The synthesis and characterization of new functionalized phthalocyanines with directly appended heterocyclic moieties (Pc1: pyrazines and Pc2: diazepines) are described. These phthalocyanine compounds (Pcs) contain four external metal binding sites, and each of them is formed by three nitrogen atoms. UV-vis spectral changes in the Pcs in CHCl3 on adding metal ions indicated the occurrence of molecular aggregation, and UV titration studies showed 1:4 host-guest stoichiometry for complexation of Pcs especially with Cu2+ and Pb2+. Additionally, ESI-MS spectra and fluorescent X-ray spectroscopy also indicated the formation of a metal-phthalocyanine complex coordinated from the outside. The design strategy and optical properties of the Pcs help to extend the development of a phthalocyanine-based chemosensor for metal ions.
This study has proposed a framework to promote sustainable technology based on a concept of LCE. Getting together a few components for implementation by virtue of Web service technologies, we have provided a Web-based prototype system and shown its prospects. Especially, we intended to facilitate publishing user's own sub-model or process model and registering them for mutual usage via Web service broker. For this purpose, we revise the foregoing XML format of PLCM and introduced XML database and XML linking tools. Finally, through a case study applied to PE sheet for agricultural use, we illustrated the benefits of the developed collaborative environment for supporting decision making on LCE.
For this study, we established and evaluated two usage scenarios of ethanol (EtOH) from biomass for transportation: direct use of ethanol and use of hydrogen produced from EtOH. As a result, we examined the effectiveness of fuel cell vehicles of the latter case. In the EtOH direct-use scenario, the EtOH-to-Tank efficiency was 63.6-81.0% (energy loss: 706-289 kJ/mol) with 30% Tank-to-Wheel efficiency of EtOH hybrid cars. In other words, in the scenario of fuel cell vehicles with 60% Tank-to-Wheel efficiency, the efficiency of EtOH-to-Tank should be more than 31.8-40.5%. From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that the two evaluated scenarios have comparative efficiencies, considering the currently published EtOH-to-Tank efficiency using steam reforming of 34.0-43.0%. For the realization of bioEtOH-oriented fuel cell vehicles, the development of higher hydrogen production efficiency is required.
The capability of cadmium(II) (Cd(II)) uptakes by calcium alginate (CaAlg) prepared from sodium alginate was investigated. The CaAlg hydrogel beads (gel beads) and the CaAlg dehydrated beads (dried gel beads) are capable of Cd(II) uptake. When the mass of the CaAlg beads used in a batch adsorption method was increased, the residual concentration of Cd(II) in the solution decreased; the Cd(II) adsorption capacity of the CaAlg gel beads was consistently higher when compared to the dehydrated beads. This indicates that macromolecular changes took place during the dehydration process. The CaAlg gelation and dehydration mechanism models were discussed in order to explain the biosorption of Cd(II) by the gel beads and dehydrated beads.
A long term solution for global warming is now inevitable to mitigate the dilemma of climate change. Natural refrigerant CO2 is one of the most viable alternatives to replace the harmful fluorocarbon-based refrigerants. This study analyzed the possible improvements in the performance of CO2 refrigeration system using two-phase ejector. Theoretical analysis and experimental investigation were carried out at different operating conditions for both ejector refrigeration cycle and conventional vapor compression cycle using CO2. The calculation of coefficient of performance (COP) was based on the enthalpy increase in the compressor using the measured pressure and temperature. The results of the experiment show that COP can be improved significantly using two-phase ejector. This study supports the viability of non-fluorocarbon-based CO2 as an alternative refrigerant for the future.
In order to improve the accuracy of both shape and dimension for a cylindrical cup, and reduced the production energy, stretch-draw forming processes were carried out using pure aluminium sheets and pure titanium sheets of 2mm in thickness. The stretch-draw forming processes were carried out by using a blank holder with a stepped holding face. The blank holder consists of four periodical sections to compress the flange of the blank and four stepped sections which are incompressible areas. The shape accuracy for a cylindrical cup is improved by changing the depth of steps of the blank holder and the blank holding force. The optimum conditions in order to improve the shape accuracy for cylindrical cups were also found.
The vertical distributions of the concentrations of O3, NO, NO2 and SO2 at the experimental sites of Mt. Fuji in Japan were measured by the passive sampler from July to November in 2007. When the air mass came from the Asian continent, the vertical distribution of the concentration of O3 increased with altitude up to 67.2ppbv at 3240m, while the vertical distribution of the concentration of O3 decreased with altitude when the air mass came from the Pacific. The concentrations of NO and NO2 increased with the altitude more than 2000 m. This phenomenon depended on the altitude. The SO2 fluctuation was seemed to depend on the direction, where an air mass came and also on the altitude. When an air mass came from the continent, the concentration of SO2 increased with altitude as O3, and when an air mass came from the Pacific, the increase of the concentration with altitude was found when the altitude was more than 2000m as NO and NO2. The vertical distribution of temperature and the humidity indicated changes of an air mass at 1700, 2500 and 3200m. The vertical distributions of NO, NO2 and SO2 and the meteorological data such as temperature and humidity suggested that an atmospheric boundary layer existed near an altitude of 2000 meters.