The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Online ISSN : 1349-8037
Print ISSN : 0022-1260
ISSN-L : 0022-1260
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Displaying 1-22 of 22 articles from this issue
  • Yoko Takahashi
    Article ID: 2024.02.002
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 28, 2024
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    The culture filtrates of the predominant bacterial strains isolated from soil samples have been shown to increase the microbial colony counts on agar plates used for the isolation of uncultured bacteria. One of the factors in the culture filtrates responsible for this increase was identified to be superoxide dismutase (SOD). The generation of reactive oxygen species (O2-, H2O2, and ・OH) was detected from conventional laboratory agar media. The use of agar media supplemented with radical scavengers (SOD, catalase, ascorbic acid, or rutin) effectively increased the colony counts and kinds of microbial strains that grew from soil samples. Taxonomical studies on these isolates revealed new taxa for phylum Actinomycetota; one family, three genera, and nine species were newly described. One of the strains, Patulibacter minatonensis KV-614T belonging to the new family Patulibacteraceae, was isolated on agar medium supplemented with SOD. P. minatonensis KV-614T represents a novel lineage within the phylum Actinomycetota. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) study using specific primers for the detection of strains related to the genus Patulibacter, order Solirubrobacterales, showed a high distribution frequency, with detection in over 70% of the soil samples tested. These data suggest that the use of radical scavengers may facilitate the isolation of some hitherto-uncultivated microorganisms widely distributed in soil.

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  • Yui Horaguchi, Moe Yokomichi, Masaki Takahashi, Fusheng Xu, Hiroyuki K ...
    Article ID: 2024.02.001
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 13, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    The glycoside hydrolase (GH) 71 α-1,3-glucanase (Agn1p) from Schizosaccharomyces pombe consists of an N-terminal signal sequence and a catalytic domain. Meanwhile, the GH87 α-1,3-glucanase (Agl-KA) from Bacillus circulans KA-304 consists of an N-terminal signal sequence, a first discoidin domain (DS1), a carbohydrate-binding module family 6 (CBM6), a threonine and proline repeat linker (TP), a second discoidin domain (DS2), an uncharacterized domain, and a catalytic domain. DS1, CBM6, and DS2 exhibit α-1,3-glucan binding activity. This study involved genetically fusing TP, DS1, CBM6, TP, and DS2 to the C-terminus of Agn1p, generating the fusion enzyme Agn1p-DCD. The fusion enzyme was then expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from the cell-free extract. Agn1p-DCD and Agn1p exhibited similar characteristics, such as optimal pH, optimal temperature, pH stability, and thermostability. Insoluble α-1,3-glucan (1%) hydrolyzing assay showed that Agn1p-DCD and Agn1p released approximately 7.6 and 5.0 mM of reducing sugars, respectively, after 48 h of reaction. Kinetic analysis and an α-1,3-glucan binding assay indicated that the addition of DS1, CBM6, and DS2 enhanced the affinity of Agn1p for α-1,3-glucan. Moreover, Agn1p-DCD contributed to enhancing the fungal growth inhibition activity when combined with a mixture of GH19 chitinase and GH16 β-1,3-glucanase.

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  • Taro Watanabe, Yuki Kimura, Daisuke Umeno
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2024.01.002
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 29, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is an important biomolecule that mainly acts as a methyl donor and plays many roles in a variety of biological functions. SAM is also required for the biosynthesis of valuable methylated compounds, but its supply is a bottleneck for these biosynthetic pathways. To overcome this bottleneck and to reconfigure SAM homeostasis, a high-throughput sensing system for changes in intracellular SAM availability is required. We constructed a plasmid that can detect the factors that can alter SAM availability using minimal components. It does so by placing a fluorescent protein under a promoter controlled by endogenous MetJ, a transcription factor that represses its own regulons upon binding with SAM. Next, to validate SAM-responsive behavior, we systematically reconstructed 10 synthetic promoters with different positions and with different number of metbox sites, sequences of MetJ binding. We found that a position between the −35 box and the −10 box was the most effective for repression and that this setup was suitable for detecting the genetic or environmental factors that can deplete and recover the intracellular SAM availability. Overall, the response patterns of the synthetic MetJ-regulated promoters characterized in this study may be useful for the development of further SAM biosensing systems.

