The purpose of this study was to describe the morphology and measure the size of the sella turcica in Iraqi population and compared with available global data. Computed Tomography (CT) images of 71 individuals (49 males and 22 females) with an age range of 33.9 years were taken. Conventional measurements included three different heights of the sella turcica (anterior, posterior, median), its length, diameter and width, measured in relation to the Frankfort reference line (FH). In addition, the area of sella turcica was calculated. Morphometric methods were used to assess shape. Multiple statistical analyses were done to calculate differences in dimensions and to establish if any relationship exists between age, sex and the morphometry of the sella turcica. No significant differences in size of the sella were found between genders. When age was evaluated, all dimensions showed positive correlation with the age. Sella size of the older age group was as a rule larger than the younger age. The study found that sella turcica presented with a three different shapes: in a U shape (50.7 %), in a J shape (32.4 %) and shallow (16.9 %). Sella shape and dimensions reported in the current study can be used for discovering pathological enlargement of the pituitary fossa and may also be helpful in providing reference data in the orthodontic diagnosis, assessment and treatment plan and assessment of racial, gender and age specific variation in the Iraqi population.
The mandible exists in a unique mechanical environment subjected to occlusal force and other functional pressures. In dentulous humans, differences in occlusal force and position are believed to be closely linked to the mandible’s structural characteristics. The mechanical environment that this bone occupies is difficult to evaluate qualitatively, and it is therefore assessed indirectly by quantitative determination of bone mineral density (BMD). However, in order to understand the loading environment of the human mandible, we must also evaluate local bone quality. In the present study, we therefore sought to identify the structural properties of each tooth in the dentulous human mandible by qualitatively evaluating the crystalline orientation of biological apatite (BAp) as a marker of bone quality. After dividing the area from the alveolar ridge to the apical foramen surrounding the first and second premolar and molar regions of the Japanese dentulous mandible, we measured BAp crystalline orientation and BMD at a total of 4 sites including 2 on the buccal side and 2 on the lingual side. As a result, the orientation of BAp crystallites showed a significant difference between premolar and molar regions, namely preferred orientation in a direction vertical to the occlusal plane (Y-axis) was high for the premolar region and low for the molar region (p < 0.01). These findings indicated that quantitative evaluation of BAp crystallite orientations in the mandibular cortical bone has been revealed to be an effective parameter regarding the local loads that are applied to the human mandible. It was suggested that the distribution map of BAp crystallite orientations in the mandibular cortical bone based on this study would be valuable for planning the prosthodontic treatment in molar and/or premolar regions.
It is important to assess the general bone condition when performing dental implant treatment. The classification of the mandibular cortical bone index (MCI) using multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) could be applicable to evaluate the general bone condition. In an investigation involving women, MCI-CBCT was classified using cone-beam CT (CBCT), and MCI-CBCT was compared with MCI-MSCT. A total of 32 women who had undergone diagnostic imaging for mandibular dental implant treatment using multi-slice and cone-beam CT were enrolled in this investigation. Cross-sectional images from the mental foramen to the anterior margin of the mandibular ramus were continuously reconstructed from mandibular data of multi-slice and cone-beam CT. Subsequently, MCI-MSCT and MCI-CBCT were visually classified into two types: homogeneous and osteoporotic, and MCI-CBCT was compared with MCI-MSCT. The homogeneous type included 18 subjects and osteoporotic type included 14 subjects using cone-beam CT. The types were in agreement between MCI-MSCT and MCI-CBCT in 30 of the 32 subjects. Two of the 20 subjects classified into the homogeneous type using MCI-MSCT were classified into the osteoporotic type using MCI-CBCT. MCI-CBCT could be visually classified into two types, and may be applicable to evaluate the general bone condition.
The etiology of developing class III malocclusion and the role of craniofacial structures in this phenotype remain indistinct. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative relationship of craniofacial structures of DUSP6 gene mutation and non-mutation groups in class III malocclusion of Malaysian Malay families and their three generations. Thirty class III cephalometric radiographs of ten Malaysian Malay families including three generations with an average age 23, 54 and 79 years of each generation respectively were studied. All landmarks were positioned, determined and consequently tracings were completed Romexis software (Planmeca, Finland) to accomplish craniofacial morphology investigation. The statistical comparisons of the mutation and non-mutation group were conducted with independent t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to evaluate the values for three generations in class III malocclusion among all measurements. The result of the current study revealed that in mutation group, there are significant differences in Co-Gn-B and SN-MDP variables compare to non-mutation group. However, almost all craniofacial variables show no significant differences among three generations. This study may suggest that in mutation group mandible is more deviated from cranial base compare to non-mutation group and there are virtually no skeletal changes among three generations with age in case of growing class III malocclusion.
