Glycerol is an attractive raw material for the production of useful chemicals using microbial cells. We previously identified metabolic engineering targets for the improvement of glycerol assimilation ability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) and transcriptome analysis of the evolved cells. We also successfully improved glycerol assimilation ability by the disruption of the RIM15 gene encoding a Greatwall protein kinase together with overexpression of the STL1 gene encoding the glycerol/H+ symporter. To understand glycerol assimilation metabolism in the evolved glycerol-assimilating strains and STL1-overexpressing RIM15 disruptant, we performed metabolic flux analysis using 13C-labeled glycerol. Significant differences in metabolic flux distributions between the strains obtained from the culture after 35 and 85 generations in ALE were not found, indicating that metabolic flux changes might occur in the early phase of ALE (i.e., before 35 generations at least). Similarly, metabolic flux distribution was not significantly changed by RIM15 gene disruption. However, fluxes for the lower part of glycolysis and the TCA cycle were larger and, as a result, flux for the pentose phosphate pathway was smaller in the STL1-overexpressing RIM15 disruptant than in the strain obtained from the culture after 85 generations in ALE. It could be effective to increase flux for the pentose phosphate pathway to improve the glycerol assimilation ability in S. cerevisiae.
With the aid of a chain transfer (CT) reaction, hydroxyalkanoate (HA) oligomers can be secreted by recombinant Escherichia coli carrying the gene encoding a lactate-polymerizing enzyme (PhaC1PsSTQK) using Luria-Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with a carbon source and CT agent. In this study, HA oligomers were produced through microbial secretion using a mineral-based medium instead of LB medium, and the impact of medium composition on HA oligomer secretion was investigated. The focused targets were medium composition and NaCl concentration related to osmotic conditions. It was observed that 4.21 g/L HA oligomer was secreted by recombinant E. coli in LB medium, but the amount secreted in the mineral-based modified R (MR) medium was negligible. However, when the MR medium was supplemented with 5 g/L yeast extract, 3.75 g/L HA oligomer was secreted. This can be accounted for by the enhanced expression and activity of PhaC1PsSTQK upon supplementation with growth-activated nutrients as supplementation with yeast extract also promoted cell growth and intracellular growth-associated polymer accumulation. Furthermore, upon adding 10 g/L NaCl to the yeast extract-supplemented MR medium, HA oligomer secretion increased to 6.86 g/L, implying that NaCl-induced osmotic pressure promotes HA oligomer secretion. These findings may facilitate the secretory production of HA oligomers using an inexpensive medium.
We selected 96 genes of Aspergillus luchuensis for the construction of a transcription factor gene deletion library. Of these, we successfully deleted 93 genes using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) of A. luchuensis RIB 2604 ΔligD strains. We obtained only heterokaryonic strains after deletions of adaB, anBH1, hacA, hacB, hsf1, metR, and sonC gene, and additionally, could not obtain deletion strains for genes abaA and mcmA. The deletion strains will be available through our website (https://www.nrib.go.jp).
Two Indonesian fungi Aspergillus assiutensis BioMCC-f.T.7495 and Penicillium pedernalense BioMCC-f.T.5350 along with a Japanese fungus Hypomyces pseudocorticiicola FKI-9008 have been found to produce gentisyl alcohol (1), which inhibits Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) with an IC50 value of 3.4 μM. Another Indonesian fungus, Penicillium citrinum BioMCC-f.T.6730, produced an analog of 1, homogentisic acid (4), which also inhibits PfDHODH with an IC50 value of 47.6 μM.