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  • Kazuya Kobayashi, Natsuka Takada, Yuki Matsubara, Hiroaki Okuhara, M ...
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2024.01.003
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 29, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    To enhance the value of surimi, efforts have been made to develop a fermentation method with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to proteolyze fish protein. However, fermenting unheated surimi poses a spoilage risk due to its high bacterial content. Surimi heat treatment can prevent spoilage, but gel formation induced by heating introduces another technical issue: it hinders uniform fermentation. Thus, this study aims to observe the proteolysis and enhance the functionality of seafood product through lactic acid fermentation of kamaboko, a heated surimi. Upon analyzing the kamaboko fermented with Lactobacillus helveticus JCM1004, we observed that LAB produced protease, resulting in the degradation of myosin heavy chain and actin during fermentation. Lactic acid fermentation significantly augmented the peptide content of kamaboko, subsequently elevating the angiotensin Ⅰ-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity in 200-fold diluted extract of fermented kamaboko to approximately 70% and higher. Notably, our investigation revealed that proteolysis was confined to the surface of kamaboko, as evidenced by SDS-PAGE analysis. This observation implies that the surface area of kamaboko influences the ACE inhibitory activity. Through a comparative analysis of various bacterial strains, we demonstrated that the increase in ACE inhibitory activity is contingent on the protease generated by LAB. These results suggest that LAB-mediated proteolysis of fish proteins liberates bioactive peptides, thereby manifesting in the ACE inhibitory activity. In summary, this study underscores that the fermentation of kamaboko employing proteolytic LAB holds promise in the development of novel functional seafood products.

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  • Atsuko Hishida, Ryo Shirai, Akiyoshi Higo, Minenosuke Matsutani, Kaor ...
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2024.01.001
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 23, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    Most cyanobacterial genomes possess more than two copies of genes encoding cyAbrBs (cyanobacterial AbrB-like proteins) having an AbrB-like DNA-binding domain at their C-terminal region. Accumulating data suggest that a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes are regulated by cyAbrBs. In this study, we investigated the function of the essential gene cyabrB1 (sll0359) in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 by using CRISPR interference technology. The conditional knockdown of cyabrB1 caused increases of cyAbrB2 transcript and protein levels. However, the effect of cyabrB1 knockdown on global gene expression profile was quite limited compared to the previously reported profound effect of knockout of cyabrB2. Among 24 up-regulated genes, 16 genes were members of the divergently transcribed icfG and sll1783 operons related to carbon metabolism. The results of this and previous studies indicate the different contributions of two cyAbrBs to transcriptional regulation of genes related to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen metabolism. Possession of a pair of cyAbrBs has been highly conserved during the course of evolution of the cyanobacterial phylum, suggesting physiological significance of transcriptional regulation attained by their interaction.

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  • Kristen Conroy, Jelmer Poelstra, Karen Mancl
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2023.12.003
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 18, 2024
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    High salt wastewater is produced in industries, including seafood and pickling processing. The salinity in such wastewaters has been shown to negatively impact biological treatment efficacy. Little is known about the changes in the microbial community structure in the mature biological treatment systems, the impacts of salinity on community composition, and the shifts over time during operation. Specifically, intermittent sand bioreactors (ISBs) with a focus on ammonia treatment were utilized. This study aimed to identify the changes in the microbial community due to both salt and days of operation through 16s rRNA sequencing and KEGG functional predictions. Results showed that the overall community structure and diversity were distinct as wastewater salinity varied from 0%-1.3%. At 1.3% salinity Zoogloea, a common genus in wastewater treatment plants, was not present and Aequorovita, Thaura and Dokdonella became the dominant genera. Nitrosomonas, an important ammonia oxidizing bacteria, increased in abundance with days of operation but was not significantly impacted by an increase in salinity. This finding was further supported by an increase in predicted nitrification potential with time of operation within all intermittent sand bioreactors tested. These results provide a deeper understanding of the impacts of salinity on microbial community development in biological treatment systems and elucidate the shifts in community structure occurring during early operations and into system maturity.

