The purposes of this study are to clarify 1) the people’s evaluation of the shape of street trees and the conflicts with these overhead lines, 2) the problems in terms of the maintenance of street trees, 3) the factors of each types of tree form and the future direction of maintenance pruning, from various aspects. In this study, we focused on maidenhair tree (Gingko biloba L.) as a case study in Kyoto city. Through experiments on evaluation of them by using Semantic Differential method, some questionnaire investigations and interviews targeting residents living along main streets, we typed the existing state of the shape of street trees. Through the experiments, we found the shape of trees that evaluated highly and trees conflicts with overhead lines gave an artificial and negative impression on the people. Through the questionnaire investigations and interviews with landscape architects, gardeners and an officer of department of urban greening, we found the existence of overhead lines is one of the obstacles to proper maintenance and the shape of trees that evaluated highly is created by using a traditional pruning method, which thins the branches.
mLake Biwa is one of the earliest cases of large regional tourism development and scenic preservation in modern times in Japan. This paper clarified the process of developing ideas of scenic tourism and revealed the way of managing the scenic preservation system in Lake Biwa in the Taisho period. In 1914, Shiga prefecture carried out a “Scenic Investigation” with an expectation of hosting foreign travelers and national park designation. Seiroku Honda and Takanori Hongo lead the scenic investigation and evaluated scenic spots as resources for tourism over the whole Shiga Prefecture. And they illustrated ways of developing the scenic areas and building infrastructure and transportation system for tourism. Their plans took the lead in enhancing scenic spots in Lake Biwa. Furthermore, this paper revealed the details of scenic area designation in 1921 and the controversy surrounding the factory construction and scenic preservation. A part of the scenic preservation area was terminated with the aim of industrialization in 1927, then in 1937 the waterfront area was designated as scenic districts under the City Planning Act.
The public currently requires building a coordination system for forming a relationship between volunteer organizations and citizens who want to volunteer. The purpose of this study was to develop a coordinating style of a wide range for green space conservation activities and to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of such. As a case study, we chose the “Rangers Project,” which is a coordination system between Topic Type Individuals (individuals who are interested in the general topic of the environment) and Specific Green Space Conservation Type Organizations (organizations that are interested in the conservation of specific green spaces) in the Kanto area. We analyzed the coordinating style of a wide range by conducting interview and questionnaire surveys regarding the three subjects of local green space conservation activity organizations, volunteer leaders, and participants in the “Rangers Project.” In addition, we also compared the other existing participation styles with the coordinating style of a wide range. The coordinating style of a wide range for conservation activity restored local organizations’ confidences in themselves and improved their activity contents to engage with new members better. Moreover, the coordinating style promoted beginners’ participation in conservation activities.
In England and Wales, many people enjoy walking along National Trails and Rights of Way. Rights of Way are a network of footpaths separate from the network of automobile routes. This paper clarified the management system of the National Trail and of the Rights of Way in the Cotswolds, a hilly terrain in southwestern England, through document search, interviews with stakeholders, and participant observation. We found that National Trails are managed by the National Trail Team of Natural England (a public body), and maintained by Trail Partnerships consisting of various stakeholders including a National Trail Officer, Rights of Way Officers of local authorities, landowners, volunteers, users, and local businesses. Rights of Way are managed by officers and councilors of the Rights of Way departments of local authorities, and by landowners, conservation groups, volunteers, users, and residents. In the Cotswolds, the National Trail and Rights of Way are under combined management. The Cotswolds Conservation Board maintains not only the access to the trail, but also manages local traditions and the surrounding environment. Users and volunteers are systematically organized at the local and national level and play an important role in footpath management.
