Maritime cargo shipment is an essential component of maritime transportation in the global economic system. Accidents often occur owing to several shipment processes in the past few years, particularly in Indonesia. human factor is among the several factors that cause maritime cargo accidents. In this study, the probability of human error that caused the accident is predicted after the accident in order to reduce the maritime cargo accidents caused by human errors. This study employs the risk perception technique to assess the human error. The risk perception technique divides a task into sub-tasks using quantification data of the human error probability (HEP). This paper presents an assessment of human factors in 34 maritime cargo accidents in Indonesia from 2013 – 2018. The corresponding results show that maritime cargo accidents are commonly caused by the human factor during the loading and unloading processes. This error is caused by operator carelessness while handling the cargo during the processes.
When using wind propulsion systems under the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) regulations, users are required to apply the global wind probability matrix and appropriately reflect the effect of the wind propulsion system. In this paper, global winds and waves statistics of multiple sea areas (GLOBUS) is used to evaluate the joint probability density function of wind speed and wind angle as exemplified by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). As a result of this evaluation, it was found that the IMO wind speed distribution was almost the same as that in GLOBUS, but a lack of wind data was observed in the exemplified data. In addition, there are also characteristic tendencies in the occurrence of the wind speed and wind angle for each route, and it is necessary to examine appropriate treatment of the probability of wind angles.
In the initial study on the effects of auxiliary stern lights by Fujimoto et al. (2019), results indicated that when the original stern light on another vessel is seen, the pilot cannot estimate an accurate direction, and the direction estimate range varies greatly depending on the individual. This research demonstrated that if an auxiliary sectored light with the same color as a navigation light is installed under the existing stern light, then estimating the actual proceeding direction and reducing the width of the estimated proceeding direction range becomes possible. However, installing an auxiliary stern light can potentially lead to misidentification with other lights, especially on small craft when viewed from the side, or navigational lights installed on either side of an auxiliary stern light. These lights look very similar and could be misleading when using them to determine direction. The purpose of this study is to further examine the effects of an improved auxiliary stern light array in terms of eliminating the possibility of misidentification. Results from this study indicate that in concurrence with the auxiliary light investigated in the original study, the improved auxiliary stern light proved effective in helping navigators to recognize the direction of other ships, as well as reducing the range and the width of placement.
This paper aims to clarify the technical standards of safety and security measures for the maritime transport of nuclear material. Safe inter-facility transport of plutonium and irradiated nuclear fuel is vital to the function and stability of the nuclear fuel cycle system. To protect the crew, cargo handling workers, and the public from radiation exposure, international technical standards have been developed by the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the International Maritime Organization. These technical standards, like the Code for the Safe Carriage of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium, and High-Level Radioactive Nuclear Wastes in Flasks on Board Ships, have been incorporated into international treaties (e.g., the Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea) and are therefore critical to the safety and security of nuclear material transport. The member states of these international organizations (e.g., Japan and the Russian Federation) have also introduced domestic legislation consistent with the requirements of these standards. This paper argues that the multilateral instruments, bilateral agreements, domestic laws, and technical standards that represent the guardian aspect of routine activity theory are the key to establishing an integrated international legal scheme ensuring the safety and security of the maritime transport of nuclear material.
Smartphones have widely spread lately. If we utilize a function to acquire information of positions, courses and speeds of an own ship and a target ship, the smartphones may become a new support system for collision avoidance. One way to verify whether the smartphones can be used as the support system is to evaluate accuracy of Distance at Closest Point of Approach (DCPA) and Time to Closest Point of Approach (TCPA) to target ships calculated using the information obtained by general smartphones. In this paper, in order to evaluate the accuracy of DCPA and TCPA, population standard deviations and population means of errors obtained by the smartphones were estimated from results of actual sea experiments at first. Next, we obtained the accuracy of DCPA and TCPA estimated based on population parameters of the errors obtained by the smartphones. 10000 datasets of the positions, the courses and the speeds of 2 ships were obtained using estimated population parameters and encountered scenarios. We calculated DCPA and TCPA using 10000 datasets as samples. The accuracy was obtained using calculated DCPA and TCPA as the population standard deviations of DCPA and TCPA. The accuracy was within 0.4NM (DCPA) and 1.1 minutes (TCPA), respectively.