Journal of High Performance Sport
Online ISSN : 2434-7302
Print ISSN : 2434-7299
Volume 8
Displaying 1-8 of 8 articles from this issue
  • –Investigation of the FIS World Cup Yuzawa, Naeba, 2016–
    Kosuke Nakazato, Yoshihisa Sakurai, Yusuke Ishige
    2021 Volume 8 Pages 1-18
    Published: 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: July 09, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    To combine a time analysis of alpine skiing with own turn characteristics of skier plays an important role to decide where skier should attack or not. This study aimed to analyze the correlation coefficients between total time and all interval times determined by each gate, as well as those between total time and all section times including some intervals, and to clarify the merit of interval analysis method and the characteristics of the world top level’s skier. All participants in the first run of the World Cup Slalom were recorded using seven high-speed cameras with a sampling rate of 240 fps, and 29 skiers from the top 30 were analyzed. The interval time was calculated by using the number of frames between each gate, then, divided by the sampling rate. The course was divided into six sections based on the terrain. By using the interval time, the interval time ranking, the instant position of each interval and run time at the end of each section were calculated additionally. For all correlation analyses, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) was calculated. Furthermore, all subjects were divided into three (High, Middle, Low) groups. The interval time ranking and the run time at the end of each section among three groups were compared by using ANOVA. All statistically significant was set at p < 0.05. Hence, there were strong correlations between the total time and all section times. The correlation results indicated that 50 interval times were significantly correlated to the total time (r ≧ 0.369; p < 0.05) as well as to the previous interval time (r ≧ 0.384; p < 0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that the skiers in the shorter total time were faster in most sections and more than 70 % of intervals, especially, open gate setting.
    Download PDF (3872K)
  • Ryo Yamanaka, Fumiya Tanji, Hayato Ohnuma, Ryosuke Ando, Hirohiko Maem ...
    2021 Volume 8 Pages 19-34
    Published: 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: July 09, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Anaerobic and aerobic capacities are needed to enhance the performance of 400-m runners. We previously demonstrated that a 7-day hypoxic training consisting of high-intensity interval training and endurance training at submaximal load improved the exercise performance (time to exhaustion) as well as anaerobic and aerobic capacities of female 400-m runners. Time to exhaustion and capacities in a shorter training period could be beneficial for several athletes, but this has not been examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether a 5-day of hypoxic training would improve duration time (time to exhaustion) and the anaerobic and aerobic capacities of elite female 400-m runners. Seven elite female 400-m runners (Personal Best time: 53.9±1.2 s) were trained for 5 days (6 sessions). Anaerobic and aerobic capacity tests were performed on the treadmill before (Pre) and after (Post) the intervention. The indices of anaerobic capacity were maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and maximal blood lactate concentration (Lamax). The index of aerobic capacity was the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). All subjects were trained in a normobaric hypoxic room (FIO2=14.4%). The training consisted of high-intensity interval training (five 30-s all-out pedaling) and endurance training (30-min incremental running and 30-min steady pedaling). After the intervention, duration time significantly increased in both anaerobic (Pre: 131±11 sec, Post: 149±15 sec, p = 0.02) and aerobic (Pre: 5.2±1.2 min, Post: 6.0±1.2 min, p < 0.01) tests. MAOD tended to increase (Pre: 54.9±6.3 ml/kg, Post: 58.4±6.8 ml/kg, p = 0.05) while the Lamax significantly increased (Pre: 19.5±3.3 mmol/l, Post: 21.5±2.6 mmol/l, p = 0.04). On the other hand, the VO2max (Pre: 51.4±5.3 ml/kg/min, Post: 53.1±5.0 ml/kg/min) did not significantly change. This study suggests that 5-days of hypoxic training was effective for enhancing duration time of anaerobic and aerobic tests, and also anaerobic capacity in well-trained female 400-m runners.