A pot experiment was conducted with kiwifruit planting soil to evaluate the impacts of potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) and K-feldspar on the soil nutrient levels, enzyme activities, and microecological environment. The effects were investigated of three inoculation treatments (T1: K-feldspar, T2: KSB, and T3: KSB with K-feldspar) and a non-inoculation treatment (CK) on the enzyme activities and the metabolic activities of the bacterial communities in kiwifruit rhizosphere soil. The results showed that the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, and organic matter contents in T3 were 18.19%, 45.22%, 15.06%, and 4.17% higher, respectively, than those in CK at the end of the experiment (90 days). Compared with CK, T3 significantly increased the invertase, urease, acid phosphatase, and polyphenol oxidase activities. T3 had a higher kiwifruit root activity, but there were no significant differences among the four treatments (P > 0.05). T3 significantly altered the bacterial community diversity, increased the utilization of phenolic compounds and polymers, and decreased the utilization of amino acids. Redundancy analysis indicated that soil nutrients (total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium) and enzyme activities (urease and acid phosphatase) had more important effects on the metabolic activities of the bacterial communities. Co-inoculation enhanced the soil nutrients, enzyme activities, and bacterial community diversity. KSB co-inoculated with K-feldspar has the potential to improve the soil fertility, microbial metabolic activity and plant growth.
The cellular fatty acid composition of Aureispira marina IAM 15389T (JCM 23197T), a gliding bacterium isolated from the coastline of Thailand, was re-examined by using a standard MIDI method based on alkaline hydrolysis, and two other methods. The direct transesterification using 5% HCl/methanol or 4 M HCl hydrolysis followed by methyl esterification revealed that 2-hydroxy-15-methyl-hexadecanoic acid (2-OH-iso-C17:0) and 2-hydroxy-15-methyl-hexadecenoic acid (2-OH-iso-C17:1), which were not reported in a previous paper, were found to be major cellular fatty acids of this bacterium, and the amount of 2-OH-iso-C17:1 was even higher than that of arachidonic acid (C20:4), a characteristic polyunsaturated fatty acid present in this bacterium. These 2-hydroxy-fatty acids were contained in two cellular lipids that were relatively stable against alkaline hydrolysis. One of them was analyzed by mass spectrometry, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, and other chemical methods, and identified as a ceramide composed of 2-hydroxy-fatty acid and sphingosine of 19 carbons with three double bonds. A minor ceramide containing 18 carbon sphingosine with three double bonds was also detected.
Musty odor production by actinomycetes is usually related to the presence of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), which are synthesized by enzymes encoded by the geoA and tpc genes, respectively. Streptomyces spp. strain S10, which was isolated from a water reservoir in Malaysia, has the ability to produce geosmin when cultivated in a basal salt (BS) solid medium, but no 2-MIB production occurred during growth in BS medium. Strain S10 could produce higher levels of geosmin when the phosphate concentration was limited to 0.05 mg/L, with a yield of 17.53 ± 3.12 ✕ 105 ng/L, compared with growth in BS medium. Interestingly, 2-MIB production was suddenly detected when the nitrate concentration was limited to 1.0 mg/L, with a yield of 1.4 ± 0.11 ✕ 105 ng/L. Therefore, it was concluded that phosphate- and nitrate-limiting conditions could induce the initial production of geosmin and 2-MIB by strain S10. Furthermore, a positive amplicon of geoA was detected in strain S10, but no tpc amplicon was detected by PCR analysis. Draft genome sequence analysis showed that one open reading frame (ORF) contained a conserved motif of geosmin synthase with 95% identity with geoA in Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2). In the case of the tpc genes, it was found that one ORF showed 23% identity to the known tpc gene in S. coelicolor A3(2), but strain S10 lacked one motif in the N-terminus.
α-1,3-Glucanase from Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF3-3 (Agl-ST) has been classified in the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 87. Agl-ST is a multi-modular domain consisting of an N-terminal β-sandwich domain (β-SW), a catalytic domain, an uncharacterized domain (UC), and a C-terminal discoidin domain (DS). Although Agl-ST did not hydrolyze α-1,4-glycosidic bonds, its amino acid sequence is more similar to GH87 mycodextranase than to α-1,3-glucanase. It might be categorized into a new subfamily of GH87. In this study, we investigated the function of the domains. Several fusion proteins of domains with green fluorescence protein (GFP) were constructed to clarify the function of each domain. The results showed that β-SW and DS domains played a role in binding α-1,3-glucan and enhancing the hydrolysis of α-1,3-glucan. The binding domains, β-SW and DS, also showed binding activity toward xylan, although it was lower than that for α-1,3-glucan. The combination of β-SW and DS domains demonstrated high binding and hydrolysis activities of Agl-ST toward α-1,3-glucan, whereas the catalytic domain showed only a catalytic function. The binding domains also achieved effective binding and hydrolysis of α-1,3-glucan in the cell wall complex of Schizophyllum commune.
