This research aims to investigate comparative appreciation in the field of animation education, which is understood as the “exploration of movement.” In this study I examined the difference between two groups in evaluation results of two animated images with four rating scales concerning movement. The control group watched the two animated images sequentially, and the experimental group also watched the two images juxtaposed. The results showed significant difference between the two groups on a scale rating the “naturalness” of movement, with the experimental group giving a higher evaluation than the control group. The rating scale of “naturalness” has been thought to correspond to the “evaluation factor,” one of the three main factors identified by Osgood & Suci (1955), and the results indicate the possibility that the evaluation result concerning the “evaluation factor” might be affected by the juxtaposition of images.
This article endeavors to assess and validate Momotarō, Sacred Sailors, an experimental propaganda film created in 1945. The authors analyze the text of the film, focusing primarily on the techniques of pre-scoring and penetrating light and the clever amalgamation of the genres of shadow-picture animation, musical cinema, and the documentary style. Also examined is the writer-director's adoption of the style of storytelling employed by narrative films to deliver the national policy message of Japanese victory. Momotarō, At the same time, the authors argue the possibility that Momotarō, Sacred Sailors contains a genuine representation of death in a manner never before undertaken by Japanese animation. On the basis of their appraisal, the authors suggest that the film is ambivalent: it propagates war but simultaneously serves to question a war that justifies murder. The authors further assert that Mitsuyo Seo created the film by exploiting advertising abilities developed from his time working with The Proletarian Film League of Japan where he first experimented with animation. In its final analysis, the paper aims to elucidate that Momotarō, Sacred Sailors signifies a seminal moment in Japanese film history and remains significant to contemporary scholarship.
Setting out from the central role of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima within the Japanese collective memory of World War 2, this paper explores “War Anime” that depict the Hiroshima bombing as a major piece of their narrative. Its central considerations, under application of an analytical model developed for the determination of narrative orientations of War Anime, lie on the changes in the respective films’ frameworks, especially in relation to the spatial and temporal location of the story. Further considerations also briefly touch on other details and characteristics of the films. Those include the development of the respective protagonist’s features between the different titles, but also the individual growth of the characters as it occurs within the movies. A focal point of critique in this process is the lack of academic attention to less famous animation titles and their role in the development of the medial image of the attack on Hiroshima. In conclusion I then elaborate some of the social backgrounds that shaped the discussed contents.