Vascular calcification is an important pathogenesis related to cardiovascular disease and high mortality rate in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It has been well-known that hyperphosphatemia induces osteochondrogenic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) resulting ectopic calcification in aortic media, cardiac valve, and kidney. However, the detailed mechanism of the ectopic calcification has been not clarified yet. Here, we found that the co-localization of CYP27B1 with the calcified lesions of aorta and arteries in kidney of klotho mutant (kl/kl) mice, and then investigated the role of CYP27B1 in the mineralization of the VSMCs. Under high phosphate condition, overexpression of CYP27B1 induced calcification and osteocalcin mRNA expression in the VSMCs. Inversely, siRNA-CYP27B1 inhibited high phosphate-induced calcification of the VSMCs. We also found that the accumulated CYP27B1 protein was glycosylated in the kidney of kl/kl mice. Therefore, overexpression of CYP27B1-N310A and CYP27B1-T439A, which are a mutation for N-linked glycosylation site (N310A) and a mutation for O-linked glycosylation site (T439A) in CYP27B1, decreased calcium deposition and expression of RUNX2 induced by high phosphate medium in VSMCs compared with wild-type CYP27B1. These results suggest that extra-renal expression of glycosylated CYP27B1 would be required for ectopic calcification of VSMCs under hyperphosphatemia.
Dietary β-carotene induces muscle hypertrophy and prevents muscle atrophy in red slow-twitch soleus muscles, but not in white fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles and gastrocnemius muscles. However, it remains unclear why these beneficial effects of β-carotene are elicited in soleus muscles. To address this issue, we focused on carotenoid transporters in skeletal muscles. In mice, Cd36 mRNA levels were higher in red muscle than in white muscle. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of CD36 decreased β-carotene uptake in C2C12 myotubes. In soleus muscles, CD36 knockdown inhibited β-carotene-induced increase in muscle mass. Intravenous injection of the hypoxia marker pimonidazole produced more pimonidazole-bound proteins in soleus muscles than in EDL muscles, and the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) α protein level was higher in soleus muscles than in EDL muscles. In C2C12 myotubes, hypoxia increased the expression of CD36 and HIF-1α at the protein and mRNA levels, and HIF-1α knockdown reduced hypoxia-induced increase in Cd36 mRNA level. In soleus muscles, HIF-1α knockdown reduced Cd36 mRNA level. These results indicate that CD36 is predominantly involved in β-carotene-induced increase in soleus muscle mass of mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD36 expression depends on HIF-1α in the soleus muscles of mice, even under normal physiological conditions.
To clarify the frequency of hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus receiving dapagliflozin combination therapy to reduce their basal insulin dose. Sixty subjects were assigned to two groups according to their basal insulin-to-total daily dose (TDD) ratio: group A (basal insulin/TDD <40%) and group B (≥40%). Reduction of the basal insulin dose was instituted in group B, but not in group A. The number of hypoglycemic events per day and ketosis frequency were the primary and secondary endpoints, respectively. The hypoglycemia frequency before and after the intervention was 0.23 and 0.26 times/day in group A and 0.19 and 0.23 times/day in group B, respectively, with no significant difference between the groups. The total insulin dose reduction was approximately 10% in both groups. Ketosis frequency increased significantly after the intervention (from 0.013 to 0.086 times/day in group A and 0.013 to 0.059 times/day in group B). Time-in-range, mean amplitude of glycemic excursion, and glycated hemoglobin A1c improved in both groups. No significant difference in hypoglycemia frequency was observed between patients with and without reduction of the basal insulin dose. The combination therapy improved glycemic control and patient satisfaction regarding hyperglycemia. Nevertheless, adequate attention to ketosis is crucial.
Glycosphingolipids are involved in intercellular signaling, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Saposins A, B, C, and D are cofactors required for glycosphingolipid hydrolysis. Saposins A–D are present in series in a common precursor protein, prosaposin. Thus, glycosphingolipids amounts depend on prosaposin cellular levels. We previously reported that prosaposin and saposin B bind coenzyme Q10 in human cells. Coenzyme Q10 is an essential lipid of the mitochondrial electron transport system, and its reduced form is an important antioxidant. Coenzyme Q10 level decrease in aging and in various progressive diseases. Therefore, it is interesting to understand the cellular response to long-term coenzyme Q10 deficiency. We established a long-term coenzyme Q10 deficient cell model by using the coenzyme Q10 biosynthesis inhibitor, 4-nitrobenzoate. The levels of coenzyme Q10 were reduced by 4-nitrobenzoate in HepG2 cells. Administration of 4-nitrobenzoate also decreased prosaposin protein and mRNA levels. The cellular levels of coenzyme Q10 and prosaposin were recovered by treatment with 4-hydroxybenzoquinone, a substrate for coenzyme Q10 synthesis that counteracts the effect of 4-nitrobenzoate. Furthermore, the ganglioside levels were altered in 4-nitrobenzoate treated cells. These results imply that long-term coenzyme Q10 deficiency reduces cellular prosaposin levels and disturbs glycosphingolipid metabolism.
