The purposes of this study are to clarify 1) the people’s evaluation of the shape of street trees and the conflicts with these overhead lines, 2) the problems in terms of the maintenance of street trees, 3) the factors of each types of tree form and the future direction of maintenance pruning, from various aspects. In this study, we focused on maidenhair tree (Gingko biloba L.) as a case study in Kyoto city. Through experiments on evaluation of them by using Semantic Differential method, some questionnaire investigations and interviews targeting residents living along main streets, we typed the existing state of the shape of street trees. Through the experiments, we found the shape of trees that evaluated highly and trees conflicts with overhead lines gave an artificial and negative impression on the people. Through the questionnaire investigations and interviews with landscape architects, gardeners and an officer of department of urban greening, we found the existence of overhead lines is one of the obstacles to proper maintenance and the shape of trees that evaluated highly is created by using a traditional pruning method, which thins the branches.
mLake Biwa is one of the earliest cases of large regional tourism development and scenic preservation in modern times in Japan. This paper clarified the process of developing ideas of scenic tourism and revealed the way of managing the scenic preservation system in Lake Biwa in the Taisho period. In 1914, Shiga prefecture carried out a “Scenic Investigation” with an expectation of hosting foreign travelers and national park designation. Seiroku Honda and Takanori Hongo lead the scenic investigation and evaluated scenic spots as resources for tourism over the whole Shiga Prefecture. And they illustrated ways of developing the scenic areas and building infrastructure and transportation system for tourism. Their plans took the lead in enhancing scenic spots in Lake Biwa. Furthermore, this paper revealed the details of scenic area designation in 1921 and the controversy surrounding the factory construction and scenic preservation. A part of the scenic preservation area was terminated with the aim of industrialization in 1927, then in 1937 the waterfront area was designated as scenic districts under the City Planning Act.
The public currently requires building a coordination system for forming a relationship between volunteer organizations and citizens who want to volunteer. The purpose of this study was to develop a coordinating style of a wide range for green space conservation activities and to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of such. As a case study, we chose the “Rangers Project,” which is a coordination system between Topic Type Individuals (individuals who are interested in the general topic of the environment) and Specific Green Space Conservation Type Organizations (organizations that are interested in the conservation of specific green spaces) in the Kanto area. We analyzed the coordinating style of a wide range by conducting interview and questionnaire surveys regarding the three subjects of local green space conservation activity organizations, volunteer leaders, and participants in the “Rangers Project.” In addition, we also compared the other existing participation styles with the coordinating style of a wide range. The coordinating style of a wide range for conservation activity restored local organizations’ confidences in themselves and improved their activity contents to engage with new members better. Moreover, the coordinating style promoted beginners’ participation in conservation activities.
In England and Wales, many people enjoy walking along National Trails and Rights of Way. Rights of Way are a network of footpaths separate from the network of automobile routes. This paper clarified the management system of the National Trail and of the Rights of Way in the Cotswolds, a hilly terrain in southwestern England, through document search, interviews with stakeholders, and participant observation. We found that National Trails are managed by the National Trail Team of Natural England (a public body), and maintained by Trail Partnerships consisting of various stakeholders including a National Trail Officer, Rights of Way Officers of local authorities, landowners, volunteers, users, and local businesses. Rights of Way are managed by officers and councilors of the Rights of Way departments of local authorities, and by landowners, conservation groups, volunteers, users, and residents. In the Cotswolds, the National Trail and Rights of Way are under combined management. The Cotswolds Conservation Board maintains not only the access to the trail, but also manages local traditions and the surrounding environment. Users and volunteers are systematically organized at the local and national level and play an important role in footpath management.
This survey monitored the quantity and distribution of egg clutches of Tohoku salamander (Hynobius lichenatus) in the tsunami inundated lowland area from the period 2012 to 2015, looking at the case of Moune district, Kesennuma city, Miyagi prefecture, Japan. After the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, lowland area almost changed into wetlands by erosion and land subsidence, and seawater ran into a part of the lowland. Lots of egg clutches were found in the whole area in 2012. However several egg clutches deposited in brackish-water were dead. After 2013, the number of egg clutches declined, and the distribution moved inland. The number of egg clutches roughly increased in 2015, indicating the meta-population of Tohoku salamander’s resilience against temporary disturbance caused by the tsunami. Models of relations analyzed between the numbers of egg clutches in each year showed larger population had higher resilience and the numbers of dead egg clutches had negative correlation to the total numbers of egg clutches in late years. Results indicated that the environmental changes after the tsunami had more severe impacts on the population’s survival. However the population of Tohoku salamander had resilience under the natural state. This resilience may be weakened by man-made induced environmental changes and habitat loss from the tsunami recovery and reconstruction works. Hence, the need for conservation and monitoring was suggested.