes involved. In this study, we investigated artificial cross-pollination between color-modified chrysanthemums and the wild species Chrysanthemum japonense var. japonense. Relatively high seed set rates of 28.8%-53.5% were achieved. Based on a comparison between the size and shape of the flowerheads and leaves of the seedlings and the parent plant, most seedlings were assumed to be hybrids. Polymerase chain reaction was applied to amplify the Campanula F3'5'H gene fragment. The segregation and inheritance of the transgenes were confirmed. Some transgenic progeny exhibited a modified flower color similar to that of the parent. The progeny were also demonstrated to have accumulated anthocyanins specific to the parent plant. The results confirmed the transmission of the transgenes to the interspecific progeny. The modified anthocyanins then produced petals of similar color. To prevent unintended environmental consequences, techniques are needed to reduce the possibility of transgene flow to native chrysanthemum species. This will be a necessary precursor to the commercialization of bluish chrysanthemums in East Asia, specifically Japan.
A 7-month-old Duroc boar exhibited anorexia and dark-bloody diarrhea. Despite antimicrobial therapy including enrofloxacin (fluoroquinolones) and tylosin (macrolides), the boar died. Gross examination showed hepatic abscesses. Histological examination showed chronic multifocal necrotizing and suppurative hepatitis with colonies of Gram-positive cocci. Necrosis was observed in the center of affected areas. The lesions were composed of numerous neutrophils, macrophages, a few lymphocytes, and fibroblasts. Dense fibrous connective tissue surrounded these necrotizing and suppurative lesions. Several cocci were also detected in the multifocal necrotic foci in the liver. The bacteria isolated from the hepatic abscesses were confirmed to be Streptococcus suis serotype 4 based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and agglutination tests with antisera. Immunohistochemically, the cocci observed in the hematoxylin and eosin and Gram-stained sections of the liver abscess were strongly positive for S. suis serotype 4. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the isolate was resistant to third generation cephalosporins. Thus, a diagnosis of unique streptococcosis caused by S. suis serotype 4 was made. The typical clinical manifestation of S. suis infection involves meninges, endocardium, joints, and the lungs. The present boar is the first natural case of porcine liver abscess caused by S. suis serotype 4.
Pleomorphic B cell lymphoma was detected in a small number of lymph nodes in an 8-year-old Holstein cow with persistent lymphocytosis associated with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Necropsy showed enlargement of the left superficial inguinal and right deep inguinal lymph nodes. Large numbers of BLV copies were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis in the enlarged nodes, whereas little BLV was found in normal-sized lymph nodes. Histologically, the enlarged lymph nodes were occupied by diffusely growing pleomorphic cells. In a few other lymph nodes, in contrast, extensive areas of neoplastic mantle cells showing a transition to more malignant pleomorphic cells were observed. These virological and histological findings indicate that large numbers of viral copies may be closely related to transformation from neoplastic mantle cells to pleomorphic lymphoma cells. The current study supports the view that nodal pleomorphic B cell lymphoma is of mantle cell origin.
To determine the factors influencing the productivity of fish in rice paddies (rice-cum-fish) in Laos, this study conducted aquaculture trials using an indigenous fish (Anabas testudineus) in Feuang and Nasaythong Districts, Vientiane Province, Laos. We evaluated stocking densities (StockD), initial body weights of fingerlings (BWi), stocking durations (duration), and feeding conditions (fed; feeding or non-feeding), which were considered the factors influencing fish productivity. The final model obtained by variable selection in multiple linear regression included stockD and duration with fed as a fixed effect. Based on a Bayesian framework, the 95% posterior probability intervals (PPIs) showed negative values for stockD (–32.75 to –23.36) and duration (–0.70 to –0.36), and positive values for fed (3.49 to 8.54). These results indicated that (1) stocking density was a primary factor, and higher stocking density reduced fish productivity, (2) longer stocking duration was less contributory to improving fish productivity compared with stocking density, and (3) feeding conditions improved fish productivity, which was suspected to support nutritional deficiency in the natural food items (e.g., aquatic insects, crustaceans) in paddies. Our findings suggested that fish productivity could be improved by lower stocking density, and that feeding had the potential to maintain high productivity with low stocking density and longer stocking duration.