This research was aimed at analyzing functions of trees at spaces of highway-rest-areas. The experiment was conducted at Sayama Parking Area, Sayama, Saitama prefecture in Japan. 20 students participated in this study to measure their physiological and psychological responses to 8 different scenes of shops and parking lot with large trees approximately 440cm in height, middle trees, approximately 180cm in height, shrubs approximately 70cm in height or no planting. During the exposure time of eye movements, heart rate and heart-rate-variability were recorded as well as near-infrared spectroscopy were used to measure the brain activity. The participants were asked to describe their impressions by the semantic differential questionnaire. The results showed that middle trees had effects that attract participant's eyes on trees and increase the cerebral activity in the association area and so on. Participants felt scenes with middle trees comfortable, vigorous and so on. These results suggested middle trees brought participants into a refreshed state. The cerebral activity of participants looking at parking lot with large trees was sedated in the association area and so on as well as participants felt comfortable, calm, secure and so on. These results suggested large trees brought participants into a relaxed state.
This survey monitored the quantity and distribution of egg clutches of Tohoku salamander (Hynobius lichenatus) in the tsunami inundated lowland area from the period 2012 to 2015, looking at the case of Moune district, Kesennuma city, Miyagi prefecture, Japan. After the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, lowland area almost changed into wetlands by erosion and land subsidence, and seawater ran into a part of the lowland. Lots of egg clutches were found in the whole area in 2012. However several egg clutches deposited in brackish-water were dead. After 2013, the number of egg clutches declined, and the distribution moved inland. The number of egg clutches roughly increased in 2015, indicating the meta-population of Tohoku salamander’s resilience against temporary disturbance caused by the tsunami. Models of relations analyzed between the numbers of egg clutches in each year showed larger population had higher resilience and the numbers of dead egg clutches had negative correlation to the total numbers of egg clutches in late years. Results indicated that the environmental changes after the tsunami had more severe impacts on the population’s survival. However the population of Tohoku salamander had resilience under the natural state. This resilience may be weakened by man-made induced environmental changes and habitat loss from the tsunami recovery and reconstruction works. Hence, the need for conservation and monitoring was suggested.
The ‘Art Districts’ in China, which started by the spontaneous gathering of artists, are the places where the works of contemporary art are produced, exhibited and sold. In recent years, as the Chinese government expected an economical effect from these art districts, the government has made the contemporary art a part of ‘Cultural Creative Industry’ and supports it politically. Since then these districts have expanded from Beijing to other big cities in China. The purpose of this paper is to consider the changes in the relationship between policy and Contemporary Art by intervention of a government, based on the developments in the art districts in the Chinese mainland. The results show that art districts spread to the big cities, they are changed by administrative policy and real-estate development. There is a direct relationship between the change in a related policy and the development in the Chinese art districts. Therefore, the support from the central government increasing recognition of the cultural industry and development in “Cultural Creative Industry Park” is an important factor in the rapid increase of the art districts.
This study shows the process whereby the site of Wakayama Castle, which was administered by the Army Ministry under the Meiji Government, was turned into a public park. In 1889 citizens’ groups and the city of Wakayama unsuccessfully petitioned the Army Ministry, requesting that ownership of the castle site be transferred free of charge in order to preserve the castle remains. However, a request to rent and utilize the site made by Wakayama Prefecture was approved. They envisioned using the castle tower as an industrial exhibition hall. In 1900 the prefecture petitioned the central government for approval of a plan to turn the site into a public park and to construct an industrial exhibition hall within it. The plan was approved, and the next year Wakayama Park opened with an industrial exhibition hall on its grounds. In 1911 the city of Wakayama, wishing to continue to use and manage site as a public park, and to preserve the castle remains, applied to purchase it from the central government. A sale price of ¥60,000 was decided on. However, the city of Wakayama, like Wakayama Prefecture, was unable to secure sufficient funds to maintain and manage the park. In 1914 a plan was prepared for improvements to the park to commemorate the enthronement of the new Emperor, and work proceeded in a comprehensive manner.
Ecological network is regarded as a possible way to improve biodiversity in urban landscapes. Though linear vegetated spaces such as greenways and wooded streets are often considered to be important components of urban ecological network, the ecological functions of such linear vegetated spaces have not been clarified well. In the present study, the relationship between avian species composition and vegetation structure were studied in the green road along the Tamagawa Josui Aqueduct during a wintering season and a breeding season. Movements of the observed individuals were also recorded. The results indicated that the avian species composition varied with tree vegetation cover. Landscape scale factors such as woodland area within 500m range and NDVI within 500m range were also influential. Distance from the nearest large woodland was important only in the breeding season while water area within 500m range was important only in winter. Most urban avoider species and some urban adapter species tended to move within the vegetated area along the aqueduct, which indicates that the linear vegetated area could play a role as movement corridor for the species.
