This study aimed to identify cognitive appraisals from motivational models and behavioural enaction models that explain variations in the differences between two consecutive stages of change for cervical cancer screening. In the study, 123 female students completed a questionnaire assessing their stage of change and related variables from the theory of planned behavior, prototype willingness model, and health action process approach. Path analysis predicting the difference between the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages showed that the difference was mainly explained by intention to undergo cervical cancer screening, which was explained by injunctive norm, self-efficacy, and prototype similarity. On the other hand, path analysis predicting the difference between the contemplation and action/maintenance stages showed that the difference was mainly explained by action planning, which was explained by intention, and the intention was explained by injunctive norm and prototype similarity. These findings suggest that motivational and behavioural enaction models can explain the differences between two consecutive stages. Additionally, the results suggest the need to consider differences across stages when developing interventions to move people to a higher stage.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental condition that includes attention deficit, hyperactivity, and impulsivity as the core symptoms. Studies have reported that secondary symptoms of ADHD people include high trait anxiety, low self-esteem, and low self-acceptance. This two-part study investigated the efficacy of autogenic training (AT) for ADHD people. AT is considered to be effective for relieving anxiety, improving self-esteem, and self-acceptance. In Study 1, college students and ADHD people were compared to identify the psychological characteristics of ADHD people. In Study 2, ADHD people were randomly divided into an intervention and control group, and ADHD participants in the intervention group experienced an eight-week AT intervention. Results indicated that trait anxiety decreased significantly in the AT group. Moreover, there were improvements in self-esteem, and attention control, as well as a remarkable improvement in unconditional self-acceptance in the AT group (ηp2=.55) compared to the control. These results indicate that AT is effective for relieving anxiety, improving self-esteem and attention control, as well as promoting unconditional self-acceptance in ADHD people.
Motives for drinking and problem drinking behavior in middle-aged people were examined based on gender. An online survey was conducted with registered monitors. People in their 40 s and 50 s (N=1,288) with experience of drinking in the past year participated in a survey. The survey administered the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (DMQ-R), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). The goodness-of-fit of the DMQ-R to the model was as follows; χ2=2170.64, df=164, CFI=.909, GFI=.837, AGFI=.791, RMSEA=.098. The mean DMQ-R values of men were higher than of women. The order of the mean values for the four DMQ-R factors in both genders were: enhancement>social>coping>conformity. A significant positive correlation was shown between the four DMQ-R factors and the total AUDIT score in men, whereas enhancement and coping had a significant positive correlation with the total AUDIT score in women. These results suggest the crucial need to focus on intrinsic motives, including enhancement and coping, and reducing these motives for enhancing the management of problem drinking behaviors.
Relationships among social anxiety, fear of negative evaluation from others, avoidance behavior, and self-disclosure were investigated. Undergraduate students (n=308) completed self-report measures assessing the above factors. The results of cluster analysis by the Ward method showed that social anxiety, fear of negative evaluation from others, and avoidance behavior were composed of three clusters: Low social anxiety, Moderate social anxiety, and High social anxiety. A one-way analysis of variance conducted on these clusters indicated that the High social anxiety cluster had lower self-disclosure scores concerning hobbies, and difficult experiences, compared to the other clusters. Moreover, the multiple regression analysis showed that avoidance behavior had significant effects on each type of self-disclosure. These findings suggest that the reduction of avoidance behavior might affect the increase of self-disclosure.