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  • Olga Gladyshchuk, Masaki Yoshida, Koume Togashi, Hayuki Sugimoto, Kaz ...
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2023.12.004
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 18, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    We investigated the presence and functionality of the carbon storage regulator (Csr) system in Aeromonas salmonicida SWSY-1.411. CsrA, an RNA-binding protein, shared 89% amino acid sequence identity with Escherichia coli CsrA. CsrB/C sRNAs exhibited a typical stem-loop structure, with more GGA motifs, which bind CsrA, than E. coli. CsrD had limited sequence identity with E. coli CsrD; however, it contained the conserved GGDEF and EAL domains. Functional analysis in E. coli demonstrated that the Csr system of A. salmonicida influences glycogen biosynthesis, biofilm formation, motility, and stability of both CsrB and CsrC sRNAs. These findings suggest that in A. salmonicida, the Csr system affects phenotypes like its E. coli counterpart. In A. salmonicida, defects in csr homologs affected biofilm formation, motility, and chitinase production. However, glycogen accumulation and protease production were unaffected. The expression of flagellar-related genes and chitinase genes was suppressed in the csrA-deficient A. salmonicida. Northern blot analysis indicated the stabilization of CsrB and CsrC in the csrD-deficient A. salmonicida. Similar to that in E. coli, the Csr system in A. salmonicida comprises the RNA-binding protein CsrA, the sRNAs CsrB and CsrC, and the sRNA decay factor CsrD. This study underscores the conservation and functionality of the Csr system and raises questions about its regulatory targets and mechanisms in A. salmonicida.

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  • Kailu Zhang, Hui Zhou, Juntao Ke, Hongli Feng, Cunlong Lu, Shaoxing Ch ...
    Article ID: 2023.12.002
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 15, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    Phthalates esters (PAEs) are a kind of polymeric material additives widely been added into plastics to improve products’ flexibility. It can easily cause environmental pollution which are hazards to public health. In this study, we isolated an efficient PAEs degrading strain, Janthinobacterium sp. E1, and determined its degradation effect of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) under stress conditions. Strain E1 showed an obvious advantage in pollutants degradation under various environmental stress conditions. Degradation halo clearly occurred around the colony of strain E1 on agar plate supplemented with triglyceride. Strain E1’s esterase is a constitutively expressed intracellular enzyme. The esterase purified from strain E1 showed a higher catalytic effect on short-chain PAEs than long-chain PAEs. The input of DEHP, DBP (dibutyl phthalate) and DMP (dimethyl phthalate) into the tested soil did not change the species composition of soil prokaryotic community, but altered the dominant species in specific environmental conditions. And the community diversity and richness decreased to a certain extent. However, the diversity and richness of the microbial community were improved after the contaminated soil was treated with the strain E1. Our results also suggested that strain E1 exhibited a tremendous potential in environmental bioremediation in the real environment, which provides a new insight into the elimination of the pollutants contamination in the urban environment.

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  • Ana Edith Ayala-Rodríguez, Silvia Valdés-Rodríguez, Víctor Enrique Ola ...
    Article ID: 2023.12.001
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: December 15, 2023
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    Supplementary material

