Computer Graphics works have been gaining their importance in the Japanese commercial animation scene. With “ARPEGGIO OF BLUE STEEL” (2013.10-) as the starting point, “Kemono Friends” (2017.1-) and “KADO: The Right Answer” (2017.4-) continue to attract fans to this day. What they have in common is the usage of 3D computer graphics (3DCG). The influence 3DCG would give the animation world is not only to its creative method, but also to the business and industrial structures. This thesis provides a deeper understanding of the situation and the insight based on the hearing of the producers as well as some preceding studies.
The major aim of this study is to compile knowledge about animation education in primary education, and in this paper I surveyed how animation subjects were treated in school textbooks for drawing and manual arts in elementary education in Japan. In total I surveyed 677 textbooks published from 1955 to 2015 and identified 25 animation subjects, which I divided into four periods of time for comparison. This diachronic research reveals the origin and the changes of the animation subject in the field. In addition, I found two aspects of educational meaning for animation subjects in the context of drawing and manual arts, namely “education for visual communications” and “experiential education.”
“Spider and Tulip” (1943) and “Momotaro, Sacred Sailors” (1945) are considered masterpieces of the Asia-Pacific War period. As research on both works increases, their political overtones have been highlighted in various forms. In contrast, studies have not discussed lip syncing that is evident in these works. Therefore, this paper examines two questions by focusing on Kenzo Masaoka who was involved in the production of both works. First, is understanding how lip syncing was introduced. American animators such as the Fleischer brothers influenced Masaoka before the War. Second, is comprehending what lip syncing in “Spider and Tulip” and “Sacred Sailors” represents, for instance strong political nature such as the construction of the “Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere.” By considering these questions, we argue that before the war Masaoka was attempting to counter imported American animation while imitating their production method. Moreover, during the Asia-Pacific War when American works were prohibited from being screened, Masaoka was expression opposing America by producing highly artistic animation. We analyze how his way of thinking is different from Mitsuyo Seo’s way of thinking - Seo is the director of “Momotaro, Sacred Sailors.”
At the dawn of computer games at the beginning of 1980s, game graphics expressed in 2D started to evolve, incorporating Japanese animation techniques. Since the 21st century, game graphics have developed as well as hard and software, using 3DCG technology. We have now entered the era of VR (Virtual Reality) and MR (Mixed reality) today. In the process of evolution, the task of creators has always been how to achieve high-standard animation. Game creators have been trying to provide aesthetic animation within the limit of hardware technology. Firstly, I will consider its process and history. Secondly, I will discuss the close relationship between animation and elements of “play” which is the origin of games. Finally, I will describe animation expressions peculiar to games.