In the early 1960s, a new road construction plan that was to run through the lakefront of Ozenuma—the core area of the National Park of Oze—was brought into question for its anticipated environmental impact. The Ministry of Health and Welfare, then in charge of national park administration, revised the plan to circumvent the core area; however, the construction work was terminated in 1971 by political intervention. This study identifies factors that led to the termination and examines issues that arose in the consensus building process of implementing collaborative management of the National Park. In regard to the stakeholders, two observations are drawn: 1) the importance of conducting a stakeholder analysis to identify those who should take part in the consultative process, and 2) the need to hold a clear vision of the sustainable use of natural resources in the area and to engage those who may have little say in this process. It is also worth noting the specialist who participated in the planning. His commitment to achieve the two purposes of national parks, protection and use, seems to have blinded him from seeing the regional stakeholders’ vision and desire of protecting the ‘atmosphere’ of the Oze area.
The objective of the paper is to examine the process of cross-sectoral acceptance of the idea of “spatial quality”, that has been one of the key concepts in the Netherlands’ spatial planning, and its diffusion in the municipal urban and regional planning. The discussions over the “spatial quality” in broad sense were carried out in the three sectors, which were the Ministry of VROM that first used the term in 1982, the Ministry of V&W that introduced the term “LNC” values in the 1970’s, and the Ministry of LNV that put forward the term “landscape quality” within the Landscape Vision in 1992. The process can be understood in terms of four periods, which ccan be called as those of “issue identification”, “dispersive introduction of the ideas”, “integration of the ideas”, and “diffusion to the municipalities”. Integration of these ideas was intermediated by several concepts such as “casco concept”,“multiple landuse”, and the groups such as the Big Group, Eo Wijers Foundation and Habiforum，and some particular events such as planning and implementation of the Room for the River Program.
This study aims to clarify the transition of landscape concepts in the term “kyodo-fukei” by Tsuyoshi Tamura (1890-1979), and to consider the planning theory characteristics of “kyodo-fukei” discourses. The object is to study seven documents discussed by Tamura where the term has been used 193 times. Prior to the use of the word “kyodo-fukei”, Tamura had already developed a discourse based on aesthetics that structurally understood landscape as a phenomenon originating from human experience and environment. Initially, Tamura’s concept of “kyodo-fukei” was utilized without being clearly specified. Subsequently, he discussed the subject as a resident who experiences “kyodo-fukei”. In the Showa era before World War II, Tamura had developed a discourse that understood the concept of “kyodo-fukei” structurally, as a phenomenon consisting of human experience and environment. The following two points may be raised as factors leading to the above transition: 1) Tamura deepened his understanding of “kyodo-fukei” for residents; and, 2) Tamura was influenced by national policy, such as laws on landscape and local policies. Finally, as a result of analyzing Tamura’s concept of “kyodo-fukei” from the perspective of the landscape model, we discuss its implications for planning theory. The conclusion of this study shows concepts of stratification, relativity and variability as planning theory.
Waste and sewage management is essential in protecting mountainous national parks. This study reveals key factors that arose in the consideration process regarding the waste and sewage management in Oze. In Oze, a “take your litter home” campaign was launched in 1972 to address the increasing amount of waste. The latest management policy was decided in 2001, which stated that waste incineration would no longer be permitted and that all waste must be transported from the area. Administrators, lodge concessionaires, and conservation groups each played a role in the decision for the anti-litter campaign; however, the 2001 policy was largely influenced by the countermeasures against dioxins. Sewage issues surfaced around 1970, and various fora were organized to discuss countermeasures; however, it took over two decades to reach the current policy to use septic tanks and discharge treated water into rivers. The conservation groups were excluded from this discussion due to their claim that all mountain lodges should be removed from the core area of Oze. A politically driven discussion group bridged the stakeholders and contributed in forming a consensus. Moreover, a shared sense of ownership as well as advocacy by the conservation groups was factors that propelled the discussion forward.