Copper (Cu), an essential micronutrient, plays an essential role in several physiological processes, including cell proliferation and angiogenesis; however, its dysregulation induces oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Significant Cu accumulation is observed in several tumor tissues. The bioavailability of intracellular Cu is tightly controlled by Cu transporters, including Cu transporter 1 (CTR1) and Cu-transporting P-type ATPase α and β (ATP7A and ATP7B), and Cu chaperones, including Cu chaperone for superoxide dismutase 1 (CCS) and antioxidant-1 (Atox-1). In several tumor tissues, these abnormalities that induce intracellular Cu accumulation are involved in tumor progression. In addition, functional disturbance in Cu-containing secretory enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3), and lysyl oxidase enzymes (LOX and LOXL1–4) with abnormal Cu dynamics plays a key role in tumor metastasis. For example, the loss of SOD3 in tumor tissues induces oxidative stress, which promotes neovascularization and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). LOX promotes collagen crosslinking, which functions in the metastatic niche formation. Accordingly, restricted Cu regulation may be a novel strategy for the inhibition of tumor metastasis. However, it is unclear how these Cu disturbances occur in tumor tissues and the exact molecular mechanisms underlying Cu secretory enzymes. In this review article, I discuss the role of Cu transporters, Cu chaperones, and Cu-containing secretory enzymes in tumor progression to better understand the role of Cu homeostasis in tumor tissues.
We investigated the association of salt intake with lifestyle-related diseases and also the association of habitually consumed foods with salt intake. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from a baseline survey of 2,129 residents of Yonezawa city (980 males and 1,149 females), Yamagata prefecture. The residents were divided into three groups based on their estimated daily salt intake: low, medium, and high. In both genders, the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes increased in the order of high > medium > low salt intake (trend p<0.001). Similar trends were observed in the prevalence of hyperlipidemia in females and metabolic syndrome in males. The prevalence of diabetes in the high salt intake group was significantly higher than that in the control group (matched from the low and medium salt intake groups), even when confounding factors were excluded by propensity score matching (p<0.01). Network analysis showed that the low salt intake group had a greater tendency to habitually consume various vegetables than the high salt intake group. Our findings reveal that the prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases increased with higher salt intake. We speculate that a dietary shift to multiple vegetable consumption could have salt-lowering effects.
Circulating xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-related adverse cardiometabolic profiles. This pilot study aimed to examine the cross-sectional associations between plasma XOR activity and cardiometabolic risk (CMR) markers in overweight and obese men. In 64 overweight and obese Japanese men (aged 31–63 years), plasma XOR activity and several CMR markers, such as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and clustered CMR score were measured in each participant. Clustered CMR score was constructed based on waist circumference, triglyceride, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma XOR activity in overweight and obese men was positively associated with the body mass index, waist circumference, visceral fat area, body fat mass, hemoglobin A1c, serum 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, HOMA-IR, and clustered CMR score and was inversely associated with handgrip strength and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Multiple linear regression analysis further demonstrated that the associations of plasma XOR activity with HOMA-IR and the clustered CMR score remained significant after adjustment for covariates including uric acid. Our data demonstrate that circulating XOR activity was independently associated, albeit modestly, with HOMA-IR and the clustered CMR score. These preliminary findings suggest that circulating XOR activity can potentially be one of the preventive targets and biomarkers of cardiometabolic disorders in overweight and obese men.
Stratification of gastric cancer risk by measuring serological biomarkers is useful for screening of gastric cancer. However, this method has problem such as overlooking past infected patients. We aimed to evaluate the association between Helicobacter pylori infection status and serological biomarkers. We divided 5,268 patients according to Helicobacter pylori infection status and past infected patients were divided into 12 groups according to time elapsed since eradication. We analyzed mean serum H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibody, pepsinogen titers, histological and endoscopic atrophy score of each group. Mean H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibody showed a decreasing tendency, there was no significant difference from the uninfected group at 11 years after eradication (p = 0.19). PGI, PGII decreased in short term after eradication. However, both PGI and PGII gradually increased as long-term changes after eradication, became comparable to those in the uninfected group (p = 0.41, p = 0.37, respectively). Histological atrophy improved gradually, became equivalent to uninfected group. Endoscopic atrophy score did not improve for long term after eradication. In conclusion, patients with long term after eradication reach the uninfected condition serologically, histologically. Endoscopic assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy may be useful for accurate assessment of gastric cancer risk.