The gmn2 mutant of Schizosaccharomyces pombe has previously been shown to exhibit defects in protein glycosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides (Ballou, L. and Ballou, CE., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 92, 2790–2794 (1995)). Like most glycosylation-defective mutants, the S. pombegmn2 mutant was found to be sensitive to hygromycin B, an aminoglycoside antibiotic. As a result of complementation analysis, the gmn2+ gene was found to be a single open reading frame that encodes a polypeptide of 373 amino acids consisting of multiple membrane-spanning regions. The Gmn2 protein shares sequence similarity with Kluyveromyces lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Erd1 proteins, which are required for retention of luminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins. Although disruption of the gmn2+ gene is not lethal, the secreted glycoprotein showed a significant glycosylation defect with destabilization of the glycosyltransferase responsible for N-glycan elongation. It was also shown that a significant amount of BiP was missorted to the cell surface according to ADEL receptor destabilization. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that the functional Gmn2-EGFP fusion protein is mainly localized in the Golgi membrane. These results indicate that the Gmn2 protein is required for protein glycosylation and for retention of ER-resident proteins in S. pombe cells.
Pantoea agglomerans YS19 is a dominant endophytic bacterium isolated from rice, which is capable of promoting host plant growth by nitrogen-fixing and phytohormone secreting. We previously found that the cytidine repressor (CytR) protein conducts the regulation of indole signal in YS19. Here, we compared the whole-cell protein of the wild type YS19 and the ΔcytR mutant and subsequently identified one differential protein as alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C related to oxidative stress and sulfur starvation tolerance. It was tested that cytR had a positive effect on the survival of YS19 under the oxidative stress and sulfur starvation conditions and this effect was inhibited by indole. To further understand the functional mode of indole in this regulation, we cloned the cytR promoter region (PcytR) of YS19 and tested the effect of indole on PcytR using gfp as a reporter gene. It was found that PcytR can sense indole and significantly inhibit the expression of the downstream gene. This study provided a deeper understanding of the multiple function of cytR and expanded a new research direction of how indole participates in gene regulation.
A total of 116 Escherichia coli isolates from cecal contents of 81 indigenous wild birds in Korea were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Seventy-one isolates from sparrows (Passer montanus) and one isolate from doves (Columba livia) were resistant to three antimicrobials, including streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline (SSuT). PCR and subsequent sequence analysis revealed the SSuT gene cluster region (approximately 13 kb) harboring genes encoding resistance to streptomycin (strA and strB), sulfonamide (sul2), and tetracycline (tetB, tetC, tetD, and tetR). In particular, tetracycline resistance genes were located on the transposon Tn10-like element. The SSuT element-harboring E. coli can be an important source of the transmission of antimicrobial resistance to other pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, strict sanitary measures in human and animal environments are necessary to prevent the spread of resistant bacteria through fecal residues of wild birds.