    Download PDF (640K)
  • Shuhei Yamashita
    2021 Volume 8 Pages 35-48
    Published: 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: July 09, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Japanese policies on women’s participation in business have been reinforced since 2012, when the Japanese Cabinet Office included it as a key aspect of the nation’s growth strategy. With these trends in Japan, the Strategy for Sports Nation, established in 2010, was formulated for female athletes in high performance sport; from the viewpoint, supporting programs for female athletes have been positioned as an important measure of Japanese sport policy. However, few studies have been conducted on support measures for female athletes in high performance sport. Therefore, the present paper aims to examine and facilitate the understanding of the historical development of support measures for female athletes in high performance sport in Japan. The data are analyzed to derive a perception of future directions in Japanese policy on high performance sport. The SPLISS model, which is a conceptual model comprising nine pillars of sports policy factors leading to international sporting success, was applied in this study as analytical framework. The results indicate that measures have been expanded to cover all major factors other than sports participation. In particular, measures related to scientific research and innovation for female athletes that have little weight in other countries could be a strength of Japan. At the same time, with a “gender equality” perspective, the point of view of commonalities between men and women is also important for planning and implementing measures.
    Download PDF (2520K)
  • Masahiro Hagiwara, Mariko Nakamura, Takayuki Saito, Kenji Nakamura
    2021 Volume 8 Pages 49-59
    Published: 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: July 17, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The purpose of this case study was to demonstrate whether the intervention project implemented by the support team for the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games led to an improvement in the physical fitness of the Japanese national sailing team. Support team was established in collaboration between the Japan Sailing Federation and the Japan Institute of Sport Sciences. The support team conducted the intervention project by creating fitness assessment indicators and targets, conducting fitness checks and workshops, and providing training instruction. As a result of physical fitness check, the increase in lean body mass and improvement in anaerobic and aerobic fitness performance were observed after the intervention project. On the other hand, the improvement in physiological indicators of maximal and supramaximal exercise level was not observed and individual issues of athletes were found. These results suggested that the intervention project and the results of the physical fitness check presented in this case study can be useful indicators for the future development and strengthening of sailing athletes in Japan.
    Download PDF (1511K)
  • Jun Kubota, Takahiro Waku, Takashi Katsuta
    2021 Volume 8 Pages 60-71
    Published: 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: July 17, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to examine the meaning and value of hosting the ICCE Global Coach Conference in 2019 from the participation status of the ICCE Global Coach Conference in 2015 (GCC2015), 2017 (GCC2017), and 2019 (GCC2019), and the results of an online questionnaire from GCC2019. The number of sessions, presentations, participating countries/regions, and participants of the three conferences were analyzed based on the event details, programs, and participant lists published at each conference. Furthermore, a quantitative text analysis was implemented using KH Coder 3 on the open-ended question’s responses regarding the positive aspects of the GCC2019. There were 460 participants from 39 countries/regions in the GCC2019, which were higher than those of the GCC2015 and GCC2017. In particular, the number of participations from Asia and Oceania countries/regions increased. In GCC2019 5naire, about 80% of the respondents highly evaluated the conference in general, and acknowledged that the GCC2019 was meaningful for their own activities. The co-occurrence network analysis suggested that GCC2019 was a place where impactful ideas were discussed and shared. In addition, venue and operation of the event seemed to be of high interest to the participants of GCC2019. The results of this study suggested that GCC 2019 had provided participants with opportunities for self-directed and interactive learning, which led to a positive evaluation of the GCC2019. These points show that it was beneficial for Japan to host the GCC 2019. In addition, the fact that the GCC2019 was able to stimulate discussion on the research and practice of sports coaching contributed to the enhancement of Japan's international presence in the international sports coaching industry, which would is also a value of hosting the GCC2019.
