Purpose. To clarify relations between physical activity levels and activity of daily living (ADL) and quality of life (QOL) scales in elderly nursing home residents. Methods. Participants were ambulatory geriatric nursing home residents without dementia symptoms. Physical function (gait velocity and step length), ADL (Barthel Index), and QOL (Life Satisfaction Index A [LSIA] and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale [PGC]) levels were measured. Physical activity level was assessed as activity energy expenditure and duration of physical activities (low and moderate intensities) calculated by accelerometer over 7 days. Intra-class correlation analysis was conducted to examine the consistency of each measurement results by the accelerometer. Variables on QOL scales were assessed by partial correlation coefficient analyses. Results. Seven subjects were recruited. Although a consistent significant relation was noted between activity energy expenditure and duration of low-intensity physical activity (under SMETs), no significant relation was seen between energy expenditure and duration of moderate-intensity physical activity (above 3 METs). LSIA was significantly correlated with gait velocity and step length. PGC was significantly correlated with energy expenditure and duration of low-intensity physical activity. Conclusions. Physical activity levels in geriatric nursing home residents could be quantitatively analyzed by accelerometer. Longer duration of low-intensity physical activity is important for the maintenance and improvement of QOL.
Previous studies have suggested that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display inefficient movements when performing tasks that require simple upper-limb actions. However, few studies have investigated tasks that require gross motor skills. Accordingly, this research sought to examine the movement efficiency of ASD children performing tasks involving gross motor skills. Specifically, the paper looked at differences between repeated jumping movements in long lope skipping of ASD children (n = 8, 9.38 ± 1.18 years) and children with typical development patterns (TD: n = 8, 9.50 ± 1.51 years). Jumping movements in long rope skipping were evaluated in terms of the hip joint flexion motion angle and the knee flexion motion angle. The results indicated that the TD group showed a great deal of variation in repeated jumping movements; that is, they increased their movement efficiency in long rope skipping. In contrast, the ASD group showed little variation as they repeated inefficient jumping movements again and again. The characteristics of the ASD individuals were likely attributable to a tendency to program single motor acts independently from other movements and to a cognitive style that often shows superior local processing. These findings are thought to play an important role in dealing effectively with ASD children.
The purposes of this study were to investigate the players' distance traveled and speed in a wheelchair basketball game and to search for the perspectives of scientific support to obtain the basic data of the players' physical fitness level necessary for high performance in the game. The match filmed for this study was the final of the Wheelchair Basketball Asian Friendship Match Final (Japan vs. Korea, 2005). A Hi-Vision video camera was set at the highest point of the audience seating where we could view the whole court. Two-Dimensional DLT (Direct Linear Transformation) method was used to obtain positional changes of all the players who participated in the game. The results showed that the distance covered by two players who played throughout the game was 5528m and 5745m. The distance covered in each quarter increased, and peak speed tended to decrease as the quarters advanced. Physical abilities to keep moving throughout the game period and to maintain the peak speed would be very important in any game situation. The data obtained in this study are useful for evaluation of the ability both of individual players and of the team.
The purpose of this study was to report the supporting approach for the improvement of the athletic performance of a Paralympic swimmer. The subject was a gold medalist in the 50 m breast stroke event in the 2008 Beijing Paralympic Games, and was classified in SB3 according to a congenital limb deficit. Four synchronized under-water video cameras (60 fps and 1/1000s) were used to record the maximum 50 m breast stroke swimming motion. Three-dimensional coordinates of anatomical landmarks of the swimmer were obtained using DLT procedures. Filming and analysis were executed three times every two months. Video-imaged and motion analysis results were relayed back to the athlete and coach every time. Suggestions for the athletic performance improvement derived from the motion analysis were as follows: (1) increase stroke length and decrease stroke rate, (2) conform stroke motion in non-breath stroke to the motion in on-breath stroke, and (3) decrease drag force in recovery phase, and shorten stroke length of right arm in late in-sweep phase. The filming and supporting activities based on data acquisition and analysis were continued to the 2012 London Paralympic Games for improving the athletic performance so as to achieve the best results for athletes.