Copper (Cu) participates in the biological redox reaction in the body, and its deficiency is fatal to the body. At the same time, Cu is extremely toxic when it exists in excess. Thus, the body has to tightly and spatiotemporally regulate the concentration of Cu within a physiological range by several groups of Cu-regulating proteins. However, entire mechanisms underlying the maintenance of Cu homeostasis in body and cells have not fully understood. It is necessary to analyze Cu itself in a body and in a cell to reveal the Cu homeostasis. In this review, recent advances in the analytical techniques to understand the Cu metabolism such as speciation, imaging and single-cell analysis of Cu were highlighted.
Deficiency of coenzyme Q has been reported in various neurological diseases, and the behavior of this lipid in neurons has attracted attention. However, the behavior of this lipid in normal neurons remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the concentration of coenzyme Q before and after neuronal differentiation. Nerve growth factor treatment of PC12 cells caused neurite outgrowth and neuronal differentiation, and the amount of intracellular coenzyme Q increased dramatically during this process. In addition, when the serum was removed from the culture medium of N1E-115 cells and the neurite outgrowth was confirmed, the intracellular coenzyme Q level also increased. To elucidate the role of the increased coenzyme Q, we administered nerve growth factor to PC12 cells with coenzyme Q synthesis inhibitors and found that coenzyme Q levels decreased, neurite outgrowth was impaired, and differentiation markers were reduced. These results indicate that coenzyme Q levels increase during neuronal differentiation and that this increase is important for neurite outgrowth.
This cross-sectional study investigated the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with sarcopenia defined by absolute low muscle mass (aLMM) and absolute low muscle strength (aLMS), or sarcopenia defined by relative low muscle mass (rLMM) and relative low muscle strength (rLMS). The cut-off values for men and women were as follows: aLMM, appendicular muscle mass in kg/height2 was <7.0 kg/m2 and <5.7 kg/m2; rLMM, appendicular muscle mass/body weight ×100 was <28.64% and <24.12%; aLMS, handgrip strength was <28 kg and <18 kg; and rLMS, handgrip strength/body weight ×100 was 51.26% and 35.38%. Among 207 men and 164 women, 41.5% men and 57.3% women had MetS, 14.0% men and 6.1% women had sarcopenia as defined by aLMM and aLMS, and 14.0% men and 22.0% women had sarcopenia defined by rLMM and rLMS. Compared with non-sarcopenia, adjusted OR of sarcopenia defined by aLMM and aLMS for the prevalence of MetS was 0.79 (95% CI 0.38–1.67), whereas that of sarcopenia defined by rLMM and rLMS for the prevalence of MetS was 20.6 (95% CI 7.81–54.3). Sarcopenia defined by rLMM and rLMS was associated with the risk of prevalence of MetS, whereas sarcopenia defined by aLMM and aLMS was not.
COVID-19 is pandemic since 2020 and further information is necessary on the risk factors associated with the infection of SARS-CoV-2. As an entry mechanism, SARS-CoV-2 uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as receptor and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) to activate fusion with host plasma membrane. Because dysgeusia is an early symptom of COVID-19, we here studied the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the tongue and the associated tissues of mice and humans with immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis. ACE2 expression was low in the human tongue but was observed in the squamous epithelium, perineurium, arterial wall, salivary glands as well as taste buds. In contrast, mice showed high expression. In sharp contrast, TMPRSS2 expression was high in all the cells mentioned above in humans but relatively low in mice except for salivary glands. We then performed semi-quantitation of immunohistochemistry data of human ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and analyzed for age, sex, alcohol intake, and smoking habit with logistic regression analysis. We found that alcohol intake and female gender were the significant risk factors for increasing TMPRSS2 expression. In conclusion, TMPRSS2 is an important factor to be considered regarding SARS-CoV-2 entry and amplification in the oral cavity, which is promoted through drinking habit.
