When discussing natural resource management by the framework of forestry, we have to base on the historical character and regionality. This paper places private plantation forests on the discussions about natural resource management, clarifying the regional structures on the understandings of historical geography and following the character's behavior on that management. As a case, resource development and marketing, and reforestation of the North Kanto region about this 65 years of Japan's forestry planning system is focused. It is shown clearly what kind of background and opportunity or who have advanced the resource development, infrastructure improvement, and marketing. By considering about the clear cutting program advanced by Tochigi Prefecture, the understanding to structural positioning on plantation forestry area all over the country and to the sustainability in region are more important.
From the 1910s to the 1960s the national forest covered the entire forest sector in Japan. We are focusing on this period and considering a parallel to the technocrats in the modern Japan forest management. Based on the academic involvement in the forest policy and economics in Japan, we apply the technocrat history in administrative and political history, and conduct a life course analysis of historical sociology. We discussed the behaviour of four forestry technocrats' generations when they encountered particular historical events, such as the co-operative movement of forest technocrats and the National Forest Productivity Increase Plan. Consequently we found that the forest technocrats are naive when concerned with the violence of state power and market economy. With the elaboration of appropriate way to manage forest by technocrats, there is also a need to further advance the empirical research.
The public demand for forests and other natural resources was extended to both use and non-use values. Therefore, the beneficiaries of forest environmental services include not only the local residents but also ordinary citizens. This paper provides a review of previous studies on the public participation in the literature of forest economics, and research issues to incorporate public opinion into natural resource management using case studies of the public participation and beneficiary payment scheme. For the public participation, an empirical analysis of recreation management of the world heritage sites, Shiretoko and Mt. Fuji, suggests that it is important to consider public interests. For the beneficiary payment of Shiga afforestation public corporation and Kanagawa water source conservation tax, the flexible payment scheme is required to correspond with the variation of public demand. The supply side of a forestry sector takes priority over the demand side such as consumers and citizens for the previous forest policy. However, it is necessary for forest policy-makers to evaluate forest management from a point of view of citizens.
This study clarifies the situation of coal mining, the perception and reaction of swiddeners to coal mining, and livelihood effects based on evidence from West Kutai district, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The local government has approved widespread permits for coal mining in the Non-forestry zone. Moreover, all of the companies are utilizing open-cast mining methods. Hence, there is a great risk of future deforestation and transformation of the swiddeners' livelihood. Swiddeners recognized the companies' mining in the Forestry zone, where inaccessible semi-primary forest exists, as a chance to get compensation for their customary land rights and even practice swidden in companies' concession area to reinforce their customary claims. In the Forestry zone, limitation of mining permits and alternatives such as payment for ecosystem services are required in order to conserve the forest. However, swiddeners intend to refuse companies' mining in the Non-forestry zone, where they make a living, to maintain their swidden-based lifestyle. In the Non-forestry zone, swiddeners will face severe land negotiation with the companies. Large-scale compensation is causing transformation in swiddeners' economic and social aspects. Forestry researchers should actively participate in mining governance and provide information regarding the impacts on the forest and social economic interests of the swiddeners.
This paper examines the relationship between APP and NGOs as well as its function in APP's Forest Conservation Policy-a forest conservation effort by Asia Pulp and Paper (APP) in February 2013, one of the world's leading pulp and paper companies. APP cooperated with The Forest Trust. APP's activities were calculated by Rainforest Alliance. APP conducted and developed the policy accepting opinions and criticisms about the policy contents or the affiliated companies' forest management by NGOs such as Greenpeace. In the process of the forest conservation policy, the relationship between APP and NGOs were not in a rivalry. APP constructed the comprehensive structure with NGO. APP and NGOs could change their activities to conserve forest in cooperation with each other.