In 2009, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries introduced Farmers’ Market by establishing temporary construction in urban areas, which is called “Marche Japan Project”. The project goal was fostering Morning Farmers' Markets, similar to those seen in Paris and New York. As a result of this project, various temporary market called Marche is increasing in each place of Japan. This paper shows the result of the hearing investigation into two new farmers’ markets sponsored by two local administrations in the urban area. The result of investigation shows these markets are adopted as useful tool to achieve a big purpose covered with whole area, expected that they carry out a part of the regional activation at these areas. Several advantages were recognized in running these markets by administrative leadership. The purposes of the market holding are to become a place of the interchange of people interested in a meal and food and bring turnout. In these markets, the shared tasks of local administrations and the private operators can be seen. While local administrations are branding the areas, are the private operators pulling in the customers for gains of profit. This division of tasks between the public and private sector is quite effective and leads to cooperation among the two.
There is a problem that the roots of street trees lift up and break many pavements and curbs. The purpose of this research is to know the relationship between surrounding conditions and the incidence of the pavement/curb failure by street tree roots in urban area of Kyoto city. We focused on the soil condition as the factors of surrounding conditions and chose trident maple （Acer buergerianum Miq.） as the subject. Site of this research is one of the main streets running north-south in Kyoto city. In this case, we used boring investigation data to know general soil condition around street trees. Through this survey, we could know some possible factors of the trouble. For example, the incidence rate in humus soil is highest, and the extent of root growths are influenced by the firmness of soil and groundwater level around planted space. The disadvantage of this research is each result has fuzzy aspects because we didn’t carry out the soil investigation directly. However, through this research, we found the boring data has some possibilities to complement a lot of soil investigations to know general soil condition around street trees.
This study’s hypothesis is that large heat islands can be fragmented through the use of open space, which allow flows of cool air to reduce night-time temperatures. Using data from Landsat 8, a four-step method, comprising data collection, data analysis, decision making and final planning, is proposed to enable planning for mitigation of urban heat island effects. (1) Land cover and existing daily surface air temperature maps were generated from the Landsat 8 data and summer observatory data from the Meteorological Agency. (2) Surface temperature and air temperature (at 0500 hours) maps were derived using a formula incorporating the ratio of green space within different spatial scales within the survey areas. (3) Predictive maps of surface temperature and air temperature (at 0500 hours) were generated using three alternative green space plans (focused along riversides, streets and in school grounds, respectively), using the same formula. (4) This scenario appraisal approach can contribute to new green infrastructure planning to mitigate the increasingly important issue of urban heat island impacts and night-time temperatures.
This study was carried out to clarify the Characteristic Analysis of Japanese Garden in Korea. In addition to the economic development of nation is gradual1y increasing the exchange programs with foreign cities. The importance of creating a traditional garden is coming to fore as a method to inform national culture to a foreign country. Japan is geographically close, culturally similar and Japanese Garden has been made over 432 units in 52 countries worldwide. Due to the cultural difference and technical problems, between the two countries, establishing a Japanese traditional gardens in Korea is much difficult than making Korean garden in Korea. This is because there is a need to deliver accurate Japanese gardening culture to the people who are interested in the Japanese Garden. In this study, for the Characteristic Comparative Analysis of the domestic Japanese garden, 15 project sites were selected and the major items of the study are creating background, periods transition, domestic distribution aspect, private and public possession, garden style, composition, size, circulation, topography, relationship between architecture, major facilities and vegetation, expert participation, cultural heritage, management status.
The purpose of our study is to clarify the effects and influences on the reaction level of children through the environment learning program on three different locations of the Yamato river system<1985, 2001> and the Yodo river system<1990>. According to our analysis of children reaction level, Water Quality Monitoring Methods using aquatic animals is the effective teaching materials to raise children’s interest, understanding and attitude on their regional environmental problems, and it is necessary to carry out the environment learning program on plural different locations of the river system in order to let children realize the relationship between dirt of the river and our human life.