    Bacteria represent an attractive source for the isolation and identification of potentially useful microorganisms for lignin depolymerization, a process required for the use of agricultural waste. In this work, ten autochthonous bacteria isolated from straw, cow manure, and composts were characterized for potential use in the biodelignification of the waste. A comparison of the ability to degrade lignin and the efficiency of ligninolytic enzymes was performed in bacteria grown in media with lignin as a sole carbon source (LLM, 3.5g/L lignin-alkali) and in complex media supplemented with All-Ban fiber (FLM, 1.5g/L). Bacterial isolates showed different abilities to degrade lignin, they decreased the lignin concentration from 7.6 to 18.6% in LLM and from 11.1 to 44.8% in FLM. They also presented the activity of manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidases, and laccases with different specific activities. However, strain 26 identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa by sequencing the 16S rRNA showed the highest activity of lignin peroxidase and the ability to degrade efficiently lignocellulose. In addition, P. polymyxa showed the highest potential (desirability ≥ 0.795) related to the best combination of properties to depolymerize lignin from biomass. The results suggest that P. polymyxa has a coordinated lignin degradation system constituted of lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase enzymes.

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  • Jinming Liu, Shiyu Zhang, Haikun Ma, Jun Huang, Meichun Xiang, Xin ...
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2023.11.001
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: November 21, 2023
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    Phytophthora species are highly destructive soilborne oomycetes pathogens that spread through infested soil and water. Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense NC1 has been shown to inhibit plant parasitic nematodes via volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of O. pseudogrignonense NC1 against four Phytophthora species on agar plates and in vivo bioassay. We found that NC1 significantly inhibited the mycelial growth and zoospore production of all four species of Phytophthora in a dose-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for inhibition of mycelial growth (or zoospore production) were 26% (14.8%), 18.9% (14.2%), 20.3% (8.3%) and 46.9% (4%) for Phytophthora capsici Leonian, Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotiana and Phytophthora sojae, respectively. The biocontrol efficiency of NC1 was 46.3% in pepper seedlings against P. capsici, almost 100% in potato tubers against P. infestans, 60% in tomato leave against P. parasitica and 100% in soybean leave against P. sojae, respectively. Our findings suggest that O. pseudogrignonense NC1 has great potential as a biocontrol agent for managing Phytophthora diseases.

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  • Akinori Kato
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2023.10.001
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: November 07, 2023
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    There are a number of reporter systems that are useful for gene expression analysis in bacteria. However, at least in Salmonella, a versatile and simple luciferase reporter system that can be integrated precisely behind a promoter or gene of interest on a chromosome is not currently available. The luciferase operon luxCDABE from Photorhabdus luminescens has several advantages, including brightness, wide linear range, absence in most bacteria, stability at high temperature, and no substrate addition required for the assay. Here, a conjugation-mediated site-specific single-copy luciferase fusion system is developed. A reporter plasmid containing the conditional replication origin R6Kgγ, FRT-luxCDABE, and KmR marker was designed to be incorporated into the FRT site behind the promoter or gene of interest on the chromosome in cells expressing FLP. However, when this reporter plasmid was electroporated directly into such a S. enterica strain, no colonies appeared, likely due to the low transformation efficiency of this relatively large plasmid DNA. Meanwhile, the same reporter plasmid was successfully introduced and launched as an insert of an FRT-containing conjugative transfer plasmid from a mating E. coli strain to the same recipient S. enterica strain, as well as Citrobacter koseri. RcsB-dependent inducible luminescence from the constructed wzc-luxCDABE strains was confirmed. This system is feasible for detecting very low levels of transcription, even in Gram-negative bacterial species that are relatively difficult to genetically manipulate.

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  • Man Hao, Chaoshuo Shi, Weifeng Gong, Jia Liu, Xiangxin Meng, Fufeng ...
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2023.09.002
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: October 26, 2023
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    Supplementary material