Teak is one of the most valuable tropical hardwoods and its wood property is characterized as high density, high durability, dimensional stability, and decorative value. Indonesia is one of the top three teak timber producers in the world but timber production in state forest (SF) in Java by state forest company which used to be major teak producer have decreased. Conversely, expanding privately owned forest (POF) are expected as a new resource of teak timber. Through literature research, this paper (1) marshaled characteristics and current situation of SF and POF, (2) discussed the possibility of POF as a new resource of teak timber, and (3) presented challenges of SF and POF for stable teak timber supply. Whereas conventional SF management is characterized as utilizan view and scientific forestry, in general there are no forest planning and organizations for collective management in POF management and trees are harvested depending on local peple's needs for life. Their managements differ widely, thus the timbers' quality are also greatly different. For stable supply of teak timbers, it is needed to manage teak forest stably over the long term through collaboration with local people in SF and address issues of quality and quantity in POF.
In Java Island, Indonesia, where shows active utilization of private forest (PF) timber by timber processing industry, the relation between behaviors by the government, timber processing company, sawmill and farmer and the transition of forest area was analyzed. The most effective policy was request for acquisition of certification for a place of timber's origin. In Tasikmalaya District, the check of certification grasped the real situation of timber utilization. Meanwhile, the demand expansion of PF timber increased amount of timber production by farmers and decreased forest area. Tree planting by farmers increased forest area in 2007. However, because of continuous of purchasing price increase, timber cutting was continued at a faster rate than plantation and it decreased forest area in 2010. Furthermore, sawmills were established in associate with demand expansion and the total capacity of sawmilling was exceed timber supply in amount. As a result, sawmills fell into timber shortage. From these results, the flow "decrease of natural forest area → shortage of timber supply → utilization of PF timber → increase of PF area" and the existence of next scenario "increase of PF timber utilization → decrease of PF area" was clarified.
Previous studies on family forest owners in Japan focused on forest resources, labor force, means of livelihood, and forestry practice. However, information had been scarcely investigated. We focused on information about forestation subsidy which is essential to forestry and that about the Collective Forest Management Plan (CFMP) which is required for the subsidy. This study analyzes to what extent family forest owners have the information, how the information is transmitted, and what effect the information gives on their harvesting behavior. The results are as follows. Forest extension officers transmitted the information mainly through forest owners' associations. The associations disseminated the information by means of brochures and at their meetings. A questionnaire survey among the members of the associations also showed that the associations are the most significant transmitters. A strategy of associations to develop the CFMPs was to extend a harvesting contract area to adjacent areas. Causal-linkage models suggested that transmitting the information of the CFMP could enhance thinning activities with sales. The results also suggested that the owners who had an adviser or held a reasonable reservation price tended to take these activities, and that clear cutting and thinning with sales had correlation, implying that consultation is effective.
To examine the development of a municipal forest policy under decentralization, the strategic forest programs of five merged municipalities were investigated. The content and characteristics of the programs, as well as their development and implementation processes, were analyzed to clarify the conditions for effective planning. All the programs established fundamental principles for forest policy and the desirable state of forests and forestry. In the development phase of the new program, all the investigated municipalities set up committees and took various measures to stimulate effective discussion and to ensure sufficient time for preparation. To ensure the effective implementation of the program, municipal staff continued to engage in its development and implementation, and encouraged collaboration between the municipalities and stakeholders. The roles of knowledge producers were important both in setting targets and basic frameworks of programs and in setting the discussions of the committee. Through the development and implementation of the program, an original municipal forest policy and a creative organizational learning process were developed. The results of our study show the importance of capacity building by municipal staff and of collaborative relationships between municipalities and stakeholders for the effective development of municipal forest policy.
Woody Biomass power plants have been being established in various regions of Japan since the introduction of the "Feed-in Tariff" system. We conducted an interview survey of five logging entities, which are members of the Hita Council for The Effective Utilization of Woody Resources. This council oversees the supply of woody biomass to a woody power plant, which has operated in the Hita area of Oita Prefecture since November 2013. The plant has received "unused logs," from which electricity can be generated and sold at 32 yen/kW (not including tax). The survey showed that approximately 15% of log production by two forest owners' associations and 20-30% of logs produced by three private logging entities were shipped as materials for biomass power. After the beginning of the plant operations, the following trends were observed: (1) an increase in final cutting, (2) changes in the log bucking method, (3) an increase in the production volume per area in both thinning and final cutting practices, and (4) an increase in direct distribution without an intermediate log auction market. Furthermore, the challenges of cascade utilization of woody biomass and the necessity of restructuring the functions of the log market were pointed out.
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