The present animal study investigated whether oral intake of synthetic bone mineral (SBM) improves peri-implant bone formation and bone micro architecture (BMA). SBM was used as and intervention experimental diet and AIN-93M was used as a control. The SBM was prepared by mixing dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4.2H2O) and magnesium and zinc chlorides (MgCl2 and ZnCl2, respectively), and hydrolyzed in double-distilled water containing dissolved potassium carbonate and sodium fluoride. All rats were randomly allocated into one of two groups: a control group was fed without SBM (n = 18) or an experimental group was fed with SBM (n = 18), at seven weeks old. At 9 weeks old, all rats underwent implant surgery on their femurs under general anesthesia. The implant was inserted into the insertion socket prepared at rats’ femur to a depth of 2.5 mm by using a drill at 500 rpm. Nine rats in each group were randomly selected and euthanized at 2 weeks after implantation. The remaining nine rats in each group continued their diets, and were euthanized in the same manner at 4 weeks after implantation. The femur, including the implant, was removed from the body and implant was pulled out by an Instron universal testing machine. After the implant removal, BMA was evaluated by bone surface ratio (BS/BV), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (TbTh), trabecular number (TbN), trabecular star volume (Vtr), and micro-CT images. BS/BV, BV/TV, TbTh and Vtr were significantly greater in the rats were fed with SBM than those were fed without SBM at 2 and 4 weeks after implantation (P < 0.05). The present results revealed that SBM improves the peri-implant formation and BMA, prominent with trabecular bone structure. The effect of SBM to improve secondary stability of the implant, and shortening the treatment period should be investigated in the future study.
Semaphorin (Sema) 7A, also known as CDw108, is the only glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked member of the semaphorin family. It was recently suggested that Sema 7A regulates osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, and is important for bone homeostasis. The dental follicle is an ectomesenchymal tissue that surrounds developing tooth germ, which contains osteoblastic/cementoblastic lineage committed stem/progenitor cells. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression of Sema 7A and its receptors, plexinC1 and β-integrin, in human dental follicle cells (hDFCs) during osteogenic differentiation. We analyzed gene expression profiles between hDFCs cultures with GM and OIM on day 17. Sema 7A was the most up-regulated among the semaphorin family members in OIM culture when compared to GM culture. We confirmed the gene expression of Sema 7A in three hDFCs samples isolated from three donors using real-time PCR. Sema 7A was up-regulated in OIM culture in three hDFC samples. In addition, Sema 7A mRNA showed high levels on days 0 and 17 in hDFCs cultured in OIM, as compared to days 3 and 10, exhibiting bimodal expression during osteoblast differentiation. The expression of plexin C1 and β-integrin was also up-regulated in OIM culture when compared to GM culture. These findings suggest that Sema 7A and its receptors are associated with the osteogenic differentiation of hDFCs.
The objective of the study was to discuss the construction methods, characterization and biocompatibility of silk fibroin-gelatin (SF-G) three-dimensional scaffolds which meet the requirements of bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Silk fibroin (SF) and gelatin (G) were lyophilized at different temperature such as -20 °C, -40 °C, -60 °C, -80 °C then to make the composite scaffold materials crosslinked by genipin and methanol. Then to make composite materials, in order to find out the different temperature and crosslinking agent of SF and G, the following indexes including pore size, porosity, the water absorption and determination of mechanical properties were determined. The most appropriate condition of making SF-G scaffolds was pre-freezing temperature is -40 °C and cross-linked by genipin, which could meet the physicochemical requirements of bone tissue engineering.
Placental extracts contain various bioactive agents and are thought to be a prospective medicine for oral diseases. However, detailed information regarding their mechanisms with respect to treatment of periodontal diseases is not available, thereby hindering their reliable application in dentistry. In this study, we demonstrated that human placental extracts increased collagen type-1 production, which is linked to the regenerative capabilities of periodontal tissue, on primary human gingival fibroblasts in vitro. Generally, deterioration of periodontal tissue occurs when various types of cytokines are released by periodontal tissue cells in response to stimulation by plaque. However, we exhibited that human placental extracts hindered the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 secretion from primary human gingival fibroblasts in vitro. The results contribute to understanding a therapeutic mechanism underlying the effect of human placenta extracts against periodontal disease by modulating the function of human gingival fibroblasts.