    Proteolytic enzymes stand out as the most widely employed category utilized in manufacturing industry. A new protease was separated from Planococcus sp.11815 strain and named as nprS-15615 in this research. The gene of this protease has not been reported, and its enzymatic properties have been studied for the first time. To enhance enzyme production, the Planococcus sp. protease gene was expressed in Bacillus licheniformis 2709. The expression level of nprS-15615 was observed under the control of regulatory elements PaprE. nprS-15615 protease activity reached 1186.24±32.87 U/mL after 48 hours of cultivation in shake flasks which was nearly four times the output of the original bacteria (291.38±25.73U/mL). The optimum temperature and pH of the recombinant protease were 30 ℃ and 8.0, respectively.The enzyme exhibited the highest capacity for hydrolyzing casein and demonstrated resilience towards a NaCl concentration of 10.0% (wt/v). Furthermore, in the presence of 0.5% surfactants, the recombinant protease activity can maintain above 75%, and with the existence of 0.5% liquid detergents, there was basically no loss of enzyme activity which indicated that nprS-15615 had good compatibility with surfactants and liquid detergents. In addition, npS-15615 performed well in the washing experiment, and the washing effect at 20 ℃ can be significantly improved by adding crude enzyme solution in the washing process.

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  • Hokuto Ohtsuka, Sawa Kawai, Yoko Otsubo, Takafumi Shimasaki, Akira ...
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2023.09.001
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: October 06, 2023
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    Supplementary material

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe ecl family genes respond to various starvation signals and induce appropriate intracellular responses, including the extension of chronological lifespan and induction of sexual differentiation. Herein, we propose that the colonization of hemocoel 1 (COH1) protein of Metarhizium robertsii, an insect-pathogenic fungus, is a functional homolog of S. pombe Ecl1 family proteins.

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  • Nozomi Katsuki, Shunsuke Masuo, Noriyuki Nukui, Hajime Minakawa, Naoki ...
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2023.08.004
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: August 30, 2023
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    Plant-derived phenolic gallic acid (GA) is an important raw material for antioxidants and food additives. Efforts to ferment GA using microbial processes have aimed at minimizing production costs and environmental load using enzymes that hydroxylate p-hydroxybenzoate and protocatechuate (PCA). Here, we found a p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PobA) in the bacterium Hylemonella gracilis NS1 (HgPobA) with 1.5-fold more hydroxylation activity than that from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and thus converted PCA to GA more efficiently. The PCA hydroxylation activity of HgPobA was improved by introducing the amino acid substitutions L207V/Y393F or T302A/Y393F. These mutants had 2.9- and 3.7-fold lower Kmapp for PCA than wild-type HgPobA. An Escherichia coli strain that reinforces shikimate pathway metabolism and produces HgPobA when cultured for 60 h generated 0.27 g L-1 of GA. This is the first report of fermenting glucose to generate GA using a natural enzyme from the PobA family. The E. coli strain harboring the HgPobA L207V/Y393F mutant increased GA production to 0.56 g L-1. During the early stages of culture, GA was fermented at a 10-fold higher rate by a strain producing either HgPobA L207V/Y393F or T302A/Y393F compared with wild-type HgPobA, which agreed with the high kcatapp/Kmapp PCA values of this mutant. We enhanced a PobA isozyme and its PCA hydroxylating function to efficiently and cost-effectively ferment GA.

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  • Dina Barman, Mamtaj S. Dkhar
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2023.08.001
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: August 25, 2023
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    Supplementary material

    Endophytic actinobacteria are known to produce various enzymes with potential industrial applications. Alpha-amylase is an important class of industrial enzyme with a multi-dimensional utility. The present experiment was designed to characterize a moderately thermostable α-amylase producing endophytic Streptomyces mobaraensis DB13 isolated from Costus speciosus (J. Koenig) Sm. The enzyme was purified using 60% ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Based on 12% SDS-PAGE, the molecular weight of the purified α-amylase was estimated to be 55 kDa. The maximum α-amylase activity was achieved at pH 7.0, 50°C and it retained 80% of its activity at both pH 7.0 and 8.0 after incubation for 2 h. The α-mylase activity is strongly enhanced by Ca2+, Mg2+, and inhibited by Ba2+. The activity remains stable in the presence of Tween-80, SDS, PMSF, and Triton X-100; however, β-mercaptoethanol, EDTA, and H2O2 reduced the activity. The kinetic parameters Km and Vmax values for this α-amylase were calculated as 2.53 mM and 29.42 U/mL respectively. The α-amylase had the ability to digest various raw starches at a concentration of 10 mg/mL at pH 7.0, 50°C, where maize and rice are the preferred substrates. The digestion starts after 4 h of incubation, which reaches maximum after 48 h of incubation. These results suggest that S. mobaraensis DB13 is a potential source of moderately thermostable α-amylase enzyme, that effciently hydrolyzes raw starch. It suggesting that this α-amylase is a promising candidate to be use for industrial purposes.