Amniotic fluid (AF) is the first fluid to enter the gastrointestinal tract. Preterm birth is leading to a sudden interruption of AF swallowing. Understanding the composition of amniotic fluid is crucial to implement strategies preventing intestinal injury in preterm infants. We hypothesized that the fetal gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is exposed to melatonin and antioxidant enzymes via amniotic fluid throughout prenatal development. Amniotic fluid samples from 76 pregnant women with a median (range) gestational age of 38.0 (14.3–40.1) weeks have been collected. Immediately after birth blood samples were collected from the umbilical vein (n = 53). Median (Interquartile range) melatonin concentration was 30.5 pg/ml (12.7–118.3) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) concentration was 84 ng/ml (59–123). Extracellular glutathione peroxidase concentration was either not detectable or exceptionally low. We found a positive correlation between melatonin concentration in amniotic fluid and gestational age (Spearman’s correlation coefficient, r = 0.570, p<0.001), while SOD1 concentration in amniotic fluid was inversely correlated with gestational age (r = −0.246, p = 0.032). Compared to serum samples, melatonin concentration was statistically significantly higher in amniotic fluid (p<0.001). Our results indicate that the fetal gastrointestinal system is continuously exposed to melatonin and SOD1 via the amniotic fluid throughout prenatal development.
Glutathione (GSH) is synthesized from three amino acids and the overall process is highly dependent on the availability of l-cysteine (l-Cys). GSH serves as an essential cofactor for glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4), which reduces phospholipid hydroperoxides. The inactivation of Gpx4 or an insufficient supply of l-Cys results in the accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides, eventually leading to iron-dependent cell death, ferroptosis. In this study, we investigated the anti-ferroptotic properties of d-cysteine (d-Cys) under conditions of dysfunction in cystine transporter, xCT. l-Cys supplementation completely rescued ferroptosis that had been induced by the erastin-mediated inhibition of xCT in Hepa 1-6 cells. Upon d-Cys supplementation, the erastin-treated cells remained completely viable for periods of up to 24 h but eventually died after 48 h. d-Cys supplementation suppressed the production of lipid peroxides, thereby ferroptosis. The addition of d-Cys sustained intracellular Cys and GSH levels to a certain extent. When Hepa 1-6 cells were treated with a combination of buthionine sulfoximine and erastin, the anti-ferroptotic effect of d-Cys was diminished. These collective results indicate that, although d-Cys is not the direct source of GSH, d-Cys supplementation protects cells from ferroptosis in a manner that is dependent on GSH synthesis via stimulating the uptake of l-Cys.
Individuals with Down syndrome (DS), which is caused by triplication of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21), show numerous characteristic symptoms, such as intellectual disability, an impaired cognitive function, and accelerated aging-like phenotypes. Enhanced oxidative stress is assumed to be implicated as a mechanism underlying many of these symptoms of DS. Some genes coded in Hsa21, such as App, Sod1, and Ets2, are suggested as being involved in the exacerbation of oxidative stress. In addition, enhanced oxidative stress has been recently shown to be caused by dyshomeostasis of the redox-active bio-metal copper in the brain of a mouse model of DS. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge on enhanced oxidative stress in DS and suggest a possible molecular mechanism underlying the cognitive impairment of DS mediated by enhanced oxidative stress.
The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases has been attracting attention. We speculated as to whether the redox state of treatment solutions used for various diseases may play a role in treatment success. In the current study, we focused on the human embryo culture medium used for in vitro fertilization (IVF). A total of 173 oocytes from a total of 91 patients treated with IVF were enrolled. The redox state was assessed by measuring the levels of human non-mercaptalbumin (HNA). We analyzed factors related to blastocyst formation on day 5 or 6 after insemination. We also developed a random forest (RF) model for the prediction of blastocyst formation. The variable importance in the predictive model was assessed using the mean decrease in the Gini impurity. Blastocyst formation was observed in 41.04% (71/173) of the oocytes and was associated with a lower %HNA in the culture medium, a younger patient age, and the fertilization method (standard IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection). The RF model developed using these factors and 70% of the samples (training set, n = 121) was validated in the remaining testing set (n = 52) and produced an area under the curve of 0.761, where the %HNA in the culture medium was the most important variable for predicting blastocyst formation. In conclusion, lower levels of oxidative stress in embryo culture media were associated with the success of IVF treatment. The redox state of treatment solutions should be considered to support treatment success.