In Korea, some rural tourism projects are implemented in traditional villages. However, the policies for preserving traditional villages are insufficient. And also problems about landscape preservation are occurring. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of the rural tourism project for conserve the landscape in Namsa village. We carried out observation and hearing survey on the village, where a rural tourism project proceeded. As a result, we found that the details such as materials and colors are not taken into consider of the conservation at the time of installing to the buildings and architectural equipment for tourism. And it has an adverse effect to the landscape formation of traditional villages. Moreover, it has been proved that the village management committee and municipality lack the knowledge of landscape conservation. We conclude that when rural tourism projects are implemented, it is desired to form a plan including provide the knowledge about landscape preservation to both of the village management committee and municipality. And it is desired to create a forum for discussions about landscape preservation during a residents meeting.
STI - Sustainable Tourism Indicator - is to monitor the status of tourism destinations by presenting with multiple indicators, and by measuring as quantitative data. Examples have been reported on Australia’s Kangaroo Island and multiple areas in Ireland. This study, in an assumption that STI model was an effective method of a collaborative management of a tourism destination, experimentally implemented it to the area of Oku-Nikko, and verified its effectiveness and points of attention. Upon the process of setting STI, the local collaborators voluntarily participated in the discussions of specific items of measuring and methods of questionnaire survey, interested in the objective understanding of the statuses of tourists and tourism economy, and awareness of local residents. And in every occasion, we were able to form and accumulate a small consensus. As a result of status observation, we considered that STI model was effective in understanding and sharing the current status of the area and its issues, and as a communication tool upon discussions for the future plans as well as in building consensuses of some kinds.
It remains uncertain when and how “kyodo-fukei” appeared. With the advent of digital archive, it became possible to confirm the existence of “kyodo-fukei” discourses authored by Seizoh Nakahara in “ryu-nankai” magazine published in 1910. It is possible to suggest that “kyodo-fukei” discourses by Seizoh Nakahara are effective materials for tracing the beginning of “kyodofukei” discourses in the Meiji period. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the concept and establishment factors of “kyodo-fukei” discourse by Seizoh Nakahara, and to consider the trend of “kyodo-fukei” discourses in the Meiji Period. As a result, it became clear that “kyodo-fukei” discourses were more likely to have appeared after the middle of Meiji period or before the Taisho period; in other words, “kyodo-fukei” discourses were thought to have appeared in the late Meiji period. From the establishment factors of “kyodo-fukei” discourses by Seizoh Nakahara, the formation of “kyodo-fukei” discourses in the late Meiji period can be arranged as follows: 1) recognition of “kyodo” as a place concept, 2) acquisition of modern literary knowledge , and 3) interest in sightseeing spots. In addition, as a conclusion of this study, Seizoh Nakahara’s “kyodo-fukei” discourses were positioned as historical materials in landscape planning studies.
Although the “farm” was established by new industry promotion policies in the Meiji era, it is an industrial space which promoted the livestock business by creating a pioneering role in Japan. This academic evaluation focuses on the historical value and style of the livestock barn architecture and existing structures and is limited to areas related to the value of a grass landscape. This study focuses on （１）case of livestock industrial facilities related to the development of the Hokkaido, （２）Koiwai Farm, Iwate Prefecture: case of historical agricultural and livestock industrial facilities in the Tohoku region, （３）Iwase Farm, Iwate Prefecture: cases which can be classified as an Imperial estate and have continued operation down to the present day. A precondition for recognition, evaluation, preservation as the heritage of industrial modernization of agricultural and livestock industrial facilities. This study is to clarify historical process of existing agricultural and livestock industrial facilities constructed through new industry promotion policies in Meiji era. Agricultural and livestock industrial facilities scene connects people, livestock, and space through production technology. A viewpoint which can evaluate multiple values, including the historical meaning of western style barn architecture and the introduction of production technology, is required.