Two types of starter cakes, viz. amou and perok-kushi, used in the production of rice beer in Assam, India, by the Bodo and Deori communities, respectively, were used for the isolation of amylolytic fungi. Based on the sequencing of their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions the fungi were identified as Amylomyces rouxii and Rhizopus oryzae, and given the strain names TU460 and TU465, respectively. Both the strains showed the ability to degrade and saccharify starch. The glucoamylase activity was considerably high in A. rouxii TU460 (14.92 μmol/min) as compared to R. oryzae TU465 (1.41 μmol/min), whereas α-amylase activity was found to be closely related, i.e. 7.02 and 6.09 unit mL–1, respectively. SDS PAGE for the determination of the molecular size of the glucoamylase enzymes revealed the production of two distinct units of 59 kDa and 31 kDa by A. rouxii TU460, and one unit of 72 kDa by R. oryzae TU465. LC MS/MS analysis revealed that no mycotoxins were produced by either of the strains. The overall study indicated a good amylolytic property of both strains and a potential for application in the starch processing industries.
The use of probiotic bacteria to control bacterial infection in farmed fish is of clear practical interest. The aims of this study were to isolate and select a probiotic Bacillus sp. and to evaluate the effects of its supplementation on the growth and disease resistance of hybrid catfish. Bacillus siamensis strain B44v, selectively isolated from Thai pickled vegetables (Phak-dong), displayed a high potential as a probiotic in catfish culture. This bacterium produced a bacteriocin-like substance and exhibited a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity inhibiting both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, especially the fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus agalactiae. The susceptibility to all 14 antibiotics tested implies its less possibility to be the antibiotic-resistant bacterium. Bacillus siamensis strain B44v possessed interesting adhesion properties, as shown by its high percentages of hydrophobicity (64.8%), auto-agglutination (73.8%), co-aggregation (67.2% with A. hydrophila FW52 and 63.5% with S. agalactiae F3S), and mucin binding (88.7%). The strain B44v survived simulated gastrointestinal conditions and produced protease and cellulase enzymes. Hybrid catfish (C. macrocephalus × C. gariepinus) were employed in the feed-trial experiments. Fish fed diet containing strain B44v (107 CFU/g feed) displayed not only no mortality but also growth improvement. At the end of the feed trial, fish were challenged by an intraperitoneal injection of Aeromonas hydrophila FW52. The Bacillus siamensis strain B44v fed fish survived (75.0%; p < 0.05) better than the controls (36.7%; p < 0.05) after a two week challenge. These collective results present for the first time the potential of Bacillus siamensis strain B44v for use as a bacterial probiotic in aquaculture.
The tea mosquito bug (TMB), Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an insidious pest that poses a significant economical threat to tea plantations. Pseudomonas cultures are being used extensively for pest management which, however, resulting in a low mortality rate of insects and which has prompted us to search for a new microbial metabolite for TMB control. A chitinase purified from P. fluorescens and partially characterized by our group showed insecticidal activity against TMB. The mode of action behind chitinase toxicity is the enzymatic hydrolysis of chitin, which is a common constituent of the insect exoskeleton and gut lining of the peritrophic membrane. A chitinase-secreting strain MP-13 was characterized based on 16S rRNA sequencing and validated as Pseudomonas fluorescens. In the present study, purified chitinase (0.048 units/ml) enzyme from P. fluorescens MP-13 revealed 100% TMB mortality under in-vitro conditions. The results of this study can be utilized for future crop improvement programs and integrated pest management strategies.
The WalK/WalR two-component system is essential for cell wall metabolism and thus for cell growth in Bacillus subtilis. Waldiomycin was previously isolated as an antibiotic that targeted WalK, the cognate histidine kinase (HK) of the response regulator, WalR, in B. subtilis. To gain further insights into the action of waldiomycin on WalK and narrow down its site of action, mutations were introduced in the H-box region, a well-conserved motif of the bacterial HKs of WalK. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of waldiomycin against purified WalK protein with triple substitutions in the H-box region, R377M/R378M/S385A and R377M/R378M/R389M, were 26.4 and 55.1 times higher than that of the wild-type protein, respectively, indicating that these residues of WalK are crucial for the inhibitory effect of waldiomycin on its kinase activity. Surprisingly, this antibiotic severely affected cell growth in a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, but not transcription of WalR-regulated genes or cell morphology in B. subtilis strains that harbored the H-box triple substitutions on the bacterial chromosome. We hypothesized that waldiomycin targets other HKs as well, which may, in turn, sensitize B. subtilis cells with the H-box triple mutant alleles of the walK gene to waldiomycin. Waldiomycin inhibited other HKs such as PhoR and ResE, and, to a lesser extent, CitS, whose H-box region is less conserved. These results suggest that waldiomycin perturbs multiple cellular processes in B. subtilis by targeting the H-box region of WalK and other HKs.
Late-stage cultures of filamentous fungi under nutrient starvation produce valuable secondary metabolites such as pharmaceuticals and pigments, as well as deleterious mycotoxins, all of which have remarkable structural diversity and wide-spectrum bioactivity. The fungal mechanisms regulating the synthesis of many of these compounds are not fully understood, but sirtuin A (SirA) is a key factor that initiates production of the secondary metabolites, sterigmatocystin and penicillin G, by Aspergillus nidulans. Sirtuin is a ubiquitous NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase that converts euchromatin to heterochromatin and silences gene expression. In this study, we have investigated the transcriptome of a sirA gene disruptant (SirAΔ), and found that SirA concomitantly repressed the expression of gene clusters for synthesizing secondary metabolites and activated that of others. Extracts of SirAΔ cultures grown on solid agar and analyzed by HPLC indicated that SirA represses the production of austinol, dehydroaustinol and sterigmatocystin. These results indicated that SirA is a transcriptional regulator of fungal secondary metabolism.
A new pyrrole compound, 1-methoxypyrrole-2-carboxamide, was obtained from a culture broth of Streptomyces griseocarneus SWW368, which was isolated from the rhizospheric soil under a Para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). The chemical structure was elucidated by 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and MS, as a pyrrole ring with a N-methoxy group and a primary amide group. It exhibited antibacterial properties against Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus aureus and Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae; however, cytotoxicity of the compound at 714 μM against several mammalian tumor cell lines, i.e. A549, PANC1, HT29, HT1299 and HeLa S3, were not detected.
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Edited and published by : Applied Microbiology, Molecular and Cellular Biosciences Research Foundation/Center for Academic Publications Japan Produced and listed by : TERRAPUB, Center for Academic Publications Japan/Shobi Printing Co., Ltd. (-Vol.60,No12), Center for Academic Publications Japan/InternationalAcademic Printing Co., Ltd.(-Vol.54,No1)