The human amniotic membrane has therapeutic potential for several diseases such as cardiac ischemia, liver fibrosis, and ocular surface disorders. In the treatment of ocular surface disorders, human amniotic membrane transplantation promotes epithelial wound healing and suppresses inflammation. The objective of this study was to determine whether human amniotic membrane extracts (HAE) help damaged corneal epithelial cells recover from an inflammatory response. Human corneal epithelial cells (hCEC) which were induced inflammation were treated with human amniotic membrane extracts, and then the levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured. Human amniotic membrane extracts had an anti-inflammatory effect on damaged human corneal epithelial cells. More importantly, homogenized human amniotic membrane extracts of less than 3 kDa had a greater capacity for reducing inflammation and secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). Thus, these results indicate that the use of human amniotic membrane extracts is a promising treatment for ocular surface disorders accompanied by inflammation.
This study aimed to assess the associations of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and estrogen receptor-α (ERα) levels with bone mineral density in Chinese men and women. Cancellous bone samples were obtained from femoral neck fracture and osteoarthritis patients. BMD was evaluated by X-ray absorptiometry. Serum levels of BMD markers, including osteocalcin (BGP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b), estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T), were measured by ELISA. Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to assess hTERT, ERα, and human protection of telomeres 1 (hPot1) mRNA and protein levels, respectively, in bone specimens. Age, E2, T, TRACP5b, BGP, TNF-α, NF-kB and Pot1 mRNA levels, as well as TERT and ERα mRNA and protein levels were all correlated with BMD (FN) and BMD (AP) as single variables, except for sex in the case of BMD (FN). Multiple regression analysis revealed sex, age, E2, T, and TERT protein to be significantly associated with BMD (AP); similar findings were obtained with BMD (FN), except for sex. Interestingly, sex, TERT mRNA, and ERα protein showed significant correlations with both BMD (FN) and BMD (AP) (all P<0.01) after collinearity diagnostics. Importantly, gender differences were observed for BMD (AP) and BMD (FN) correlations with TERT and ERα protein and gene levels. These findings indicate that TERT and ERα are associated with BMD in Chinese individuals, with differences observed in these associations between men and women.
The periodontal ligament (PDL) is fibrous tissue that maintains the connective space between tooth root and alveolar bone while avoiding the root resorption and the ankylosis. Fibrillin is one of the components of the elastic system fibers which exist in PDL as oxytalan fibers, and it plays an important role in organizing PDL with collagen fibers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of applying fibrillin protein for PDL regeneration using a mouse tooth replantation model. The ratio of root resorption and ankylosis was not improved in a replanted tooth soaked in fibrillin/PBS solution as compared to being soaked in PBS only. Interestingly, replantation with fibrillin and propylene glycol alginate (fibrillin/PGA) induced less root resorption and ankylosis than were observed with teeth replanted with PGA only. The PDL space between tooth root and alveolar bone in the fibrillin/PGA was clearly wider than that with PGA only. This regenerated PDL with Azan staining showed the meshwork structures including rich fibers in the horizontal direction. Furthermore, immunohistochemical expression of periostin was strongly detected in the entire regenerated PDL in the fibrillin/PGA. These results suggest that fibrillin promotes the formation of fibrous connective tissue in a PDL replantation and might be a good candidate as regenerative material for the PDL.
In the present study, gelatin/calcium phosphate pastes with different degradation rates of gelatin were prepared and evaluated for the bone response after implantation into a subperiosteal pocket of rat calvaria. Four types of gelatin with different sizes and degrees of cross-linking were prepared: Sample A: smaller size and lower degree of cross-linking; Sample B: smaller size and higher degree of cross-linking; Sample C: larger size and lower degree of cross-linking; and Sample D: larger size and higher degree of cross-linking. A powder mixture of each gelatin with calcium phosphate was mixed with a liquid. Then, the mixed paste was placed into a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tube, which was implanted directly into a subperiosteal pocket of rat calvaria. At 8 weeks after implantation, each specimen was excised, and non-decalcified thin sections were prepared. After staining each section with toluidine blue, the bone response was observed histologically and histomorphometrically. New bone formation was observed from the calvaria surface, not from the periosteum for the four different gelatin/CaP paste samples. Significantly greater amounts of residual non-degraded gelatin was observed for Sample B/CaP and Sample D/CaP paste (p<0.05). It was revealed that Sample C/CaP paste with a lower degree of gelatin cross-linking produced greater amounts of new bone formation. The size of gelatin also influenced bone formation. Gelatin/CaP paste is advantageous because it can be applied to any shape of defect, and it is a promising material for bone regenerative treatment.
