Attempts have been made by several major developed economies to reduce and minimize global warming by making agreement among them through Kyoto Protocol and later on in 2009 the agreement was expanded to cover more than 190 countries. However, the fact is that global warming still occurs and creates an increase of earth temperature. A new approach has to be conducted since the conventional one is no longer effective, i.e. through the implementation of eco-technology where the reduction of carbon dioxide and green house gas emission is handled comprehensively, systemic, and integrated. There should be a complimentary effort among the energy potentials both fossil and non-fossil and there should be no champion or dominance of a single energy resource, otherwise there will be a severe competition among the potential energy resources which eventually create negative impacts for the community.
Central Sulawesi has a large amount of gold deposits unevenly extended in a number of regencies and cities. Some companies with concession land have already held contract of work and mining concession but yet to exploit the land. Most mining activities existed are traditionally conducted in the concession land. The inability of the local government to control the activities has led encroachment to protected forest and agricultural land. The consumption of mercury in gold processing could reach 34,000kg mercury day-1 with gold production approximately 22.5-45 kg day-1. The improper use of mercury has caused chemical, biological and physical soil degradation.
Corbicula shells have received attention for use as a calcium resource. For this study, calcium phosphate was prepared from phosphoric acid and corbicula shells. The obtained precipitates were a mixture of calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate and unreacted calcium carbonate. When heated corbicula shells were used as a calcium resource, as high a yield of CaHPO4 × H2O was obtained as when commercially produced calcium carbonate was used as a calcium resource. The phosphoric acid concentration influences the Ca/P ratio of precipitates. The obtained phosphate materials functioned well as an adsorbent for basic malodorous gas. Corbicula shells are not garbage. They present the possibility of use as a calcium resource.
The global warming is serious problem, and the reduction of CO2 emissions, namely, the realization of low-carbon society is desired. Therefore, it is desired that the conventional servomotors widely used in the industrial community are replaced with the synchronous reluctance motors (SynRMs) whose efficiency is high even though they have no magnets. The rotor position information is necessary to use SynRMs as servomotors, and several rotor position sensorless estimation methods have been proposed. These methods, however, have difficulties at low speed when the voltage signal necessary to estimate rotor position is very small. The authors have proposed a new position estimation method using high-frequency extended e.m.f. (EEMF) in which high-frequency voltage and current are calculated using a disturbance observer. Simulations have shown the new method to be very useful. In this paper, the feedback control of the high-frequency currents is proposed for becoming able to estimate the rotor position even though the high-frequency currents are very small when the checking of the new proposed method by experiments. And the experimental results show that it is possible to drive the motor at low speeds with the coordinate transformation used the position ˆθ estimated by the new proposed method.
Eco technology needs to expand its mass base and include poorest of poor for meaningful intervention. However, environmental and ecological destructions, energy availability and poverty are closely interlinked. They vie for the same space in financial domain. In this paper, microfinance as a tool for eco technological intervention is mooted for poor masses in developing countries. Afforestation and WLED base rural lighting (one Watt Solution) is proposed as strategy using Microfinance as tool to achieve energy, environment and poverty reduction targets simultaneously and without straining financial resources for developmental initiatives in developing countries. It would further create assets to reduce future vulnerability among poorest of poors.
In this study, a novel system of irrigation, Earthen Pot Irrigation System (EPIS) is proposed for desert and arid area afforestation. The system is theoretically modelled using GMS (USEPA) and experimentally verified. Field experiments were carried out in M.P., India on Aonla plantation in arid areas (sandy soil with stone chips). Results indicate 40% more fruiting due to higher water use efficiency. Further experiments with nano organic pesticide extracted from neem (Azadiractin A, B and Limonoids) in emulsion form used in conjuction with EPIS system resulted into 50-90% reduction in four pests, Apical twig, gall maker, Leaf roller, Bark and shoot borer and, termites, for which data were collected.
We analyzed alkalinity in low-alkalinity streams using high-accuracy potentiometric titration by Gran's plot method for the end-point detection. Alkalinity determined by Gran's plot method for samples after the dissolved CO2 was removed by bubbling with N2 gas was almost the same as that for unaerated samples, but the former was easier to handle. The Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS-K0101) method could not accurately determine alkalinity lower than 100 μeq/l in stream waters like those on the island of Yakushima, where the bedrock is dominantly granite, leading to overestimate alkalinity up to 56%. Gran's plot method is thus superior for measurement of alkalinity in low-alkalinity watersheds.
In order to examine the yellow sand influence on leaching ions from a phosphor bronze plate and an aluminum casting plate, the behavior of various ion components was examined by using an artificial corrosion exposure chamber under three conditions: (1) pure rain + gas, (2) pure rain + gas + aerosol, and (3) artificial acid rain + gas + aerosol. The increase in the amount of leaching of Si from phosphor bronze was observed by the yellow sand atomizing. This is considered to be the promotion of leaching by the yellow sand atomizing. The amount of leaching of Cu from phosphor bronze was conversely reduced by the yellow sand atomizing. This is considered to be the leaching control by the yellow sand. In some cases the amount of leaching of Al and Si from aluminum casting without the yellow sand atomizing was more increased than that with the yellow sand atomizing. The leaching of Cu from aluminum casting was almost unaffected by the yellow sand atomizing.
Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, break down of lignin structure and destroy the crystalline structure, is first important step to produce valuable materials. A well-known hydrolysis method with concentrated mineral acids has a drawback that the abundance of salts is formed by the following neutralization step. In this study, we investigated the effective pretreatment process from lignosellulosic biomass to holocellulose by treating the wet pulverization biomass with decreased oxidative reagents. In addition, we developed the selective hydrolysis method from holocellulose to xylose by using Amberlite IR-120H as a solid acid catalyst. This reaction can be achieved under mild conditions without producing large amounts of solid waste.