The use of diagrams, instead of linguistic and symbolic representations, in logical reasoning has been the subject of continuous research interest over the last few centuries. Especially in 1990s, such logic diagrams have attracted substantial research attention in the fields of logic, artificial intelligence and cognitive science. More recently, according to some applications to computer sciences, various diagrammatic systems have been developed to handle extended types of logical information and reasoning. The research direction of logic diagram design raises the question of to what extent diagrammatic systems can be expressive enough to handle the generality of logics as well as be natural and effective so that they are easy to understand. This paper surveys historical and recent developments of logic diagrams, focusing on the two types of visualization: Euler/Venn diagrams and graph representations. While a majority of previous researches on cognitive science of reasoning focus on linguistic forms, this survey provides a systematic overview of diagrammatic reasoning, contributing to understanding the theoretical basis of reasoning in visual forms.
From the perspective of embodied cognition, sensory-motor representation is activated during comprehension of sentences. Although many studies have supported this view, activation of the sensory-motor representation during second language comprehension is still not well understood, especially in L2 beginners. To investigate whether the representations are involved in the comprehension of action sentences in Japanese and English, three experiments were conducted with Japanese students at CEFR A1-A2 levels. In experiment 1-1 and experiment 1-2, Japanese students performed a sensible judgment task for unimanual and bimanual action sentences, and for mental action sentences in both Japanese and English. The reaction times for the mental action sentences were significantly longer than in the other two types of sentences in both languages. No significant difference was observed between the unimanual and bimanual sentences. The third experiment, Experiment 2, was conducted to compare perfect tense and progressive tense of hand action sentences and mental action sentences. Participants read English sentences to answer the sensible judgment task. In the hand action sentences, the reaction time to a progressive tense was shorter than to a perfect tense. However, the tenses showed no significant influence on the mental sentences. These results suggest that comprehending a second language activates the sensory-motor representation even in learners who are not fluent in the language.
In this paper we consider the relationship between artificial intelligence and cognitive science. The aim of artificial intelligence was to understand human intelligence constructively and the aim of cognitive science was to understand human intelligence analytically. Recent advances in artificial intelligence have made it possible to realize intelligence by computers so far, though still far inferior to humans. From now the aim of artificial intelligence should be to understand general intelligence constructively and the aim of cognitive science should be to understand general intelligence analytically. I discuss in this paper the relationship between artificial intelligence and cognitive science using the example of our research themes: the frame problem, games, and Haiku.
It is necessary to retrieve less salient knowledge to think creatively (e.g., idea generation and insight problem solving). We hypothesized that people retrieve less salient knowledge by searching for a commonality between unrelated objects rather than by thinking about an object itself. In Experiment 1, fifty undergraduates were assigned to one of two groups:commonality search and word association. While the participants in the commonality search group were asked to list the commonalities between unrelated objects (e.g., a strawberry and a television), those in the word association group were asked to list as many words as they could remember from each object. The answers listed by the participants in the commonality search group were less salient than those in the word association group. In Experiment 2, we obtained the same pattern of results as those of Experiment 1 with modified procedure and measures of saliency. We concluded that the commonality search between unrelated objects is effective in retrieving less salient knowledge.
This study shows a database developed to investigate developmental changes in children's musical behaviors in the context of the parent-child dyad. Data were collected through longitudinal observations of 30 parent-child pairs who interactively played with musical instruments (e.g., a small glockenspiel) during the first four years of the children. We organized the database not only as an archive of the collected videotaped data but also as a research tool by installing some functions (e.g., synchronized presentation of the data with a coding sheet [text data] and addition of bookmarks to points of interest on the coding sheet) that would allow researchers to code and analyze the data more efficiently. We presented the utility of our database as a research tool by illustrating the first behavior of the children in regard to playing with musical instruments (such as hitting a glockenspiel with mallets) and related it to the development of children's behavioral and cognitive abilities, and the contextual features (both physical and social). In the last section, we briefly explained some issues relevant to creating conditions for the secure, open, and flexible operation of our database, which would be crucial for sharing its value with researchers from a diverse range of scholarly interests.