Bioactive peptides with various health benefits have been reported from rice protein hydrolysates. We previously showed that rice-derived peptides (RP) increased intracellular glutathione levels and induced the expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, which is regulated by nuclear transcription factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an important Nrf2 downstream antioxidant enzyme that protects against oxidative stress. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of RP on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2 and identified HO-1 induced peptides from RP. Pretreatment of cells with RP reduced the cytotoxicity caused by H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, RP induced HO-1 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Next, we attempted to isolate the HO-1 inducer from RP by bioactivity-guided fractionation. Purification of the active peptides using a Sep-Pak C18 cartridge and reversed-phase HPLC, followed by sequence analysis by mass spectrometry, led to the identification of the three peptides. These peptides effectively reduced H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Among them, only P3 (peptide sequence: RSAVLLSH) increased HO-1 protein expression. Additionally, the knockdown of Nrf2 suppressed the induction of HO-1 expression by P3. Our results indicated that P3 identified from RP induced HO-1 by activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway.
Smoke from conventional cigarettes (C-cigarettes) contains various reactive oxygen species and toxic chemicals, which potentially cause oxidative damage not only to airways but also to the whole body, leading eventually to diseases, including emphysema, advanced atherosclerosis, and cancer. Many heat-not-burn tobacco products (HTPs) have been commercialized recently in Japan to maintain the smoking population by advertising that HTPs are less toxic. However, there were few studies reported from neutral organizations whether HTPs are indeed less damaging. To evaluate the potential capacity of HTPs to induce oxidative stress, we here compared two different HTPs with two types of C-cigarettes, using human fibroblast IMR90SV cells and 5% aqueous extracts in 10-ml phosphate-buffered saline (50-ml smoke/10 s). HTPs exhibited significantly lower oxidative toxicity in comparison to C-cigarettes. Whereas C-cigarettes induced ferroptosis in fibroblasts, the effects of HTPs were significantly reduced by measuring the levels of peroxides, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, autophagy, catalytic Fe(II) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Notably, major portions of C-cigarettes-induced pathogenic responses were inhibited by catalase. However, HTPs still induced p62 autophagy-adaptor at 5%-dilution and caused lethal effects to fibroblasts with undiluted solution. In conclusion, HTPs smoke per se can be toxic despite less toxicity in comparison to C-cigarettes, which warrants further investigation.
Artesunate, an antimalarial drug, induces ferroptosis, but the mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated how Artesunate induces ferroptosis in ovarian serous carcinoma. Experiments were performed using the ovarian serous carcinoma cell lines CaOV3 and SKOV3ip1, and the sensitivity of CaOV3 to Artesunate was higher than that of SKOV3ip1. Ferroptosis inhibitors inhibited Artesunate-induced intracellular lipid peroxidation and cell death. However, unlike class 1 ferroptosis inducer erastin, Artesunate had no effect on intracellular glutathione-SH levels. We found that Artesunate-induced changes in lysosomal Fe2+ were parallel to the induction of ferroptosis. Therefore, ferritin, which oxidizes and binds intracellular Fe2+, may have an inhibitory effect on ferroptosis. Knockdown of nuclear coactivator 4, a key molecule of ferritinophagy (ferritin-specific autophagy), suppressed Artesunate-induced cell death. Knockdown of ferritin heavy chain by siRNA greatly enhanced the sensitivity to Artesunate, and overexpression of ferritin heavy chain greatly reduced the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cell lines to Artesunate. These results can explain the differential sensitivity of CaOV3 and SKOV3ip1 to Artesunate. In conclusion, enhancement of ferritinophagy is an important step involved in the mechanism of Artesunate-induced ferroptosis, and ferritin heavy chain levels may contribute to the regulation of sensitivity in Artesunate-induced ferroptosis in ovarian serous carcinoma cells.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a well-known antioxidant and serves as an essential carrier for electron transport and proton translocation in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. CoQ10 has been widely commercially available in Japan as a dietary and health supplement since 2001 and it is used for the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases induced by aging. Recently, it was stated that for Japan, which is facing an aging society, CoQ10 has been used in many skincare products. However, the physiological actions of CoQ10 in skin fibroblasts are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the effect of CoQ10 on cultured human skin fibroblast. In this study, CoQ10 treatment increased intracellular CoQ10 level and promoted proliferation of fibroblasts. In addition, CoQ10 increased mRNA expression of type I, IV, VII collagen, elastin, and HSP47, whereas CoQ10 has little effect on mRNA of type II and VIII MMP. These results suggested that CoQ10 has the efficacy that it increases collagen production in skin, thereby there is possible of the anti-aging by CoQ10 in Japan which reached an aging society, so that it might be based on new physiological function by CoQ10.