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  • Fatimah Azizah Riyadi, Nadia Farhana Azman, Fazrena Nadia Md Akhir ...
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2023.08.003
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: August 22, 2023
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    Supplementary material

    Biological pretreatment using microbial enzymes appears to be the most promising pre-treatment technology for the breakdown of recalcitrant lignin structure. This research focuses on the identification and characterization of lignin-depolymerizing enzymes in Bacillus subtilis strain S11Y, previously isolated from palm oil wastes in Malaysia. The draft genome sequences of this highly lignin-depolymerizing strain revealed that the genome lacked any of the well-known dye-decolorizing peroxidase or catalase-peroxidase that are commonly reported to be involved in lignin depolymerization by bacteria, indicating that strain S11Y has distinct sets of potential lignin depolymerization genes. The oxidative stress-related enzymes Cu/Zn type-superoxide dismutase (Sod2) and a heme-containing monofunctional catalase (Kat2) were identified in the genome sequences that are of interest. Their lignin-depolymerizing ability were evaluated by treating Alkali lignin (AL) with each enzyme and their degradation ability were evaluated using gel-permeation chromatography (GPC), ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS), and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS), which successfully proved lignin depolymerizing ability. Successful evaluation of lignin depolymerizing enzymes can be applicable for lignin pretreatment process in green energy production and generation of valuable chemicals in bio-refinery.

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  • Ikki Kobayashi, Sousuke Imamura, Ryuichi Hirota, Akio Kuroda, Kan Ta ...
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2023.08.002
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: August 17, 2023
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     Microalgae are promising cell factories for producing value-added products. Large-scale microalgal cultivation suffers from invasion by contaminating microorganisms. Since most contaminating organisms cannot utilize phosphite as a unique phosphorus source, phosphite-utilizing ability may provide a growth advantage against contaminating organisms and solve this problem. Studies showed that microorganisms, typically unable to metabolize phosphite, can utilize phosphite by expressing exogenous phosphite dehydrogenase. Here, we constructed Cyanidioschyzon merolae strains introduced with the phosphite dehydrogenase gene, ptxD, from Ralstonia sp. 4506. The ptxD-introduced strains grew in a phosphite-dependent manner, with the phosphite-related growth rate almost matching that with phosphate as sole phosphorus source.

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  • Takuma Kojima, Shinji Masuda
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2023.07.004
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: July 24, 2023
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    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a precursor of heme and a natural amino acid synthesized in the cells of most living organisms. Currently, ALA is used as an ingredient in pharmaceuticals, supplements, cosmetics, feed, fertilizers, and other products. ALA is mainly produced by industrial fermentation by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. In this study, we tried to improve the ALA productivity by R. sphaeroides using a genetic strategy to highly express ALA synthase (ALAS) genes. We inserted a constitutive promoter (PrrnB or Prsp_7571) upstream of genes encoding ALAS (hemA and/or hemT) to construct strains that constitutively express ALAS. The highest transcript levels of hemA were observed in the strain where PrrnB was inserted into the hemA promoter region and were 3.5-fold higher than those in the wild-type. The highest transcript levels of hemT were observed in the strain where PrrnB was inserted into the hemT promoter region and were 46-fold higher than those in the wild-type. The maximum ALAS activity was observed in crude cell extracts of the strain where PrrnB was inserted into the hemT promoter region under optimized growth conditions that was 2.7-fold higher than that in the wild type. This strain showed 12-fold accumulation of ALA compared to the wild-type. Thus, we improved ALA productivity without using exogenous DNA sequences. In the future, further improvement in ALA productivity may be expected by applying this approach to current industrial ALA-producing bacteria.

