Since the １９７０s there have been many literacy classes around Japan, especially in Buraku communities. One of their main aims is the liberation of learners from oppression and discrimination, as Paulo Freire called for. At that time, there were governmental measures supporting those classes. But now, measures by central government have ceased to exist. These days, most classes are managed by volunteer workers with little budget from local governments. People face many difficulties with budgets, educational materials, and class management, among other things. Some people are lost in search of the right direction. Since the １９８０s there has been debate on how to integrate compensation and liberation in literacy activities: in other words, the integration of functional literacy and critical literacy with the responsibility of governments and the role of civil movements. Now it has become a major issue in Japan. Through the case study of Literacy Class A in a Buraku community in Osaka city, we investigated the consistencies and differences between １９９０ and ２０１７. There are many differences such as the governmental commitment, the distance from the Buraku liberation movement, and the learners’ characteristics. In terms of consistencies, there are three points: (１) learning to clarify problems in daily life through chatter and trying to overcome them; (２) the learning activities originate from the words, cultures and experiences of learners; (３) learning to reflect their own life histories and daily lives and to reconstruct their meaning through reading and writing activities. Both in １９９０ and ２０１７, it has been self-sustaining as an educational activity which“ changes human beings from objects at the mercy of events to subjects who create their own history” (“The Right to Learn” UNESCO, １９８５). It must be the key for integration between compensation and liberation.
This research attempts to clarify the structure and conditions for guaranteed learning to support children’s way of living, through awareness of the reality of truancy in South Korea (gakugyō-chudan) and Japan (futōkō). Through interviews we listened to the voices of children - the principal actors in learning - and we then reconsidered educational practices. We chose two schools whose educational practices, within and outside the institutional system, can address our awareness of the situation. They are Hokusei Yoichi High School in Japan and Alum Down School in Korea. We interviewed children from both schools about schoolmates, everyday life, school subjects, future plans, and their relationships with teachers. Analysis of the interview results indicated that, through group learning about various struggles, they were learning to grasp values that could serve as guides for living their own lives. Characteristics of guaranteed learning that supports children’s way of living can be organized into five points: 1. There is much room for discretion with regard to teachers’ educational content. 2. Supporting everyday life and heart and mind is also part of learning. 3. There was no fixed image of an“ expected stage of development”. 4. The experience of facing difficulties was valued as indispensable for the growth of children. 5. Coming into contact with“ third adults” in society with various ways of living was valued. Three conditions comprise the foundation of this type of learning: １） relationships among parents, ２） relationships of mutual trust among teachers, parents and local residents, and ３） a willingness by these three groups to accept and be moved by the growth of children. Learning that supports children’s way of living is comprised not only of school learning, but also founded in a community providing overall support of their everyday life. Key words: Alternative school, guarantee of learning, Japan-South Korea comparison, school refusal, way of living
Since December ２０１６, when the Guaranteed Access to Education Law was enacted, studies of public evening junior high school have been undertaken among local governments. To establish such schools, municipalities often conduct a survey of needs, and questionnaires are carried out as a method. However, the situation of those who have not completed compulsory education varies from region to region. Therefore, a learner’s perspective should be considered in the process of questionnaire-making. The purpose of this paper is to record the process of questionnaire-making by the Hokkaido Board of Education, with Sapporo Enyujuku Voluntary Evening Junior High School which has long-time experience in accepting people seeking basic learning in Hokkaido. Questionnaire items on this survey were created through repeated discussions between the Hokkaido Board of Education and Sapporo EnyuJyuku Voluntary Evening Junior High School. After careful considerations, some modifications were done such as “Add furigana to kanji for those who can’t read kanji ,”“ Attach materials that can explain the difference between public evening junior high school and voluntary evening junior high school on the questionnaire form,”“ Adds the choice“ I do not know” to questions referring to graduation from junior high school.” Consequently, questionnaires were created with due regard to those detailed matters.
As a result, this survey, at least clarifies that there are people seeking basic learning. The process and results of collaboration between the administration and the voluntary
The Cooperation between the Hokkaido Board of Education and Sapporo Enyujuku Voluntary Evening Junior High School : The Process of Making a “Questionnaire Survey on Public Evening Junior High School Studies” and the Meaning of the Result
As a result, this survey, at least clarifies that there are people seeking basic learning. The process and results of collaboration between the administration and the voluntary evening junior high school provide a framework for other local governments which may conduct a survey of needs in establishing public evening junior high schools in the future.