The purposes of this study are to clarify 1) the people’s evaluation of the shape of street trees and the conflicts with these overhead lines, 2) the problems in terms of the maintenance of street trees, 3) the factors of each types of tree form and the future direction of maintenance pruning, from various aspects. In this study, we focused on maidenhair tree (Gingko biloba L.) as a case study in Kyoto city. Through experiments on evaluation of them by using Semantic Differential method, some questionnaire investigations and interviews targeting residents living along main streets, we typed the existing state of the shape of street trees. Through the experiments, we found the shape of trees that evaluated highly and trees conflicts with overhead lines gave an artificial and negative impression on the people. Through the questionnaire investigations and interviews with landscape architects, gardeners and an officer of department of urban greening, we found the existence of overhead lines is one of the obstacles to proper maintenance and the shape of trees that evaluated highly is created by using a traditional pruning method, which thins the branches.
mLake Biwa is one of the earliest cases of large regional tourism development and scenic preservation in modern times in Japan. This paper clarified the process of developing ideas of scenic tourism and revealed the way of managing the scenic preservation system in Lake Biwa in the Taisho period. In 1914, Shiga prefecture carried out a “Scenic Investigation” with an expectation of hosting foreign travelers and national park designation. Seiroku Honda and Takanori Hongo lead the scenic investigation and evaluated scenic spots as resources for tourism over the whole Shiga Prefecture. And they illustrated ways of developing the scenic areas and building infrastructure and transportation system for tourism. Their plans took the lead in enhancing scenic spots in Lake Biwa. Furthermore, this paper revealed the details of scenic area designation in 1921 and the controversy surrounding the factory construction and scenic preservation. A part of the scenic preservation area was terminated with the aim of industrialization in 1927, then in 1937 the waterfront area was designated as scenic districts under the City Planning Act.
The public currently requires building a coordination system for forming a relationship between volunteer organizations and citizens who want to volunteer. The purpose of this study was to develop a coordinating style of a wide range for green space conservation activities and to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of such. As a case study, we chose the “Rangers Project,” which is a coordination system between Topic Type Individuals (individuals who are interested in the general topic of the environment) and Specific Green Space Conservation Type Organizations (organizations that are interested in the conservation of specific green spaces) in the Kanto area. We analyzed the coordinating style of a wide range by conducting interview and questionnaire surveys regarding the three subjects of local green space conservation activity organizations, volunteer leaders, and participants in the “Rangers Project.” In addition, we also compared the other existing participation styles with the coordinating style of a wide range. The coordinating style of a wide range for conservation activity restored local organizations’ confidences in themselves and improved their activity contents to engage with new members better. Moreover, the coordinating style promoted beginners’ participation in conservation activities.
In England and Wales, many people enjoy walking along National Trails and Rights of Way. Rights of Way are a network of footpaths separate from the network of automobile routes. This paper clarified the management system of the National Trail and of the Rights of Way in the Cotswolds, a hilly terrain in southwestern England, through document search, interviews with stakeholders, and participant observation. We found that National Trails are managed by the National Trail Team of Natural England (a public body), and maintained by Trail Partnerships consisting of various stakeholders including a National Trail Officer, Rights of Way Officers of local authorities, landowners, volunteers, users, and local businesses. Rights of Way are managed by officers and councilors of the Rights of Way departments of local authorities, and by landowners, conservation groups, volunteers, users, and residents. In the Cotswolds, the National Trail and Rights of Way are under combined management. The Cotswolds Conservation Board maintains not only the access to the trail, but also manages local traditions and the surrounding environment. Users and volunteers are systematically organized at the local and national level and play an important role in footpath management.
This research was aimed at analyzing functions of trees at spaces of highway-rest-areas. The experiment was conducted at Sayama Parking Area, Sayama, Saitama prefecture in Japan. 20 students participated in this study to measure their physiological and psychological responses to 8 different scenes of shops and parking lot with large trees approximately 440cm in height, middle trees, approximately 180cm in height, shrubs approximately 70cm in height or no planting. During the exposure time of eye movements, heart rate and heart-rate-variability were recorded as well as near-infrared spectroscopy were used to measure the brain activity. The participants were asked to describe their impressions by the semantic differential questionnaire. The results showed that middle trees had effects that attract participant's eyes on trees and increase the cerebral activity in the association area and so on. Participants felt scenes with middle trees comfortable, vigorous and so on. These results suggested middle trees brought participants into a refreshed state. The cerebral activity of participants looking at parking lot with large trees was sedated in the association area and so on as well as participants felt comfortable, calm, secure and so on. These results suggested large trees brought participants into a relaxed state.
This survey monitored the quantity and distribution of egg clutches of Tohoku salamander (Hynobius lichenatus) in the tsunami inundated lowland area from the period 2012 to 2015, looking at the case of Moune district, Kesennuma city, Miyagi prefecture, Japan. After the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, lowland area almost changed into wetlands by erosion and land subsidence, and seawater ran into a part of the lowland. Lots of egg clutches were found in the whole area in 2012. However several egg clutches deposited in brackish-water were dead. After 2013, the number of egg clutches declined, and the distribution moved inland. The number of egg clutches roughly increased in 2015, indicating the meta-population of Tohoku salamander’s resilience against temporary disturbance caused by the tsunami. Models of relations analyzed between the numbers of egg clutches in each year showed larger population had higher resilience and the numbers of dead egg clutches had negative correlation to the total numbers of egg clutches in late years. Results indicated that the environmental changes after the tsunami had more severe impacts on the population’s survival. However the population of Tohoku salamander had resilience under the natural state. This resilience may be weakened by man-made induced environmental changes and habitat loss from the tsunami recovery and reconstruction works. Hence, the need for conservation and monitoring was suggested.
The ‘Art Districts’ in China, which started by the spontaneous gathering of artists, are the places where the works of contemporary art are produced, exhibited and sold. In recent years, as the Chinese government expected an economical effect from these art districts, the government has made the contemporary art a part of ‘Cultural Creative Industry’ and supports it politically. Since then these districts have expanded from Beijing to other big cities in China. The purpose of this paper is to consider the changes in the relationship between policy and Contemporary Art by intervention of a government, based on the developments in the art districts in the Chinese mainland. The results show that art districts spread to the big cities, they are changed by administrative policy and real-estate development. There is a direct relationship between the change in a related policy and the development in the Chinese art districts. Therefore, the support from the central government increasing recognition of the cultural industry and development in “Cultural Creative Industry Park” is an important factor in the rapid increase of the art districts.
This study shows the process whereby the site of Wakayama Castle, which was administered by the Army Ministry under the Meiji Government, was turned into a public park. In 1889 citizens’ groups and the city of Wakayama unsuccessfully petitioned the Army Ministry, requesting that ownership of the castle site be transferred free of charge in order to preserve the castle remains. However, a request to rent and utilize the site made by Wakayama Prefecture was approved. They envisioned using the castle tower as an industrial exhibition hall. In 1900 the prefecture petitioned the central government for approval of a plan to turn the site into a public park and to construct an industrial exhibition hall within it. The plan was approved, and the next year Wakayama Park opened with an industrial exhibition hall on its grounds. In 1911 the city of Wakayama, wishing to continue to use and manage site as a public park, and to preserve the castle remains, applied to purchase it from the central government. A sale price of ¥60,000 was decided on. However, the city of Wakayama, like Wakayama Prefecture, was unable to secure sufficient funds to maintain and manage the park. In 1914 a plan was prepared for improvements to the park to commemorate the enthronement of the new Emperor, and work proceeded in a comprehensive manner.
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