    Download PDF (1546K)
  • Jun Kubota, Takahiro Waku
    2021 Volume 8 Pages 72-91
    Published: 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: October 01, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of research presentation titles presented at the recent domestic and international sport coaching conferences using a quantitative text analysis. This study focused on the conferences from 2014 to 2019 organized by the Japan Society of Coaching Studies (JSCS) and the Japan Society of Physical Education, Health, and Sport Science (JSPEHSS) as the domestic conferences, and the International Council for Coaching Excellence (ICCE) as the international conferences. In terms of the differences in the characteristics between domestic and international sport coaching research presentations, those in the JSCS and the JSPEHSS conferences tended to focus more on "athletes" such as competitive sports and athlete performances, while those in the ICCE conferences have focused more on "coaches" such as coach education and development. This may be due to the differences in the positioning or origins of the sport coaching research between Japan and other countries, resulting in the differences in research goal setting. In addition, ICCE Global Coach Conferences’ presentations included words indicating women/female coach and coaching women/female athlete/team in the field of high performance sport. Other identified word included coach developer. These may reflect the ICCE's recent emphasis on the development of women/female coaches and coach developers. With regard to similarities in the characteristics of the research presentations in the domestic and international conferences, the case studies and practical researches of sport coaches and coaching were recognized. The results of this study identified the characteristics in the titles of research presentations at the recent domestic and international sports coaching conferences. In addition to enhancing the knowledge that coaches can adopt in their coaching, more researches and discussions to enhance coaches’ education and development should be undertaken in the domestic sport coaching conferences.
    Download PDF (1497K)
  • An integrative literature review for development of the conceptual model
    Kohei Funasaki, Yoshio Takahashi, Yukihiko Okada
    2021 Volume 8 Pages 92-112
    Published: 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: November 30, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Many nations have invested public funds into elite sport to develop the elite sport system. The national sport organization (NSO) has been required to improve the elite sport system and results in international sports competitions. However, the study of the athlete development pathway has shown that diverse experiences of sports at young ages, which are difficult to manage in the elite sport system, may contribute to future athletic performance. Therefore, the conceptual structure of the relationship between the NSO and international sporting competitiveness should be constructed including the elite sport system and the athlete development pathway. The purpose of this study was to present a conceptual model for studying the mechanisms by which the NSO influences international sporting competitiveness. An integrated review was carried out for showing the relation of organization performance of the NSO, elite sport system, and athlete development pathway. Then, the sport development theory was positioned as a guiding theory for the conceptual relation between themes. This study collected literature from the database (i.e., SPORTDiscus and Web of Science) searches and other sources, and evaluated collected literature eligibility. As the result, 41 papers were extracted. Based on the results of the integrated review, this study built the relationships between the concepts as below. The NSO will receive government financial support under the structure of the country's elite sport policy and elite sport system, then the NSO will access resources and improves the internal operational activities. After that, the NSO will improve the elite sport system directly or through other sport development stakeholders. The output of the elite sport system will promote athletic performance by building the athlete development pathway that athletes can experience the pattern of early diversification.
    Download PDF (3458K)
  • a consensus statement
    Taisuke Kinugasa, Kyosuke Enomoto, Hirokazu Arai, Yoriko Noguchi
    2021 Volume 8 Pages 113-124
    Published: 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: February 09, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    In general, well-being refers to living a more fulfilling life and the theoretical concept has been established in the field such as psychology, economics, and sociology. Several issues related to mental health such as depression and eating disorders are surfacing in elite athletes. However, the definition of athlete well-being was not clear and the concepts related to athlete well-being needed to be theoretically validated. Thus, the aim of the study was to conduct a narrative review of athlete well-being to achieve consensus among international and national experts on the relevant concepts of mental health, wellness, dual career, and athlete lifestyle. It was found that the concepts related to well-being and mental health in sport have not been clearly defined in the literature. The experts agreed on the definition of athlete well-being, the scope of dealing with mental health, and the holistic support required for elite athletes. Further studies are needed to fully understand the current status of athlete well-being in Japanese elite athletes and also to develop the diagnostic tools and other measurement scales which can be used in practice.
    Download PDF (1391K)
feedback
Top