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  • Yasutake Kawamoto, Jotaro Urabe
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2023.07.002
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: July 19, 2023
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    In tidal flats, which are located at the transition zone between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, environmental factors such as temperature, sediment particle size, and tidal range exhibit geographic variation. Accordingly, the composition and structure of the microbial communities in the tidal flats are likely to vary in geographically different habitats. To clarify these differences with environmental factors causing them, we analyzed microbial communities consisting of bacteria and ciliates in sediments collected from nine tidal flats in geographical diverse region from Hokkaido to Kagoshima, Japan. The results confirmed that the community structures of bacteria and ciliophora in tidal flat sediments differed at the geographical scale of the Japanese archipelago. However, the variation could not be explained by the physical distance between the tidal flats nor by the differences in the trophic conditions among the tidal flats. Instead, the OTU richness of both the bacterial and ciliophoran communities was significantly related to the tidal range. The results also showed that bacteria and ciliophora tended to form similar communities among the tidal flats with similar median particle sizes. Furthermore, ciliophoran communities were similar among the tidal flats with similar bacterial communities. The results suggest that bacteria and ciliophora interact each other through trophic relationships or physical and chemical processes in the sediment habitats.

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  • Liyun Liu, Kanae Sakai, Takumi Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Kusumoto
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2023.07.003
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: July 19, 2023
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    Humic acid (HA) is a complex natural organic macromolecule, can be decomposed to low-molecular compounds by some soil fungi and then influences the growth of fungi. Aspergillus oryzae is a fungus domesticated from its ancestor, which was supposed to live in soil. Group 3 strains of A. oryzae hold fewer aflatoxin-biosynthetic genes than group 1 strains and may differently response to HA because of the deletion of some genes along with the domestication. However, effect of HA on growth of A. oryzae group 1 and group 3 strains remains unclear. In this study, four strains of A. oryzae in group 1 and four in group 3 were point inoculated on equivalent medium (pH 7.3) with two commercially available HAs. The growth of RIB40 was the most stimulated among group 1 strains and that of RIB143 was the most inhibited among group 3 strains. To identify the basis of these differences, we examined the possible effects of HA subcomponents including polyphenol and minerals on the growth of RIB40 and RIB143. Polyphenol represented by gallic acid (GA), a partial structure common with model HA, and mineral ions including Al 3+ , Ca 2+ , Ti 4+ , Mn 2+ , Sr 2+ , and Ba2+ contributed to stimulating the growth of RIB40, whereas these components generally did not affect the growth of RIB143. Thus, our findings indicate that the sub-compositions of HAs, including GA and several minerals, were the main factors driving the different responses of RIB40 and RIB143 to HAs.

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  • Jing Zheng, Guocai Zuo, Zhiguo Zhou, Zhenxia Shi, Huiying Guo, Zemin ...
    Article type: research-article
    Article ID: 2023.06.007
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: July 07, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Indole is a very important signal molecule which plays multiple regulatory roles in many physiological and biochemical processes of bacteria, but up to now, the reasons for its wide range of functions have not been revealed. In this study, we found that indole inhibits the motility, promotes glycogen accumulation and enhances starvation resistance of Escherichia coli. However, the regulatory effects of indole became insignificant while the global csrA gene was mutated. To reveal the regulatory relationship between indole and csrA, we studied the effects of indole on the transcription level of csrA, flhDC, glgCAP and cstA, and also the sensing of the promoters of the genes on indole. It was found that indole inhibited the transcription of csrA, and only the promoter of the csrA gene can sense indole. Namely, indole indirectly regulated the translation level of FlhDC, GlgCAP and CstA. These data indicates that indole regulation is related with the regulation of CsrA, which may throw light on the regulation mechanism research of indole.

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  • A high-temperature sensitivity of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 due to a tRNA-Leu mutation
    Article ID: 2023.03.001
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: March 10, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
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