The purpose of this study was to analyse the linear and area dimensions and morphological shape of sella turcica to determine if differences exist due to gender or age and compared with available global data. A total of 183 (113 men and 70 women) Malay subjects who had their computed tomography (CT) scan at the Radiology Department, Hospital University Sains Malaysia (HUSM) for ordinary diagnosis not related to craniofacial deformities. The selected age groups were divided into four groups as children (0-6 years), pre-adolescents (7-12 years), adolescents (13-20 years) and adults (21-35 years). The images were processed using Mimics V17.0 software. Conventional measurements included three different heights of the sella turcica (anterior, posterior, median), its length, diameter, area and width, measured in relation to the Frankfort reference line (FH). Morphometric methods were used to assess shape. No significant differences in size of the sella were found except at sella height anterior between genders. When age was evaluated, significant differences were found among all age groups. The study found that sella turcica presented with a three different shapes: in a U shape (57.9 %), in a J shape (24.5 %) and shallow (17.5 %). Sella shape and dimensions reported in the current study can be used for discovering Pathological enlargement of the pituitary fossa and may also be helpful in providing reference data in the assessment of racial, gender and age specific variation in Malay population.
This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of demineralized dentin paste (DDP) with mineral trioxide aggregates(MTA) as a direct pulp capping material. Artificial Class V cavity was prepared to make a pinpoint pulp exposure in a third of the buccal cervical region of maxillary and mandibular right/left canine teeth of six beagle dogs. After bleeding control, (hemostasis was confirmed), MTA (n= 12) was applied to the maxillary and mandibular right canines. DDP (n=12) to the left canines as a control. Superior to the pulp-capped area, the inferior 1/3 of the cavity was filled with resin modified glass ionomer, and the rest of the cavity was filled with a microfilled composite resin using one-step self etching adhesive system. Two, four, and eight weeks later, the dogs were sacrificed and the capped portion was sectioned perpendicularly to the tooth longitudinal axis of tooth to get specimens for microscopic examination. MTA formed a calcific bridge of osteo-dentin in the histological specimens from the dogs sacrificed two, four, and eight weeks later. DDP formed no calcific bridge in the histological specimens from the dogs sacrificed two weeks later but formed a physiologic dentin bridge close to actual dentin, which included dentinal tubules, in those from the dogs sacrificed four, eight weeks later. DDP-using pulp capping led to formation of a physiological dentin bridge and DDP is expected to be applicable as an effective, biocompatible material for direct pulp capping if sealing ability and easiness for handling materials are improved through further research on its properties.
The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to evaluate the applicability of newly developed uncalcined and unsintered hydroxyapatite (u-HA) particles and poly-L-lactide (PLLA; u-HA/PLLA) composite sheets with tack fixation for navigation-assisted orbital fracture reconstruction. Osteosynthetic bone fixation and reconstruction systems made from u-HA/PLLA composites have recently drawn attention for effective application in maxillofacial bone surgery because of their osteoconductive properties and bioresorbability. One limitation of these systems in the clinical setting, however, is the complicated drill hole tapping that is required for screw fixation. Herein, we report the feasible application of a u-HA/PLLA sheet with tack fixation for intraoperative navigation-assisted orbital wall reconstruction; this approach may be suitable for fragile and anatomically complicated periorbital-maxillofacial bony regions. The study included 9 patients (mean age, 46.6 years) with moderate and medium complexity to large and high complexity orbital wall defects (3 type II defects and 6 type III). The mean follow-up period was 8.9 months (range, 6 to 18 months). Overall, the application of the u-HA/PLLA sheet with tack fixation gave excellent stability for orbital wall reconstruction at the infraorbital rim, and produced satisfactory ophthalmologic functional results with no intraoperative or postoperative complications. This material may be an optimal bioactive, osteoconductive, and bioresorbable bone alternative for orbital wall reconstruction with fewer complications in patients with orbital fractures.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of orthodontic measurements made on laser scanned 3D models created with NextEngine laser scanner and ScanStudioHD software. The data sources were plaster dental models from the archives of School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia. A total of 100 dental models with 800 variables were measured using the plaster dental casts and laser scanned 3D models. The arch width, arch length, arch perimeter, LII, OJ and OB were measured by digital caliper (DC) and ScanStudio HD software. The validity (accuracy) of the digital measurements showed no statistical difference in any of the measurements performed. The reliability coefficient values were comparable between laser scanned 3D models and measurements using DC, the ICC coefficients were statistically significant (p<0.001), and the values of coefficient were in the range of strong correlation. The results show that linear measurements of dental casts using laser scanned 3D models are valid and reliable and can be used for various clinical orthodontic procedures.