Phototaxis is a phenomenon where cyanobacteria move toward a light source. Previous studies have shown that the blue-light-using-flavin (BLUF)-type photoreceptor PixD and the response regulator-like protein PixE control the phototaxis in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. The pixD-null mutant moves away from light, whereas WT, pixE mutant, and pixD-pixE double mutant move toward the light. This indicates that PixE functions downstream of PixD and influences the direction of movement. However, it is still unclear how the light signal received by PixD is transmitted to PixE, and then subsequently transmitted to the type IV pili motor mechanism. Here, we investigated intracellular localization and oligomerization of PixD and PixE to elucidate mechanisms of phototaxis regulation. Blue-native PAGE analysis, coupled with western blotting, indicated that most PixD exist as a dimer in soluble fractions, whereas PixE localized in ~250 kDa and ~450 kDa protein complexes in membrane fractions. When blue-native PAGE was performed after illuminating the membrane fractions with blue light, PixE levels in the ~250 kDa and ~450 kDa complexes were reduced and increased, respectively. These results suggest that PixE, localized in the ~450 kDa complex, controls activity of the motor ATPase PilB1 to regulate pilus motility.
Filamentous fungi, including Aspergillus sojae, are essential for the industrial production of enzymes. Although multi-copy introduction of a gene encoding the protein of interest is useful for increasing protein production, this method has not been established in the case of filamentous fungi. In this study, we aimed to establish an efficient system for multi-copy chromosomal integration and high-level expression of a heterologous gene in A. sojae using an attenuated selectable marker. Consequently, by truncating the promoter region of selectable markers, we efficiently introduced multiple copies of a heterologous gene and enhanced the rate of high-level protein-production in the strains. Since the multi-copy strains obtained in this study maintained high productivity even in a non-selective medium, this system could be applicable for industrial protein production.
Most animals cannot digest cellulose but have symbiotic microbes that degrade the matrix polysaccharides of plant matter. Herbivorous and omnivorous marine fish are similarly expected to rely on symbiotic microbes, but reports to date on cellulase-producing bacteria in fish intestines are limited. Here, we report the isolation of new cellulase-producing bacteria from the marine omnivorous teleost, blackfish (Girella melanichthys), and the characterization of cellulase activity. Three strains of cellulase-producing bacteria sp. were isolated from the hindgut of wild G. melanichthys. The strains of cellulase-producing bacteria grew in medium with artificial seawater but not in NaCl alone. Growth was optimum at 20–35°C, but there was no growth at 40°C, suggesting adaptation in a marine environment at a low temperature. Isolates were identified to Microbulbifer sp., among which GL-2 strain produced a high enzyme activity. The GL-2 strain was further used for enzyme characterization with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the substrate. Maximum activity of the cellulase was observed at 60°C, and activity was more than 30% at 20°C, while commercial cellulase Enthiron showed an optimum activity at 50°C and 17% activity at 20°C. Hydrolytic products by GL-2 cellulase were cellobiose but not glucose, suggesting a deficiency of β-glucosidase activity. Active gel electrophoresis containing CMC showed five bands, suggesting several cellulolytic enzymes. The GL-2 strain and its enzyme are potential probiotics for aquaculture fish and the industrial production of cellobiose.
Glutaredoxins (Grxs) and thioredoxins (Trxs) play a critical role in resistance to oxidative conditions. However, physiological and biochemical roles of Mycoredoxin 3 (Mrx3) that shared a high amino acid sequence similarity to Grxs remain unknown in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Here we showed that mrx3 deletion strains of C. glutamicum was involved in the protection against oxidative stress. Recombinant Mrx3 not only catalytically reduced the disulfide bonds in ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), insulin and 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitro-benzoicacid) (DTNB), but also reduced the mixed disulphides between mycothiol (MSH) and substrate, which was exclusively linked to the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) electron transfer pathway by a dithiol mechanism. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the conserved Cys17 and Cys20 in Mrx3 were necessary to maintain its activity. The mrx3 deletion mutant showed decreased resistance to various stress, and these sensitive phenotypes were almost fully restored in the complementary strain. The physiological roles of Mrx3 in resistance to various stress were further supported by the induced expression of mrx3 under various stress conditions, directly under the control of the stress-responsive extracytoplasmic function-sigma (ECF-σ) factor SigH. Thus, we presented the first evidence that Mrx3 protected against various oxidative stresses by acting as a disulfide oxidoreductase behaving like Trx.